Networking Concepts Lesson 06 - Protocols - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 06 - Protocols - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 06 - Protocols - Eric Vanderburg

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Protocols Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  2. 2. Communication  Send small pieces  Lessen impact from errors  Minimize bandwidth usage  Support maximum sending requirements Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  3. 3. Packets  Header  Source/Destination  Sequence number  Priority  Data (Payload) – 50b-16kb  Trailer  Integrity checking info  Padding Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  4. 4. Packet Types  Unicast (one)  Point-to-point  Anycast / Broadcast (all)  Destination  Multicast address is broadcast address (group)  Point-to-multipoint communication  Destination address is multicast address  All computers with multicast address get this message Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  5. 5. Protocols     Rules of communication Protocol Suite – collection of protocols to operate at multiple layers Routable protocols – can operate at layer 3.  TCP/IP  IPX/SPX  DECNet  DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol) – AppleTalk  XNS - Xerox Non-routable protocols  NetBEUI  DLC (Digital Loop Carrier) – for HP printers & IBM mainframes  LAT (Local Area Transport) DEC Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  6. 6. Connection  Connection Oriented (Statefull)  More reliable  Slower (control & check data)  TCP, FTP  Connectionless (Stateless)  Less reliable  Faster  UDP, TFTP, PPP  Datagrams Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  7. 7. OSI and Protocols  Application  Application Layer (7)  Presentation Layer (6)  Session Layer (5)  Transport  Transport Layer (4)  Network  Network Layer (3)  Datalink Layer (2)  Physical Layer (1) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  8. 8. Application Protocols  Application to Application services  SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)  FTP (File Transfer Protocol)  SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)  NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) – client and redirector  AFP (AppleTalk File Protocol) – remote file management Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  9. 9. Transport Protocols  Handle delivery between nodes  TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)  SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange)  NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  10. 10. Network Protocols  Provides “Link Services” that address, route, and check for errors  IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)  IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4)  IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)  NWLink  NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  11. 11. Protocol Suites  TCP/IP  IPX/SPX  NetBIOS / NetBEUI  AppleTalk  DLC (Digital Loop Carrier)  XNS (Xerox Network Systems)  DECNet (Digital Equipment Corporation Network)  X.25 – WANS and connects terminals to mainframes Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  12. 12. XNS     IDP (Internet Datagram Protocol) – Layer 2 RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – Layer 3 PEP (Packet Exchange Protocol) – Layer 4 SPP (Sequenced Packet Protocol) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  13. 13. DECNet          RP (Routing Protocol) MOP (Maintenance Operation Protocol) - uploading and downloading system software, remote testing and problem diagnosis NSP (Network Service Protocol) - flow control SCP (Session Control Protocol) DAP (Data Access Protocol) – remote file access CTERM (Command Terminal) LAT (Local Area Transport) STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) NIC bridging LAVC (Local Area VAX Cluster) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  14. 14. DECNet Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  15. 15. TCP/IP  IP – Connectionless, provides routing and logical addressing  ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – sends error messages, flow control instructions, confirmations  Ping command  ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – associates an IP with a MAC  TCP – fragmentation, reassembly, connection setup & maintenance, sequencing Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  16. 16. TCP/IP  UDP – connectionless version of TCP, used by NFS (Network File System) & DNS  FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – upload, download, delete, move files  Telnet – connect and control systems, routers, & switches  SMTP – operates at 3 upper layers, mail Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  17. 17. TCP/IP  RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Distance vector – each router sends its routing table to its neighbors, sends link costs also  RIPv2 has better performance than RIP  Use on smaller networks   OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Link-state routing – each router has partial map of network. LSA (Link State Advertisement) is sent through the network when a link goes up or down.  Better on larger networks  Requires more computations on each router  Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  18. 18. IP Addresses    Class A - 0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh  First bit 0; 7 network bits; 24 host bits  Initial byte: 0 - 127  126 Class As exist (0 and 127 are reserved)  16,777,214 hosts Class B - 10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh  First two bits 10; 14 network bits; 16 host bits  Initial byte: 128 - 191  16,384 Class Bs exist  65,532 hosts Class C - 110nnnnn nnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh  First three bits 110; 21 network bits; 8 host bits  Initial byte: 192 - 223  2,097,152 Class Cs exist  254 hosts Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  19. 