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What do you think is the meaning of this cartoon?
What might the abbreviations represent? What are
people supposed to join?
In what ways did the French &
Indian War alter the political,
economic, and ideological
relationship between England
and its American colonies?
What might the English and French who
lived in North America fight about?
•Each wanted control of more land
•British frontier towns were getting raided by
Native Americans (allies of French)
•Boundaries in North America? In Europe?
•They had a history of bad blood
• Lieutenant Colonel
• ~ 22 years old during
French and Indian War
• Surrendered to French
troops at Fort
Necessity, but became
a hero for his bravery
(AP Photo/Kevin Wolf)
Ohio ValleyOhio Valley
17541754 The First ClashThe First Clash
•Since the colonists are British, they need to
unite to fight the French
•In walks Ben Franklin…
Ben FranklinBen Franklin representatives fromrepresentatives from
New England, NY, MD, PANew England, NY, MD, PA
A Albany CongressAlbany Congress failed Iroquoisfailed Iroquois
broke off relations withbroke off relations with
Britain & threatened toBritain & threatened to
trade with the French.trade with the French.
17541754 Albany Plan ofAlbany Plan of
Gen. Edward BraddockGen. Edward Braddock evict theevict the
French from the Ohio Valley &French from the Ohio Valley &
Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)
A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley,Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley,
& Acadia.& Acadia.
A Killed 10 mi. from Ft. DuquesneKilled 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne
by 1500 French and Indian forces.by 1500 French and Indian forces.
Only British SuccessOnly British Success expelled Frenchexpelled French
Acadians from Nova Scotia.Acadians from Nova Scotia.
(They moved to Louisiana and became “Cajuns.”)(They moved to Louisiana and became “Cajuns.”)
1755 Br. Decides to
Eliminate Fr. Presence in
1756 War Is Formally Declared!1756 War Is Formally Declared!
• March in formation orMarch in formation or
bayonet charge.bayonet charge.
• Br. officers wanted toBr. officers wanted to
take charge of colonials.take charge of colonials.
• Prima Donna Br.Prima Donna Br.
officers with servantsofficers with servants
& tea settings.& tea settings.
• Drills & toughDrills & tough
• Colonists should payColonists should pay
for their own defense.for their own defense.
• Indian-style guerillaIndian-style guerilla
• Col. militias servedCol. militias served
under own captains.under own captains.
• No mil. deference orNo mil. deference or
protocols observed.protocols observed.
• Resistance to risingResistance to rising
Methods ofMethods of
British-American ColonialBritish-American Colonial
A He understood colonial concerns.He understood colonial concerns.
A He offered them a compromise:He offered them a compromise:
-- colonial loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br.colonial loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br.
would reimburse col. assemblies forwould reimburse col. assemblies for
their costs.their costs.
-- Lord Loudoun would be removed.Lord Loudoun would be removed.
RESULTS?RESULTS? Colonial moraleColonial morale
increased by 1758.increased by 1758.
1757 William Pitt Becomes
The Tide Turns forThe Tide Turns for
The Tide Turns forThe Tide Turns for
** By 1761, Spain has become an ally of FranceBy 1761, Spain has become an ally of France
1.1. It increased her colonial empire inIt increased her colonial empire in
the Americasthe Americas
2.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.It greatly enlarged England’s debt.
3.3. Britain’s contempt for the colonialsBritain’s contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that aTherefore, England felt that a
major reorganization of hermajor reorganization of her
American EmpireAmerican Empire was necessary!was necessary!
Effects of the WarEffects of the War
on Britain?on Britain?
1.1. It united them against aIt united them against a
common enemy for the firstcommon enemy for the first
2.2. It created a socializingIt created a socializing
experience for all theexperience for all the
colonials who participated.colonials who participated.
3.3. It created bitter feelingsIt created bitter feelings
towards the British thattowards the British that
would only intensify.would only intensify.
Effects of the War on theEffects of the War on the
American ColonialsAmerican Colonials
17631763 Pontiac’s RebellionPontiac’s Rebellion
Fort DetroitFort Detroit
British “gifts” of smallpox-infectedBritish “gifts” of smallpox-infected
blankets from Fort Pitt.blankets from Fort Pitt.
The Aftermath: TensionsThe Aftermath: Tensions
Line of 1763.Line of 1763.