Information on Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Europe n Nr. 4/5 2010 Topic: Integration of migrantsThe integration of migrants re- ISSN 1868-470Xpresents a permanent challenge foradult education. Only immigrants If you use the onlinewho familiarise themselves with version click on the redthe language, culture, society and triangle to read the fullemployment market of their new online version.country, have a chance at getting (www.infonet-ae.eu). a foothold there. Correspondingly,the countries in Europe offer a widevariety of approaches, concepts andprojects, with the aim of impro- 4 billion for the Euro-ving integration. There are some pean integration andinteresting examples on this in the migration strategyInfoLetter. We have additionally star- Page 2ted to build up a collection of short,structured characterisations of adult Welcome to oureducation in European countries. world: Serving theSome examples are available in this educational needs ofInfoLetter and will soon appear on migrants in Irelandthe website. Cartoon: Mester Page 3 Abdi makes a good start at the folk highVassiliou: Prominent role for adult learning / school Page4 “Grundtvig” is being extended past 2013 Extra: Adult Education in...Europe. Grundtvig, the European support programme of the support programme “Grundtvig”, which prima-for adult learning, is being extended. This was con- rily funds European cooperation and mobility projects Norway, Estonia,firmed by Androulla Vassiliou, Commissioner for Edu- for adult learning staff. Grundtvig is part of the Life- Denmark, Hungarycation, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, at a confer- long Learning Programme (LLP) that expires in 2013. Page 3-6ence in Copenhagen. 370 million euros have been spent on Grundtvig since the programme started ten years ago. The funded (Michael Sommer) In her projects have spawned many new proposals and speech, Vassiliou said developments, yet they have predominantly led to a that it is not just educa- stronger European awareness within adult learning. Contact: European InfoNet tion and training that Adult Education, Dr. Michael play a central role in the Doris Pack highlights InfoNet Sommer, Akademie Klausenhof, Klausenhofstr. 100, 46499 Ham- European Union’s new Doris Pack, Chairwoman of the Education Committee minkeln, Germany, sommer@ strategy; adult learning is in the European Parliament, claimed in her statement akademie-klausenhof.de, Tel.: +49 2852 / 89-1329, Fax: +49 also very important. She that adult learning is being provided with more funding. 2852 / 89-3300, www.infonet- stated that adult learn- Adult learning frequently comes up in grandiloquent ae.eu. Editorial Board: Hetty Rooth (Sweden), Michael Voss ing leads to better skills, speeches, however actual funding is often lacking. (Denmark), Markus Palmén strengthens personal de- The German politician emphasises the information (Finland), Christina Gerlach (Belgium), Dr. Michael SommerAndroulla Vassiliou velopment and supports network InfoNet as a particularly good example. Suc- (Germany). Consultant: Helen economic growth. There cessful projects such as InfoNet should continue to Keogh (Ireland) European InfoNet Adult Educa-is a lot of potential being unused that can be awoken receive funding, even if the life of a project is cut short, tion was developed to providethrough learning at an adult age: “Too many people said Doris Pack at the end of her speech in front of articles, reports and other mate- rial on Adult Education. Sourcessleep”. Learning must continue throughout one’s life, some 250 conference participants in Copenhagen. are a network of more than 25the Commissioner said. The EU support programme Full story in database ► correspondents (experts and journalists) all over Europe.Grundtvig can play a crucial role in this. The new ini- Speech Vassiliou in database ► InfoNet is supported by the EUtiative “Youth on the Move” put forward as part of the (Grundtvig network / Lifelong Learning Programme). InfoNetnew EU 2020 strategy has recently led to some un- is a project by: Katholischecertainties. She clarified that this initiative will not re- Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Erwachsenenbildung KBE,place the existing programmes like Grundtvig; rather Bonn (Germany) and the Aka-Grundtvig will remain in force. “Adult learning will play demie Klausenhof Hamminkeln, Germany.a prominent role in the future,” the Commissioner an-nounced.Ten years of the support programme GrundtvigA central topic of the conference was the future form Doris PackThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission (Lifelong Learning Programme / Grundtvig). This publication reflects the views only of the author.
