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(LC Jacobs, CI Chase, 1992. Developing and using tests effectively . Jossey-Bass: San Francisco) Student-Constructed Responses
Methods of Grading Student-Constructed Responses ( Blackinton, 2008) -Takes time to construct, may need to modify after 1 st run Explicit expectations, better feedback, greater inter-rater reliability, links to performance Grading Rubric : criterion referenced, describe performance expectations & weighting -Usually lacks descriptions -Lists + traits or behaviors, no negative Assignment directions match checklist, not difficult to prepare Checklist : list of criteria to include (introduction, research question…) -Potential for bias -Less opportunity for learning, vague Little work up front, recognizes faculty as ‘expert’, flexible Norm Referenced : categorize work into A, B, C, D Disadvantage Advantage Method
Method of “articulating expectations for an assignment by listing the criteria, or what counts, & describing levels of quality from excellent to poor” 1
Type of assessment that specifies gradations of quality from excellent to poor 2
A criterion-referenced method of grading using highly specific grading criteria that are linked to objectives
1 HG Andrade, Y Du (2005). Students perspectives on rubric-referenced assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation , Vol 10 (3). 2 HG Andrade (2005). Teaching with rubrics: The good, the bad, and the ugly. CollegeTeaching , 53 (1)
What is a Grading Rubric? Gradation: excellent-poor Categories important to the teacher/class Weighted Points Dimensions also called criteria ( Blackinton, 2008) 0 pts 1 pts 2 pts Dimension 4 1 pt 2 pts 3 pts Dimension 3 1 pt 2.5 pts 4 pts Dimension 2 1 pt 2 pts 3 pts: describe Dimension 1 Performance Level 1 Performance Level 2 Performance Level 3
“…in most instances, lengthy rubrics probably can be reduced to succinct…more useful versions for classroom instruction. Such abbreviated rubrics can still capture the key evaluative criteria needed to judge students’ responses. Lengthy rubrics, in contrast, will gather dust” (Benjamin 23).
Rubric does not correspond with class or program outcomes
Example: Entire rubric focused on writing quality not content
Scale does not have enough gradations or levels
Not distinguishing the A’s from the B+’s
All traits are given equal weight regardless of complexity
Grammar = Content
Too broad, not enough content described
Words like ‘breadth’ and ‘depth’ used in lieu of specifics
Students still not sure, other grading faculty still not clear
Too long/too complicated
Faculty + students get lost in the rubric
A Rubric … … is a guide for the evaluation of student work that defines a facilitator’s expectations and identifies grading criteria point by point. … provides a clear set of criteria for judging students’ work by specifying factors on which the facilitator will grade the student thereby helping the facilitator define expectations ad prompting the student to focus on specific points. … takes extensive thought and planning to be effective and that facilitators need to be lucid in their explanations of grading standards and be sure of the assignment’s objective to create rubrics that are pedagogically sound.