19. IP Addresses   Class D - 1110mmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm  First four bits 1110; 28 multicast address bits  Initial byte: 224 - 239  Class Ds are multicast addresses Class E - 1111rrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr  First four bits 1111; 28 reserved address bits  Initial byte: 240 - 255  Reserved for experimental use Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  20. 20. IP Addresses  Register an IP   IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) Private IP Address Ranges  Class "A" or 24Bit    Class "B" or 20 Bit      192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255/16 or /24 255.255.0.0 or 255.255.255.0 Requires NAT (Network Address Translation) to access the Internet Auto-configured Addresses 169.254..   172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255/12 or /16 255.240.0.0 or 255.255.0.0 Class "C" or 16 Bit   10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255/8 Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0 APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) Loopback Address 127… (localhost) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  21. 21. CIDR  Classless Inter-Domain Routing  Weakens boundaries between address spaces.  Specified by number of bits /24 denoting the bits in the network address Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  22. 22. Subnetting  Subnetting – dividing an IP address range into smaller networks (subnets)  Subnet Mask – address that shows which subnet a host belongs to  Network bits are 1’s  Host bits are 0’s  Each network needs an address for the network address and broadcast address (all 1’s and all 0’s) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  23. 23. Finding Host & Network Address  Convert from Decimal to Binary  Compare Subnet Mask to IP in Binary  Convert new Binary number to Decimal Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  24. 24. Subnetting  Determine needed hosts and networks  Add 2 to needed networks  Find power of 2 that is larger than the #  Hosts is number of bits left over used in power of 2 and subtract 2. Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  25. 25. Supernetting  Combining multiple IP addresses into a larger network to support more hosts than could be achieved separately (synergy)  Find how many binary digits it takes to account for the number of IP’s you have  If the number of addresses is not equal to the binary digit calc, use lower number and some IPs will not be supernetted. Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  26. 26. NAT/PAT  NAT Lets an organization use Private IP’s  Increases security  Translates internal to external IP   PAT (Port Address Translation) Maps internal IP’s to external IP and port number  Used by most NATs   Linux VPN Masquerade – essentially NAT services for Linux Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  27. 27. DHCP  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol  Gives IP addresses to clients as needed  Scope, Reservations, & Exclusions  Lease Length  After 50% expired, try to renew  Auto-configured address used if no assigned IP, good if DHCP goes down or if no server is available Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  28. 28. MADCAP  MADCAP (Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol)  Gives multicast addresses to clients  Multicast scope (class D)  Scope, Reservations, & Exclusions  Lease Length Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  29. 29. IPv6            Aka: IPNG (Internet Protocol Next Generation) July 25, 1994 in RFC 1752, Core Protocols in 1998 128 bit address space instead of IPv4’s 32 bit address space 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 maximum possible addresses Specified in Hex (4 Hex digits and :) in 8 sets Leading 0 is omitted First Set – Public topology (ISP, backbone), 48bits Second Set – Site topology (business), 16bits Third Set – Interface ID, 64bits Security information, sender/receiver verification, & encryption in each packet Backward compatible Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  30. 30. DNS (Domain Name Service) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  31. 31. DNS  Vendor Products  Windows DNS Server          BIND (Berkley Internet Name Domain) Server Types   Active Directory Integrated DDNS (Dynamic Domain Name Service) Primary Server Secondary Server Caching Only Server Forwarding Only Server (Slave) FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) Zone – Specific DNS namespace, a server or servers can be responsible for a zone Reverse Lookup Zone – search for FQDN from IP Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  32. 32. DNS RRs (Resource Record)  SOA (Start of Authority) – First record, which server manages this zone @ IN SOA source_host email serial#  NS (Name Server) – Lists name servers in a domain. Allows other NS’s to look up records in your zone. Domain @ IN NS nameserver_host  A (Host) – Host to IP hostname IN A IP_Address  PTR (Pointer) – FQDN to IP owner ttl class PTR FQDN  CNAME – provides alternate hostnames (www) alias IN CNAME hostname  MX (Mail Exchange) domain IN MX priority mailserver_host Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  33. 33. Example DNS file Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  34. 34. Recursive, Iterative, & Caching Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  35. 