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Focus: Integration of migrants n page 2 EUROPEAN AFFAIRS 4 billion for the European integration andFuture of Grundtvig:Consultation now openThe European Commis- migration strategysion launched a public Europe. The European Union promotes integration Return Fund: Support voluntary returnconsultation on the future measures and the migration policy in the Member The monies of the European Return Fund finance theof its mobility programmes States with four programmes. A total of almost 4 bil- voluntary return and compulsory repatriation of thirdincluding Grundtvig after lion euros has been made available for this. country nationals illegally residing in a member state.2013. ► The aim is for an integrated return management that (Michael Sommer) An example: People who have fled takes into account all dimensions of returning home.Youth on the Move from crisis and war zones worldwide often carry the Furthermore, the Fund supports the strengthenedThe European Commis- traumatic experiences with them for their whole life. A cooperation of the Member States with those beingsion launches Youth on project in Cologne, funded by the European Integra- repatriated.the Move, a new flagship tion Fund, attempts to help these people. The partici-initiative. ► pants of “Mittendrin” (Right in the middle) can make External Borders Fund: Protect Europe’s bor- use of various offers, such as a clearing consultation, dersEuropean classification psychological advice, psychotherapy as well as art The European External Borders Fund helps to divideof jobs and skills or creative therapy. This support should help those the burden of monitoring the EU external bordersThe European Commission concerned to overcome anxieties and improve inte- more equally between the Member States. Its focalis developing a European gration so that they can become actively involved in points include facilitating and speeding up the proSkills, Competencies and the organisation of a new societal environment and cess of those arriving legally, as well as improvingOccupations taxonomy subsequently find their way to participating in the host border protection so as to reduce the number of il-(ESCO), which will society. legal immigrants.describe the most relevantskills, competencies and The EU provides considerable means to promote the Full story in database ►qualifications needed for content-related goals of the European policy regard-several thousand occupa-tions. ► ing the integration and support of refugees. A total of 3,949 million euros from 2007 to 2013 has been Feel like a migrant – a new made available across the EU for the framework approach in teaching NATIONAL programme. These monies have been divided as fol- AFFAIRS Europe. Issues of lifelong learning are not limited lows: 628 million euros for the Refugee Fund, 676Municipal contribution to the adult learner’s perspective. Teachers, train- million euros for the Return Fund, 825 million euroscontinues to fall ers and other educational staff working very close to for the Integration Fund and 1,820 million euros forSweden. The state contri- migrants in their everyday working life are often not the External Borders Fund.bution to adult education provided with multicultural competences or a teach-in Sweden has largely ing concept that takes into account the special needs Integration Fund: Promote living togetherremained constant over the of migrants. The FLAM - Feel like a migrant project The European Integration Fund supports the integra-years, whereas municipal aims at equipping them with the competences they tion of new immigrants coming from third countries,contributions have steadily need for successful multicultural teaching. i.e. those coming from non-EU states. Excluded fromfallen over the last ten (Christina Gerlach) FLAM - Feeling like a migrant is this are the projects for refugees and for those eligi-years. ► a migrant integration project targeted to teachers, ble for subsidiary protection, which are supported by trainers and education staff. Multicultural strategies the Refugee Fund. Among the content-related focalIntegration in Germany: and teaching methods are supposed to influence points, two have a particular significance: “Integra-Plenty of discussions, positively on the process of integration. As the title tion and Language” as well as “Integration and Com- little money of the project announces, the project partners were munity”. Along with the promotion of language skills,Germany. Germany is developing new methods that allow workshop par- communities in particular should also be encouragedcurrently going through a ticipants to experience what it feels to be a migrant to present their project ideas.noisy political debate on and promote the importance of cultural and linguisticthe integration of migrants. diversity in Europe. Refugee Fund: Immediate assistance for thoseThe funding for corre- eligible for protectionsponding courses is low The benefits of multicultural teaching The European Refugee Fund pursues the goal of sup-and has now been cut even Multicultural teaching tries to enhance teacher’s em- porting the Member States with the challenges theyfurther. ► pathy and promote understanding of different cul- face when hosting refugees and displaced persons. tural backgrounds. Trained education staff working The fields of activity thus comprise, on the one hand,Unused potential – with migrants often link a society and migrants. They the first stage of hosting the asylum seekers, for ex-attract migrants to life- multiply and transfer multicultural competences and ample through psychological care or advice on pro-long learning contribute to a better mutual understanding which is cedures for granting asylum. On the other hand, theGermany. The issue of the basis for a successful integration. Adult migrants measures aim at strengthening the asylum system,immigration has only benefit from an increased quality of learning in turn. A such as through the completion of country-specificfound political consensus main goal of the project partnership was to promote documents or through quality assurance projects.and been acknowledged as The initial assistance for integration represents the a better understanding of the diversity in basic atti-a fact over the past few tudes, values and norms as parts of one’s own and most significant focal point, whereby the develop-years in the Federal Repu- foreign cultures. Trainers, teachers and other educa- ment of linguistic competence and the promotion ofblic of Germany. ► labour market integration of those eligible to be grant- tional staff are able to take into account cultural di- ed asylum or subsidiary protection is predominantly versity of learners and its implications to the learning process. financed. Full story in database ►
