-- population - 22 millionpopulation - 22 million- 90% of ind. goods, esp. munitions- 90% of ind. goods, esp. munitions- efficient railroad system- efficient railroad system- controlled the navy, which could be- controlled the navy, which could beused to blockade s. ports and shutused to blockade s. ports and shutdown the s. eco.down the s. eco.- but would have to fight an offensive war- but would have to fight an offensive war(long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...)(long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...)- capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant- capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant
Confederates had excellent generals tooConfederates had excellent generals too-Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson-Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson Defending is always easier than attackingDefending is always easier than attacking- (familiar w/climate and territory,- (familiar w/climate and territory,possible psychological advantages)possible psychological advantages) Farmers fight better than factory workersFarmers fight better than factory workers Profitable eco. based on cotton exportsProfitable eco. based on cotton exports But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9million (inc. 3.5 million slaves)million (inc. 3.5 million slaves) had to import ind. goods; veryhad to import ind. goods; verylittle munitions productionlittle munitions production
The S. was looking for an add. adv., namely anThe S. was looking for an add. adv., namely analliance w/ GB (since GB industry was dependentalliance w/ GB (since GB industry was dependenton "King Cotton")...but GB was wary of eventson "King Cotton")...but GB was wary of eventsand did not want to become involved:and did not want to become involved: GB had stockpiled cotton as the conflict wasGB had stockpiled cotton as the conflict wasescalating; they had also found other sourcesescalating; they had also found other sources(Madras, India)(Madras, India) most Br. workers who lost their jobs in cottonmost Br. workers who lost their jobs in cottonfactories had been able to find work in thefactories had been able to find work in thenew munitions factories that were mostlynew munitions factories that were mostlysupplying the N.supplying the N. most Br. citizens resented slaverymost Br. citizens resented slavery Br. crop failures had led to increased grainBr. crop failures had led to increased graintrade w/ the N.trade w/ the N.
A Br. ship. theA Br. ship. the TrentTrent, was intercepted by the N. on its, was intercepted by the N. on itsway to GB from the S.; it was carrying S.way to GB from the S.; it was carrying S."ambassadors"...the N. resented Br. interference,"ambassadors"...the N. resented Br. interference,leading some to call for war; Lincoln simply defusedleading some to call for war; Lincoln simply defusedthe situation by releasing the ship and the southernthe situation by releasing the ship and the southern"agents""agents" GB had also sold several ships to the S., namely theGB had also sold several ships to the S., namely theFloridaFlorida and theand the AlabamaAlabama - they had sunk many n.- they had sunk many n.shipsships
A few southerners hadA few southerners hadmanaged to get into BNA, frommanaged to get into BNA, fromwhich they launched severalwhich they launched severalraids into the N.; this inc. a # ofraids into the N.; this inc. a # ofbank robberies in Vt. (the bestbank robberies in Vt. (the bestknown was theknown was the St. AlbansSt. AlbansRaidRaid)...some Northerners)...some Northernerswanted to invade BNA aswanted to invade BNA aspunishmentpunishment this forced the BNA colonies tothis forced the BNA colonies tobegin to consider abegin to consider aConfederation to protectConfederation to protectthemselves against the US...bythemselves against the US...by1867, GB agreed w/ the1867, GB agreed w/ theCanadian "Canadian "Fathers ofFathers ofConfederationConfederation" (Canada had" (Canada hadbecome an expensive hasslebecome an expensive hasslefor the Br…)for the Br…)
It freed theIt freed theslaves only inslaves only instates that havestates that haveseceded fromseceded fromthe Union.the Union. It did not freeIt did not freeslaves in borderslaves in borderstates.states.
Lee realized that the South was in dire straits and decided that it wasLee realized that the South was in dire straits and decided that it wascrucial to attack the North on its own territorycrucial to attack the North on its own territory July 1-3, 1863 -July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURGBATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, Pa., Pa. Confed. bombardment; Union held firmConfed. bombardment; Union held firm on July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. Troops across open fields -on July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. Troops across open fields -Union mowed them down (= "Union mowed them down (= "Pickett’s ChargePickett’s Charge")") Lee was defeated and retreated to VirgniaLee was defeated and retreated to Virgnia Gettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the WesternGettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the Westernhemisphere.hemisphere. Over 100, 000 people died in 3 daysOver 100, 000 people died in 3 days It was the last time the SouthIt was the last time the Southinvaded the North.invaded the North.
