1. Teaching Learning ProcessObjectives • To understand the Behavioral Objectives. • The student will be able to identify the three domains of Behavioral Objectives by Benjamin Blooms. • The students will be able to give example on Bloom’s three domains.Behavioral Objectives • According to Bloom, 1956, Behavioral Objectives is “Explicit formulations of ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process.” Characteristic of Effective Objective by: Westberg and Jason (1993) in Collaborative Clinical Education • Consistent with overall goals of the school • Clearly stated • Realistic • Appropriate for learner’s stage of development • Appropriately comprehensive • Worthy, complex outcomes Purpose and Function of Behavioral Objectives • Guide for the teacher relative to the design of instruction • Guide for the teacher for evaluation / test design • Guide for the learner relative to learning focus • Makes teaching more directed and organized • Helps avoid unnecessary repetition in teaching • Helps students make decisions regarding prioritizing 3 Domains for Behavioral Objectives according to Bloom’s Taxonomy
2. 1.COGNITIVE DOMAIN: The Cognitive Domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the developmentof intellectual skills. Categories of cognitive domainCategory Key Words (verbs) Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows,Knowledge: Recall data or information. labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states. Key Words: Comprehends converts, defends,Comprehension: Understand the meaning, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends,translation, interpolation, and interpretation generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets,of instructions and problems. State a paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, andproblem in ones own words. translates.Application: Use a concept in a new Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs,situation or unprompted use of an demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies,abstraction. Applies what was learned in operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows,the classroom into novel situations in the solves, uses.work place.Analysis: Separates material or concepts Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,into component parts so that its contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates,organizational structure may be discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates,understood. Distinguishes between facts infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.and inferences. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern composes, creates, devises, designs, explains,from diverse elements. Put parts together to generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges,form a whole, with emphasis on creating a reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites,new meaning or structure. summarizes, tells, writes. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,Evaluation: Make judgments about the contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes,value of ideas or materials. discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
3. 2. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which wedeal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivations andattitudes.Category Key Words (verbs) Key Words: asks, chooses,Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, describes, follows, gives, holds,selected attention. identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part Key Words: answers, assists, aids,of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular complies, conforms, discusses,phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize greets, helps, labels, performs,compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or practices, presents, reads, recites,satisfaction in responding (motivation). reports, selects, tells, writes.Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular Key Words: completes,object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple demonstrates, differentiates,acceptance to the more complex state of explains, follows, forms, initiates,commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set invites, joins, justifies, proposes,of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed reads, reports, selects, shares,in the learners overt behavior and are often identifiable. studies, works. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares,Organization: Organizes values into priorities by completes, defends, explains,contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between formulates, generalizes, identifies,them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is integrates, modifies, orders,on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system Key Words: acts, discriminates,that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, displays, influences, listens,consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic modifies, performs, practices,of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with proposes, qualifies, questions,the students general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, revises, serves, solves, verifies.
4. emotional).zA `q1`3. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN: The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordinationand use of the motor skill areas.Category Key Words (verbs) Key Words: chooses, describes,Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor detects, differentiates,activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue distinguishes, identifies, isolates,selection, to translation. relates, selects.Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and Key Words: begins, displays,emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that explains, moves, proceeds, reacts,predetermine a persons response to different situations shows, states, volunteers.(sometimes called mindsets).Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex Key Words: copies, traces,skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of follows, react, reproduce, respondsperformance is achieved by practicing. Key Words: assembles, calibrates,Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a constructs, dismantles, displays,complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and fastens, fixes, grinds, heats,the movements can be performed with some confidence and manipulates, measures, mends,proficiency. mixes, organizes, sketches.Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of Key Words: assembles, builds,motor acts that involve complex movement calibrates, constructs, dismantles,patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and displays, fastens, fixes, grinds,highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of heats, manipulates, measures,energy. This category includes performing without mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, playersare often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as NOTE: The Key Words are thethey hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell same as Mechanism, but will have
5. by the feel of the act what the result will produce. adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc. Key Words: adapts, alters,Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can changes, rearranges, reorganizes,modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. revises, varies. Key Words: arranges, builds,Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a combines, composes, constructs,particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes creates, designs, initiate, makes,emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. originates. Blooms Revised Taxonomy in Cognitive Domain Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Edition by Lorin Anderson
6. Category Key Words (verbs) Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows,Remembering: Recall previous learned labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls,information. recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.Understanding: Comprehending the Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends,meaning, translation, interpolation, and distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends,interpretation of instructions and generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets,problems. State a problem in ones own paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes,words. translates.Applying: Use a concept in a new Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs,situation or unprompted use of an demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies,abstraction. Applies what was learned in operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows,the classroom into novel situations in the solves, uses.work place.Analyzing: Separates material or concepts Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,into component parts so that its contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates,organizational structure may be discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates,understood. Distinguishes between facts infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.and inferences. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,Evaluating: Make judgments about the contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes,value of ideas or materials. discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.Creating: Builds a structure or pattern Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,
7. from diverse elements. Put parts together composes, creates, devises, designs, explains,to form a whole, with emphasis on generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges,creating a new meaning or structure. reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.Reference • http://med.fsu.edu/index.cfm?page=facultydevelopment.behavobjectives2012 • Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook : The Cognitive Domain. New York • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html