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Focus: Integration of migrants n page 3 Welcome to our world: Serving the NATIONAL AFFAIRS educational needs of migrants in Ireland Learning – from necessity to fun Serbia. Interview with Mir-Ireland. On September 15th 2010 the Irish Depart- of the first of the educational services to take up the jana Klapprodt, employee inment of Education and Skills launched its first Inter- challenge of catering for the many and varied needs the Adult Education Societycultural Education Strategy 2010-2015. of immigrants and it proved to be responsive and fle – Belgrade office of dvvThe strategy has two key aims ensuring: xible in its actions. One of the first demands was for international. ►1. That all students experience an education that re- language classes and in the absence of any plannedspects the diversity of values, beliefs, languages and and resourced provision these have been largely sup- Lay off and Restructuringtraditions in Irish society and is conducted in a spirit plied through the adult literacy service provided by lo- Romania. According toof partnership cal Vocational Education Committees (VECs). Over the Romanian Minister of2. That all education providers are assisted with en- one third of the 50,000 adult literacy learners are Education, Daniel Funariu,suring that inclusion and integration within an intercul- people learning English as a second language. Other 10,000 employees havetural learning environment become the norm volunteer services such as Failte Isteach ( Welcome been affected by the latest Inside, in English) uses third age volunteers to pro- austerity package imple-(Bernie Brady) Speaking at the launch of the Strategy, vide everyday language support to adult immigrants. mented. ► the Minister of State stressed its importance not just The project started with 6 learners in 2006 andfor our migrant but also for the host communities. now has 25 centres throughout Ireland catering for The Size of the Problem ‘Integration is a dynamic two way process and 500 adult learners each week. Several VECs have Romania. In recent months,diversity is an asset that will enhance all our lives. collaborated with a Dublin based Community Radio the Roma problem hasThrough building on existing good practice and the Station to produce a community radio documentary seriously challenged the EUexperience and professionalism of our educators, series entitled “How to Learn English in Ireland”. This member states’ devotionI am confident that the aims of the Strategy can be four part series highlights practical steps which peo- to the European ideals andachieved. The Strategy and its implementation are ple can take to learn English as a second language even basic human rights. about thinking, planning and doing things somewhat in Ireland. It also provides guidance on the practical ►differently, evolving best practice, conscious of diver- advice, support and encouragement Irish people can Parent education: a pan-sity and the need to create intercultural learning en- offer someone who is learning English or struggling to European issuevironments.’ communicate in the English language. Germany. In Germany, since the publication of theDemographic Context Full story in database ► international school perfor-During the economic boom years Ireland, for the first mance assessments PISA,time in its history experienced significant inward mi- TIMMS and IGLU (2000gration. The 2006 National Census showed that of et seqq.), there has beenthe 4,172,013 people resident in the State, 420,000 major public discourse on the significance of family(10%) were classified as non-Irish nationals from 188 Interactive target group analysis services and particularly oncountries. Compared with the 2002 census this wasan increase of 87%. Migrants in Ireland, are a very ensures success of educational pro- the importance of family in educational policies. ►heterogeneous group. They have different cultures, grammes with immigrantslanguages and levels of education. A minority maynot have received a basic education prior to arriv- Religious and theological Netherlands. “The boys didn’t want to do anything education in lateing in Ireland, while the majority are highly educated, apart from play football, as long as they could horsemany to post- graduate level . modernism about. Cooperation, for example, was not on the Germany. Ecclesiastic Many are working in jobs which are not commen- agenda. It was about winning during the game. Nev-surate with their qualifications and experience. They adult education is part of ertheless, we did get a certain amount of cooperation. public continuing education.have arrived in the country at different times, for dif- Together with the boys, we looked at what we couldferent lengths of stay, and their status may be one of The institutions and their still provide them with and how we could teach them programmes are supportedmany different types, such as asylum seeker, refugee, in a creative way and that was successful!”