35. NetBIOS, NetBEUI  First used in IBM’s PC-Net & later MS-Net  Each computer has 15 character name and one character for a service code  NetBEUI created for OS/2 and LAN Manager NetBIOS is for upper layers  NetBEUI for layers 2-4   Used in early Windows systems as the default protocol Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  36. 36. NetBIOS Service Codes Common NetBIOS Names Service That Registers the Name <computer name>[00h] Workstation (your NetBIOS Redirector) <computer name>[03h] Messenger(listens for messages sent to your computer) <computer name>[20h] Server (Shares your resources to the network) <user name>[03h] Messenger (listens for messages sent to your logon ID) <domain name>[1Dh] Master Browser <domain name>[1Bh] Domain Master Browser Name Cache (nbtstat –c) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  37. 37. NBT  NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)  Allows NetBIOS names to be translated to IP addresses so that they can be routed across the network Check the box to enable NBT Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  38. 38. NetBIOS Node Types B-Node (Broadcast Node)        Broadcast mode uses broadcasts only. NetBIOS Name Cache Broadcast a NetBIOS Name Query Checking the LMHOSTS file Checking a HOSTS file Checking with a DNS server P-Node(Peer-to-Peer Node)      NetBIOS Name Cache Asking a NetBIOS Name Server HOSTS file DNS Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  39. 39. NetBIOS Node Types M-Node(Mixed Node)        NetBIOS Name Cache Broadcast a NetBIOS Name Query Checking the LMHOSTS file Asking a NetBIOS Name Server Checking a HOSTS file Checking with a DNS server H-Node(Hybrid Node)        NetBIOS Name Cache Asking a NetBIOS Name Server Broadcast a NetBIOS Name Query Checking the LMHOSTS file Checking a HOSTS file Checking with a DNS server Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  40. 40. Nbtstat switches  -n Lists the NetBIOS name registered by the client  -c Displays NetBIOS name cache.  -R Manually reloads the NetBIOS name cache using entries in the LMHOSTS file with a #PRE parameter. Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  41. 41. Hosts file Maps NetBIOS names to IP Addresses  Works on Windows and UNIX  NT Location: %winroot %system32driversetc  Unix Location:- /etc/hosts  File Name- HOSTS  # is used for comments Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  42. 42. Example Hosts file 127.0.0.1 localhost 13.41.85.1 router 13.91.45.121 server1 13.91.45.122 server2 14.33.121.121 mcsunix # Solaris 10 machine 14.33.121.122 mail # Server 2003 Mail Server 189.11.121.11 sunshinemtn.com web # Web server Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  43. 43. LMHosts file  Maps NetBIOS names to IP Addresses          Location:- %winroot%system32driversetc File Name- LMHOSTS #PRE - A #PRE tag tells the computer to pre-load the entry to the name cache during initialization or after the NBTSTAT -R command has been issued at the command prompt. Entries of #PRE are static in the cache. #DOM:[domain_name] - Indicates the computer is a domain controller. #NOFNR - Avoids using NetBIOS name queries on older LAN manager for UNIX environments. #INCLUDE - Directs the system to the location of the central LMHOSTS file #BEGIN_ALTERNATE - Used in conjunction with the #INCLUDE file . This entry marks the begining of entries that are alternative locations for the central LMHOST file. If the first entry is unavailable. #END ALTERNATE - End of alternative locations statement. #MH - Multihomed computers that have more than one entry Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  44. 44. Example File 141.8.2.1 WKS-1 141.8.2.2 WKS-2 #PRE 141.8.2.3 PDC-1 #PRE 156.34.2.9 BDC-1 #PRE 141.8.2.10 Gateway-1 #MH 156.34.2.4 Gateway-1 #MH 156.34.2.7 Server-1 #PRE #INCLUDE PDC-1Scriptslmhosts #BEGIN_ALTERNATE #INCLUDE SERVER-1Scriptslmhosts #END_ALTERNATE Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  45. 45. SMB  SMB (Server Message Block)  Sends file lists  Starts connection for LAN Manager  Links Redirector and Server software  Presentation layer Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  46. 46. IPX/SPX  Used on older Netware networks  Requires all computers to use the same frame type  Has network address for communication between computers Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  47. 47. NetWare  Older versions require IPX/SPX  NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) - file & print services for NetWare (similar to Microsoft’s SMB)  LIP (Large Internet Protocol) - negotiates the largest packet size that can be used Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  48. 48. AppleTalk  RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance Protocol)  AURP (AppleTalk Update-Based Routing)  ADSP (Appletalk Data Stream Protocol)  ZIP (Zone Information Protocol)  AFP (AppleTalk Filing Protocol) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  49. 49. AppleTalk Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  50. 50. Channel Access Methods *Done at Layer 2 MAC sublayer  Contention   CSMA/CD – check to see if anyone is using the line. If so, wait random interval and try again. (Ethernet) CSMA/CA – Send packet to tell other computers you are going to send data. (reduces speed)       AppleTalk Wireless Switching – Data sent to same MAC at same time. Some computers can be given higher priority (server) Token Passing Demand Priority – each asks intelligent hub for permission to send data (raise hand) Polling – allows priority, asks if there is data to send, same limitations and advantages of token passing (IBM SNA networks) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005

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