that from these honored dead we takethat from these honored dead we takeincreased devotion to that cause forincreased devotion to that cause forwhich they gave the last full measure ofwhich they gave the last full measure ofdevotion -- that we here highly resolvedevotion -- that we here highly resolvethat these dead shall not have died inthat these dead shall not have died invain -- that this nation, under God, shallvain -- that this nation, under God, shallhave a new birth of freedom -- and thathave a new birth of freedom -- and thatgovernment of the people, by the people,government of the people, by the people,for the people, shall not perish from thefor the people, shall not perish from theearth.earth.Abe LincolnAbe Lincoln
July 4, 1863 - anotherJuly 4, 1863 - anotherUnion victory -Union victory -VICKSBURGVICKSBURG won by U.S. Grant, cutwon by U.S. Grant, cutSouth in 1/2 and gave theSouth in 1/2 and gave theUnion control of MississippiUnion control of MississippiRiverRiver Grant was then givenGrant was then givencontrol of all Union armiescontrol of all Union armies began a "began a "scorchedscorchedearthearth" policy to defeat the" policy to defeat theSouthSouth General SheridanGeneral Sheridandecimated Va.sdecimated Va.sShenandoahShenandoah ValleyValley GeneralGeneral ShermanSherman givengiventask of taking Atlanta; histask of taking Atlanta; his""March throughMarch throughGeorgiaGeorgia"" saw totalsaw totaldestruction from Atlanta todestruction from Atlanta to
After the EmancipationAfter the EmancipationProclamation blacksProclamation blacksbegan to join the Unionbegan to join the UnionArmyArmy Initially they were onlyInitially they were onlyused for manual laborused for manual labor Eventually, Blacks sawEventually, Blacks sawlive combatlive combat 5454ththregiment out ofregiment out ofMassachusettsMassachusettsWilliam Carney
April 3, 1865 - GrantApril 3, 1865 - Granttook Richmond Va. -took Richmond Va. -final blow to Lees armyfinal blow to Lees army Lee surrenders on AprilLee surrenders on April9, 1865 at9, 1865 atAPPOMATTOXAPPOMATTOXCOURTHOUSECOURTHOUSE All Confed. troopsAll Confed. troopsforced to take an oath offorced to take an oath ofloyalty to U.S.loyalty to U.S. otherwise, terms ofotherwise, terms ofsurrender were lenientsurrender were lenient Lincoln didnt want aLincoln didnt want ahumiliated South andhumiliated South andfurther conflictfurther conflict issue of states rightsissue of states rightsnow "solved"- fed. govtnow "solved"- fed. govthad asserted its statushad asserted its status
After four bloody years of civil war,the South was defeated.
Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War.
POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSPOLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS w/o Southerners in fed. govt, many changes occurred thatw/o Southerners in fed. govt, many changes occurred thatbenefited the North:benefited the North: 1)1) Homestead ActHomestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 - encouragedpassed by Congress in 1862 - encouragedW. expansion w/o slaveryW. expansion w/o slavery- 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs.- 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs. 2)2) Union-Pacific RailwayUnion-Pacific Railway was authorized - great tradewas authorized - great tradepotential, focused on the Northern States.potential, focused on the Northern States. 3)3) TariffsTariffs were put in place to protect Northern industrywere put in place to protect Northern industry
4) Congress established a4) Congress established asingle federal currency - samesingle federal currency - samevalue in all states - known asvalue in all states - known as""GreenbacksGreenbacks"" 5) to cover war debts, Union5) to cover war debts, Uniongovt issuedgovt issued war bondswar bonds andandintrodintrod income taxincome tax 6) in a further illustration of6) in a further illustration offed. govt power, Lincolns govtfed. govt power, Lincolns govtrestricted civil liberties sorestricted civil liberties sonothing would detract fromnothing would detract fromUnion war effort (suspendedUnion war effort (suspendedHabeas CorpusHabeas Corpus))- free press/ speech also- free press/ speech alsointerruptedinterrupted 7)7) 1864 Election1864 Election - only in Union- only in Union- pitted Republican Lincoln- pitted Republican Lincolnagainst Democrat Generalagainst Democrat GeneralMcClellanMcClellan Lincoln wonLincoln woneasily, assuring that war willeasily, assuring that war willcontinue (N. Democrats wantedcontinue (N. Democrats wanted
EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAREFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR creation of a single unified countrycreation of a single unified country abolition of slaveryabolition of slavery increased power to fed. govt – killed theincreased power to fed. govt – killed theissue of states rightsissue of states rights U.S. now an industrial nationU.S. now an industrial nation a stronger sense of nationalisma stronger sense of nationalism w. lands increasingly opened to settlementw. lands increasingly opened to settlement South was economically and physicallySouth was economically and physicallydevastated, w/ the plantation systemdevastated, w/ the plantation systemcrippled...thuscrippled...thus ReconstructionReconstruction (rebuilding(rebuildingthe U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the Norththe U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the Northremained...remained...