.EU citizen, economic migrant or international student. corresponding to the regula- (Maurice de Greef) This is a quotation from one of the tions in the federal stateWhile some are struggling to adapt to life here, others students studying Cultural and Social Education atare very well integrated and settled into Irish society. continuing education acts. Arnhem and Nijmegen College (HAN). Ten students ► Since 2006 demographic and economic circum- carried out a target group analysis in 5 different insti-stances have changed again. Because of the eco- tutions in order to find out the needs of participants,nomic crash, Ireland is now perceived as a less at- Finland will get the Adult including those of young and adult immigrants. The Learners‘ Week after alltractive destination and the next census due in 2011 needs that were indicated subsequently served as ashould provide data on our evolving population pro- Finland. Unlikely as it basis for developing an educational programme for seemed for a long time, thefile. However while there is evidence to show that the target group. This resulted in five different meth-some migrants are leaving Ireland and the number of adult education will get its ods of interactive target group analysis as a model for own campaign, this timenewcomers has declined, none the less there is still a specific programme of educational activities. Thisa significant inward flow, and the recent profile of the with the financing of the innovative way of working in 5 stages invites people Ministry of Employmentmigrant population is changing with an increasing pro- to take a look at the workplaces as an example forportion on the 0-15 year old age category. This trend and the Economy. ► developing educational programmes for adult immi-has implications for primary and secondary education grants.in particular as well as adult education. Institute of Tourism Stu- dies ITS Full story in database ► Malta. Claire ZammitPractical ResponsesThe adult and community education service was one Xuereb has recently been appointed Chairperson for ITS. ►
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Focus: Integration of migrants n page 4 PROJECTS Abdi makes a good startGetting to know oneanother at the folk high schoolItaly. Integration is built Finland. They sit in a circle in the light canteen of theon knowing each other folk high school: a future electrician, history teacher,through interaction and ambulance driver, biologist and nurse. The youths aretackling focal issues of united by their underage refugee status, their depar-daily life together. The ture country, Somalia, and their realistic future plans.European ALII projecthas tried out an innovative (Terhi Kouvo) Saadaq Husein Abdi, 17, is interestedadult education method. in history and is planning a career as a teacher. Well ► over a month ago, he returned to the school desk Abdi (left), with his friends at the Kitee Evangelical Folk High Hanna-Projects for immigrants School. Leenaat the Centro Intercultur- The plan is clear: First, attain a secondary school Partinenacidade de Lisboa leaving certificate from the folk high school. Then and friendsPortugal. To counteract study in a field that has jobs.the prevailing logic of The youths future is in Finland, maybe in theirunilateral integration of current home town, maybe in a big city, like Tampere Vegetable stew is cooking on the stoveimmigrants into the culture or Turku. Abdi, however, would like to return to So- Abdi, Ali and their friends are settling down to normalof their host countries, the malia. life in Kitee. In the towns rented two-room flat, hip hopCentro Interculturacidade “Only if there is peace”, he specifies. music is playing and Somalian-style rice and spicyde Lisboa promotes inclu- In 2009, 557 underage people like Abdi came to vegetable stew are cooking on the kitchen stove.sion strategies by develop- Finland to escape the wars and insecurity in their Any everyday problems are resolved with the help ofing two-fold actions. ► home country. This was a fifth less than in 2008. Hanna-Leena Partinen, who works at the folk high If the Ministry of the Interior had not have inter- school. She is the link to the authorities and lessor,Combining competencies, preted the decrease in refugees as straightforwardly but only if requested. The line between help and pa-job opportunities and as it did, Saadaq Husein Abdi would be studying in tronage is blurring.local needs the folk high schools own study programme for un- “My departure point is that the need for help comesDenmark. Women im- derage refugees. However, the Ministry concluded from the boys. Boundaries are set as to what belongsmigrants in Denmark are that the stream of arriving refugees is drying up and to the folk high school and what to social services.often isolated from the the education provided for them can be discontinued. The need for help is, however, decreasing day afterlabour market, from the This was done in the beginning of the year. day”, rejoices Partinen.local society and from That was not the end of the schooling, however, Full story in database ►learning. In two innovative as the liberal folk high school also offers the possibil-projects, a Danish folk high ity of going to secondary school. For the spring term,school has trained women the youths stayed in the folk high school to learn the The challenge of continuingimmigrants in catering andas environmental ambassa- language and culture. education for the migrant population:dors in the community. ► Friends from the football field shortages, obstacles and perspectives The Somali youths have developed a picture of Fin- land close to the Russian border, in a rural town with Switzerland. Almost half of Switzerland’s leading a population of 9,500. Kitee is known for its bears, managers are migrants; like 61% of the professors SCIENCE at the Ecole polytechnique fédérale in Zurich and just bright liquor called “pontikka” and championship-level Finnish baseball players. like 21% of the population established in SwitzerlandLearning atmosphere in The boys have not played Finnish baseball. How- coming from 202 countries and regions still unknown.a European comparison: ever, from their time on the football field and at the Not forgetting the 222.000 migrants a day calledDenmark at the top! gym, they feel like Kitee residents. “frontaliers” [those on the border]. So what educationGermany. A European “It was nice to move to Kitee where people are is to be given to such a diverse migrant population?study has compared the nice and there are no fights”, explains Abdi’s friend,learning atmosphere in 19-year-old IID IBRAAHIM ALI, with his fluent Finn- (Claude Merazzi) Some figures and even a roughvarious countries. The ish. analysis show that the problem of education (basicinvestigation did not just Good-natured people and a lack of fights can- and continuing) for the migrants is particularly complexfocus on schools, universi- not be taken for granted, because the immigration in Switzerland due to the large number of people con-ties and initial vocational discussion is a heated one. The supporters of