Networking Concepts Lesson 04 - Hardware - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 04 - Hardware - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 04 - Hardware - Eric Vanderburg

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Network Interface Cards & Computer Hardware Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  2. 2. Transmission Types  Serial – linear  Parallel – many pieces at same time Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  3. 3. Bus         ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) - Proprietary VLB (VESA Local Bus) – Long ISA with extra connectors, hard to adapt to new technology (Pentium), 1 or 2 cards supported PCI (Peripheral Component Interface) PCI-X (PCI Express) PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)     Attached to Northbridge directly Dedicated bandwidth, no sharing Connected to memory, possible to share memory Frame Buffer memory on card  VRAM (Video RAM) – Dual Ported, read & write Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  4. 4. Bus Bus Type Bus Width (bits) Clock Speed Transfer Rate (Mbps) (MHz) ISA 8-16 8 8-16 EISA 16-32 8 16-32 MCA 16-32 5-66 10-266 VLB 32 33 133 PCI 32-64 33-66 533 AGP 32-64 66 533-2048 PCI-X 32-64 66-533 2560-10480 PCMCIA 16-32 33 6-12 Networking Concepts – Eric Transfer Rate = Bus Width * Clock Speed /8 Vanderburg ©2005
  5. 5. More about bus  CPU Bus  FSB (Front Side Bus) - Northbridge  100, 133, 166, 200, 800, 1000MHz  Clock Multiplier  FSB must be faster than I/O Bus or FSB is bottleneck.  Early AGP  Some PCI-X implimentations Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  6. 6. External Technologies  Serial  Parallel  USB  1.0 – 12Mbps  2.0 – 480Mbps  Firewire (IEEE 1394)  400Mbps  1394b – 3200Mbps Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  7. 7. Other Hardware  CPU  Hard  Motherboard  RAM  Graphics Card  Sound Card  Modem Drive  Optical Drive  Backup Drive  TV Tuner  DVD Decoder  Controller Card Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  8. 8. Hard Drives  Types     IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) ATA Types       ATA: Known also as IDE, supports one or two hard drives, a 16-bit interface and PIO modes 0, 1 and 2. ATA-2: Supports faster PIO modes (3 and 4) and multiword DMA modes (1 and 2). Also supports logical block addressing (LBA) and block transfers. ATA-2 is marketed as Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE (EIDE). ATA-3: Minor revision to ATA-2. Ultra-ATA: Also called Ultra-DMA, ATA-33, and DMA-33, supports multiword DMA mode 3 running at 33 MBps. ATA/66: A version of ATA proposed by Quantum Corporation, and supported by Intel, that doubles ATA's throughput to 66 MBps. ATA/100: An updated version of ATA/66 that increases data transfer rates to 100 MBps Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  9. 9. Booting  See in class handout Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  10. 10. Configuration  IRQ (Interrupt Request Line)  I/O Port  Memory Address  DMA channel  Driver NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification), allows use of multiple protocols  WDM (Win32 Driver Model), Windows  ODI (Open Datalink Interface) – Apple, Novell  Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  11. 11. More Features  Shared Adapter Memory  Shared System Memory (Shared Memory)  UMA (Unified Memory Architecture)  Bus Mastering - Take control of bus to transfer data from RAM  RAM Buffering - RAM for buffering of incoming data  On board processor Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  12. 12. Optional NIC Features  IPSec chip & circuitry  QOS  WOL (Wake On LAN)  Promiscuous Mode Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  13. 13. Graphics Card – Video Card  Memory  Computations  Frame for the GPU Buffer  Monochrome text – 2k/frame  1600x1200 32bit color – 6Mb/frame  GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)  RAMDAC (Random Access Memory DigitalAnalog Converter) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  14. 14. Graphics Port Types  DB-15    MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) 720x350 CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) 640x200 EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) 640x480 SVGA (Super VGA) 800x600 XGA (Extended Graphics Array) 1024x768 VGA (Video Graphics Array) – General Term now for DB-15 DVI (Digital Video Interface)       DVI-D (Digital) – LCD or Plasma DVI-A (Analog) – CRT or HDTV DVI-I (Integrated Digital/Analog) Data sent by TMDS (Transition Minimized Differential Signaling) Single-link – One TDMS, max res 1920 x 1280 Dual-link – Two TDMS Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  15. 15. Bottleneck  Any system or network is only as fast as it’s weakest component  There will always be a bottleneck but upgrades should be focused on the bottleneck in order to improve performance. Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  16. 16. Tweaking  Pagefile  Overclocking  Defragmentation  Updates  Drivers  BIOS  Processor Scheduling  Anti-Spyware Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  17. 17. Book corrections  ISA clock speed is 8MHz not 10MHz (pg. 128) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005

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