mul- cerned (22% of the population), the languages (17%training; all learning-related ticulturalism are responding to the critics who deride of the population use a language at home which is dif-activities, including adult immigration, at least non-work-based immigration. ferent to the four national languages), the nationalitieseducation, played a role. Their voice is heard in the discussion forums of the (around 202), the cultural and religious horizons asThe result: the frontrunners Internet, although according to Statistics Finland’s well as the mentalities. The educational needs are ex-were the countries which latest information, only 2.9 % of the Finnish popula- tremely diverse: the potential future Nobel Prize-win-continually perform well tion are foreigners. ning migrant certainly has less need for educationalin educational matters: There are even less in Kitee – around one per- help, whereas at the other end of the scale, for certainDenmark, Sweden, the cent, according to the social services estimate. Due migrant groups who are illiterate, have no professionalNetherlands and Finland. ► to the towns location, the majority of these are Rus- training and no efficient cultural criteria, the obstacles sians. The folk high school has broken new ground are largely impossible to tackle. among immigrants from the late 90s. Full story in database ►
Country overviews n No 4/5 2010 Adult Education in... NorwayWhat is meant in the country when you talk about Adult Edu-cation? FinancesCommon definition of Adult Education in the country, in contrast/ Adult Education in Norway is financed by the central, county andcomparison to other fields of lifelong learning. local governments and by learners’ fees.Adults who need primary and lower secondary education have a Study Associations: In recent years the funding of non-formal Adultstatutory right to such education. Adults also have a statutory right Education from central authorities has not changed much, and into upper secondary education. This applies to adults who have 2010 the total amount is 179 million NOK (about 22 million Euros).not already completed an upper secondary education. The right Basic Competences: In 2006 the Government started the Basicto free education for adults up to and including upper second- Competence in Working Life program, and they have increasedary is guaranteed by law. The responsibility is divided between the commitment each year. In 2010 80 mill NOK (10 mill Euro)municipalities and counties. Adult Education also implies learning was spent on this purpose.in Folk High Schools and Adult Learning NGOs offering courses Folk High schools: The funding of Folk High Schools from the Nor-to 4-500.000 Norwegians every year. Adult Education also takes wegian Government was 641 million NOK (about 80 mill Euros) inplace in all parts of working life. We also have private schools 2010.and Adult Education centers providing AE, but this activity is not Distance Education Providers: The funding of non-formal distanceincluded in this report. education from the Norwegian Government is in 2010 about 70 million NOK (about 9 million Euros).What is typical for Adult Education in the country?AE in Norway is complex and organised by a lot of different provid- Topicsers. It involves Formal AE, mostly organised by municipalities Esthetical subjects/handicraft 46,4 %and counties, labour training AE mostly organised by the Labour Organization and leadership 16 %and Welfare Authorities, Basic Competence training organised Health/ sports sciences 11,5 %by workplaces with public funding, different courses and learn- Nature/outdoors 7,1 %ing activities organised by Study Associations, NGOs, distance Humanistic and religious 4,3 %education providers, Folk High Schools, private businesses and Social Sciences 4,1 %worplaces. Language 3,3 %Non formal Adult Education (Study Associations etc) is open and Science/Industry 2,8 %accessible to the whole population from the age of 14, at a low Economy/ICT 2,3 %cost, including a wide variety of topics and all levels of education. Transport 1,6 % Services 0,3 %Relevant umbrella associations and national (service) organi- No accessible statistics on topics in Formal AE, Folk High Schoolssations and Distance Education.NAAL/Norwegian Association for Adult Learning (VOFO)Umbrella organisation for Study Associations in Norway Participation rate(http://vofo.no) Non-formal Adult Education (Study Associations) 2009, in total 469 NADE/Norwegian Association for Distance Education 669 participants.Umbrella organisation for for institutions involved in distance edu-cation. (www.nade-nff.no) Quality system / insuranceNorwegian Folk High School Association (http://bit.ly/dqLSIv) No restriction on starting organisation sthat offers courses and education, but restrictions to get public funding. To be able to carryProviders of Adult Education out formal education there are demands. Quality management431 Municipalities/Local authorities provide Adult Education on systems: Different from institution to institution.primary- and secondary level to all inhabitants with rights to this Restrictions for organizations to be able to get public funding andeducation, according to the Education Act. to use the term Study Association in their name are regulated in19 Regional Authorities provide Adult Education on upper second- the AE-act. These restrictions include organizing a minimum ofary level, also according to the Education Act. learning activities, having a democratic structure and some other19 Study Associations offer non-formal Adult Education, and also demands.provides formal Adult Education on demand from Public Authori-ties. Latest developmentsUniversities, University Colleges provide full time and part time Some current discussions:studies. Validation of prior learning, National Qualifications FrameworkDistance education providers: Organizations and institutions offer- (NQF), Basic competences, Training for labour market, Drop outsing distance courses on different levels. (young adults).Basic Competence in Working Life program: Big governmentalprogram for funding and monitoring basic learning projects inenterprises, administered by Vox. More information: http://vox.no/ Hilde S. Grønhovdtemplates/CommonPage.aspx?id=2641 Country overviews will be readable on infonet-ae.eu soon.
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Country overviews n page 6 Adult Education in... EstoniaWhat is meant in the country when you talk about Adult Edu- of the total public sector expenditure.cation? Adult education is in Estonia in generally not financed through theAdult Education in Estonia is one of the following: state budget – to participate in courses participant or employer- formal education in adult comprehensive schools (Gümnaa- has to pay for it. sium), vocational education institutions or higher education In 2007, an inter-ministry working group developed the model of institutions; financing the professional training of adults, according to which- professional education and training; three ministries will share the primary responsibility for funding the- non-formal education (popular adult education). work-related training of adults: the Ministry of Education and Re-The main objective of the Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy is search, the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Economicto improve adults’ opportunities and motivation for participating in Affairs and Communication.formal, non-formal and informal learning in order to improve their The Ministry of Education and Research has allocated funds toknowledge and skills according to their own needs, the needs of informal adult education centres for the remuneration of theirthe society and labour market. teachers and managerial staff since 1995 on a competitive basisDespite the name of the strategy it focuses mainly on develop- (funding has been provided to approximately 45 popular adultments in adult education. education centres per year). Since 2005, the activities of popular adult education centres have also been funded by ESF. As ofWhat is typical for Adult Education in the country? 2008, ESF funds have been used to finance the programme AdultIn Estonia the concept of adult learner is in general not related to Training in Popular Adult Education Centres.the age of the learner. According to our legislation adult learneris a learner whose premier or main activity is other than studying, Participation ratei.e. he/she is working or taking care of children and studying at the By Eurostat: Life-long learning (adult participation in education andsame time. training) - Percentage of the population aged 25-64 participating inTypical for AE in Estonia are flexible study opportunities for adult education and training over the four weeks prior to the survey:learners: distance learning and evening courses, external study 2002 – 5,4, 2007 – 7, 2008 – 9,8, 2009 – 10,5and part-time study, as well as participation in various courses. (Females: 1997 – 5,7, 2009 – 13,2, Males: 1997 – 2,7, 2009 – 7,6) Different surveys that have been carried out in Estonia indicateResponsible public bodies / ministries two main reasons, why adults are not participating in training:Estonian Ministry of Education and Research: Mr Tõnis Lukas, wrong attitudes – people consider themselves either too old forMinister of Education and Research; learning or find no use of learning and lack of financial resources –Mr Andres Pung, Head of Vocational and Adult Education Depart- learning is considered to be too expensive.ment of Ministry (www.hm.ee)Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs: Mr Hanno Pevkur, Minister of TopicsSocial Affairs; Mr Meelis Paavel, Head of Estonian Unemployment Relevant topics and areas, description and statistical material Insurance Fund (www.sm.ee, www.tootukassa.ee) The most important areas are work-related continuing education training and retraining course; also courses of enterprise, privateRelevant umbrella associations and national (service) organi- enterprise, self-employment.; social kills, official language (esto-sations nian) for non-estonian adults, foreign languages, IT.Association of Estonian Adult Educators Andras - unites the rep-resentatives of different adult education providers in Estonia (40 Staffmembers, 4 individual members and 3 Members of Honour); rep- The professional standard of an adult educator is awarded on lev-resents Estonian adult education in Europe and in the world; aims els II, III, IV and V. The closing date for applications is April 15 andat increasing the competence of adult educators. (www.andras.ee) October 15 annually. So far 229 professional certificates of adultEstonian Non-formal Adult Education Association (ENAEA) - non- education specialists/ andragogues have been issued. Number ofgovernmental, national umbrella organisation in the non-formal persons working in the field of AE is unbeknownst.adult education field associating education-orientated NGOs (69member organisations in 2007). ENAEA, the follower of the Esto- Quality system / insurancenian Union of Education (1924-1940), was re-established in 1994. Estonian qualification system is made up of the development of(www.vabaharidus.ee) professional standards and the issue of professional certificates. Professional standards are put together on five professional lev-Providers of Adult Education els, established on the basis of the complexity of work, the shareIn addition to formal education, institutions of vocational education of skills and knowledge and the scope of required independenceand higher education are providing increasingly more continuing and responsibility. Since 2004 Andras has the right to award pro-education courses and retraining courses: fessional qualifications.a) continuing education centers in vocational education (vocationaltraining centres etc.) (www.hm.ee) Latest developmentsb) Continuing Education centres of Universities - Creating opportunities for lifelong learning for all adults accord-Informal education: Folk schools and Folk High Schools, training ing to their abilities and needs;centers etc. (www.vabaharidus.ee) - Transparent funding of adult education and training; - Non-Estonian adults are sufficiently fluent in the EstonianFinances language in order to cope with life in society and with work;In recent years, Estonia has invested 14–15% of its total public they can learn their mother tongue and be engaged in nationalexpenditure in education. In 2008, educational expenditure in Es- cultural activities if they wish so.tonia’s public sector amounted to 12.6 billion EEK – less than 13% Agne Narusk
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Country overviews n page 7 Adult Education in... DenmarkWhat is meant in the country when you talk about Adult Edu- Participation ratecation? These figures are approximate number of people participating inThe target group of Danish AE is adults who has left the main- one course. For example: There are NOT 1 mio. Danish adultsstream educational system from primary education to long cycle participating vocational training for skilled and unskilled workers,higher education (17th year of education) since many of them participate in more than one course (Non-formal AE):What is typical for Adult Education in the country? - Study Associations/Evening classes: 700.000 participants perDanish AE is clearly divided into two subgroups: year- Formal AE, comprising both vocational and general AE and - Danish University Extension: 75.000 per year. concluding with formal exams - Day High Schools: 2.000 per year.- Non-formal AE, building on the traditions of Grundtvig, focusing - Folk High Schools: 50.000 per year on individual choice and characterised by NGO-organisation and lack of grades and exams. Topics Relevant topics and areas, description and statistical material Responsible public bodies / ministries (approximate figures, Non-formal AE)Jurisdiction is divided between 5 different ministries. The mu- Participation in study associations/evening classes and Universitynicipalities are responsible for a part of non-formal AE as well as Extension lectures can be divided into these topics:special education of adults, while most AE centers have become - Basic topics (reading, writing, arithmetic and languages):self-governing state institutions. 90.000. - Health: 220.000Relevant umbrella associations and national (service) organi- - Artisan: 95.000sations - Culture: 89.000VUC are institutions of general adult education. The VUC Leaders’ - Creativity: 57.000Association is an umbrella organisation (www.vuc.dk) - Musical instruments: 35.000Danish Adult Education Association is an umbrella organisation of - Personal development: 13.000non-formal adult education (www.daea.dk) - Communication: 20.000 - Others: 72.000Providers of Adult Education (non-formal) The eight most popular main topics for participants in residential- Study associations//evening classes (about 1.800) offer non- folk high schools are: formal AE to increase the individual’s overall subject-related - Athletics/sport insight and skills. Local private institutions most of them part of - Art and creativity 5 national AE associations of whom 4 are linked to political par- - Music, theatre, dance ties. - Media, Society and politics- Danish University Extension: educative instruction and lectures - Language and literature by the extra-mural departments of the 4 Danish universities, organised by about 100 local committees. Staff- Day High Schools (about 50) offer teaching with an educative No reliable figures are available for staff of study associations/ or job-promoting aim for adults with little formal education and evening classes. The huge majority is part time – with qualifica- people in a personally or socially vulnerable situation. Private tions at all levels. Educational staff at residential folk high schools institutions. are estimated at 6-800, mostly full time. The tendency is that- Folk High Schools (about 80) offers residential short courses more and more are qualified at bachelor level or above. Univer- (less than a fortnight) and residential long courses (of over 12 sity Extension has no permanent staff. Lecturers are all scientific weeks). Private institutions, some of them linked to religious as- university staff. sociations, trade unions or NGO’s. Quality system / insuranceFinances There are large degree of freedom from state intervention inThe self-governing state institutions are financed partly by the establishing study associations, residential folk high schools andstate partly by tuition fees, that may either be paid by a local public University Extension providers. But certain rules regulate the cur-authority or by the participant himself. Participants may receive riculum of residential folk high schools.National AE Support (SVU) on different sets of conditions.The finances of non-formal AE institutions are based on tuition Latest developments / core of the AE actual discussionfees. - Financing/FundingEvening schools are supported, though, by municipalities with 1/3 - Employabilityof expenses for teachers and free premises and university exten- - Knowledge societysion with the same percentage by the state. - Second Chance/bridging the gap for loweducated citizens toTeaching costs for the individual participants of day high schools educationare mostly covered by the municipality. Certified folk high schools - Key competenciesreceive a substantial government grant. - Recognition of Prior LearningIn most of both formal and non-formal AE public funding have - Active Citizenshipdecreased over the last 10 years, leading to less activity in some - Integrationareas and higher participants’ fees in most areas. Michael Voss
Nr. 4/5 2010 n Country overviews n page 8 Adult Education in... HungaryWhat is meant in the country when you talk about Adult Edu- EU sources:cation? 2005-2008 Human Resources Development Operational Pro-According to the Act on Adult Education: General, language or grammevocational education based on a development programme outside 2007-2010 Social Renewal Operational Programme and Socialthe school system, with the aim of acquiring a certain competence Infrastructure Operational Programmeand/or certain skill. In an everyday sense adult education refers tothe formal and informal non-formal education of adults. Participation rateIn the Hungarian language there is a separate word for informal Number of people enrolled in education outside school in 2009:education: “művelődés”, which means “acquiring culture”. 491831 (women: 251.705, men: 240.126) Number of people finishing training in 2009: 470.475What is typical for Adult Education in the country? Most students aged 30-40; students aged 55+: 31.000The main aims of adult education inside or outside the school Central Statistical Office, August 2010:system are the following: Percentage of population aged 25-64 taking part in education and- to provide a missing school qualification training outside the school system: 9.9%- to provide further education- to provide a vocational qualification Topics- to facilitate employment, orientation and the development of Relevant topics and areas, description and statistical material personality and skills Number of students completing their training in 2009, by the type- to serve the purposes of general education of training: - vocational training 148.773Responsible public bodies / ministries - state-accredited vocational qualification 77.573Ministry for National Economy (www.ngm.gov.hu) - foreign language tuition 66.244National Vocational Training and Adult Training Council (www. - qualification necessary for a given job 57.609szmm.gov.hu)a national body assisting the Minister in carrying - general adult education 48.985out tasks related to adult education and vocational education. Its - training for a public service-type qualification 21.895tasks also include the preparation of professional decision making, - IT training 20.836proposals and evaluations - business skills training 20.749Adult Education Accrediting Body (www.nive.hu/index_sec.php - - basic vocational training 4.661responsible for the qualification and accreditation of institutions - remedial education 2.461and programmes of adult education - rehabilitation education 689Relevant umbrella associations and national (service) organi- Staffsations Estimated number of adult educators: 100.000National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education – NIVE www. Estimated number of adult educators working full time: 1.000nive.hu – regional and national research relating to adult educa- In 2006 a course offering a specialisation in andragogy and intion, content development of vocational and adult education, 2009 a master’s degree in andragogy were launched in higherhandling of tenders educationRegional Training Centres (9) – national network of state trainingcentres (www.szmm.gov.hu) Quality system / insuranceHungarian Folk High School Association (www.nepfoiskola.hu) Government Decree 22/2004. (II. 16.) on the general rules of theAssociation of Adult Educators (www.fvsz.hu) accreditation of adult education institutions and programs.TIT Stúdió Egyesület (TIT Studio Association) (www.tit.hu) The Adult Education Accrediting Body is responsible for assessingCivilian Adult Education Network (www.fchalozat.hu) applications for accreditation from adult education institutions andCatholic Youth and Adult Education Association (www.kife.hu) programmes, for carrying out the accreditation of institutions and programmes, for monitoring the activities of institutions, and forProviders of Adult Education approving the training and further training programmes for experts.Registered institutes of adult education: 7.987 (Sep 2010) Support can only be claimed by accredited institutions.Accredited institutes of adult education: 1.469 (Sep 2010) The two main ways of creating a quality control system are:Accredited adult education programmes: 6.365 (Sep 2010) - the institution chooses an accepted standard (e.g. ISO), thenNumber of courses: 39.406 (2009) implements and runs it, and/orNumber of accredited courses: 17.470 (2009) - the institution creates a quality control system in accordance with the rules of the accreditation process and with expecta-Finances tions.Sources of state support for adult education:- central budget and local government budgets (training for public Latest developments servants, training for disadvantaged groups, complete or partial Human Resources Development Operational Programme: The de- financing of national and local development programmes) velopment and application of modern methods in adult education- Employment and training-related sections of the Labour Market Social Renewal Operational Programme: Developing the quality Fund (support for the training of persons registered as un- and contents of the training employed or at risk of becoming unemployed, support for the development of the training system) Éva Tánczos- permitted vocational training contributions for adult education (vocational education for adults outside the school system, training for employees of economic entities).