PRESENTED BY : EUSIVIA PASI
CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND DISEASE
Health and well-being
Dimensions of health
Determinants of health
Disease ,sickness and illness
Levels of health care
Levels of fitness
CONCEPTS OF REHABILITATION
Public awareness to the various disabilities
Message generation and dissipation
CONCEPT OF HEALTH
BIOMEDICAL CONCEPT ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT
HEALTH is a state of complete physical , mental and social well being
and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1948)
More recently, WHO has stated that the „ultimate
outcome‟ of health is well-being and quality of life (WHO 2003)
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF HEALTH BY WHO – A
condition or quality of human organism expressing
adequate functioning of the organism in given conditions
genetic or environmental
HEALTH AND WELL BEING
Positive health – it implies the notion of perfect
health in body and mind .it cannot become a reality , it
always remain a dream because everything in our life
is subject to change .
“Wellness is a multidimensional state of being
describing the existence of positive health in an
individual as exemplified by quality of life and a
sense of well –being “.
GOOD HEALTH TRAID
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
Determinants are those predisposing factor which
influence the health of a particular community
INDICATORS OF HEALTH
An index is an objective measure of an existing situation
Indices are defined as relative numbers expressing the value of
certain quantity as compared with another
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDICATOR:
USES OF HEALTH INDICATORS
a) Reflect changes in the health profile over a specified time span
b) Enable delimitation of backward and priority areas in a country.
c) Permit international comparison
d) Allow evaluation of health services and specific interventions
e) Help to diagnose community needs and perceptions.
f) Helpful to program planners and health administrators for
charting out progress
g) Allow projections for the future.
CONCEPT OF DISEASE
WHAT IS ILLNESS
Is a personal state in which the persons feels unhealthy
Physical, emotional ,intellectual ,social ,developmental or
spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared
with previous experience
Illness is not synonymous with disease
Disease is an alteration in body functions resulting in
reduction of capacities or a shortening of the normal life
PRECURSORS OF ILLNESS
BEHAVIORAL FACTAL FACTORS
1. SYMPTOMS EXPERIENCE
The person believes something is wrong
Experiences some symptoms (physical, cognitive ,
2.ASSUMPTION OF SICK ROLE
Acceptance of the illness
Seeks advice ,support for decision to
give up some activities
3.MEDICAL CARE CONTACT
Seeks advise of health professionals for the
following reason :
validation of real illness
Explanations of symptoms
Reassurance or prediction of outcome
4.DEPENDENT PATIENT ROLE
Become dependent to health professionals
Accepts/rejects health professional‟s suggestions
Become more passive and accepting
May regress to an earlier behavioural stage
5. RECOVEY /REHABILITATION
Gives up the sick role and returns to
former roles and functions
DEFINITION OF DISEASE
Ecological point of view ,disease is defined as “a
maladjustment of the human organism to the
The simplest definition is that disease is just the
opposite of health .i.e.,. Any deviation from normal
functioning or state of complete physical or mental
DISTINCTION BETWEEN DISEASE, ILLNESS
The term disease literally mean “without ease “
Illness refers to the presence of a specific disease and also to the
individuals perceptions and behaviour in response to the disease ,as
well as the impact of that disease on the psychosocial environment .
Sickness refers to a state of social dysfunction .
Disease is a physiological/psychological dysfunction
Illness is a subjective state of the person who feels aware of not being
Health care is a multitude services provided to
individuals ,families ,or communities by health
professions or other for achieving the objectives of
promoting ,maintaining, monitoring or restoring health
COMPASSION : feeling of pity about suffering of others
CONSCIENCE : sense of right and wrong ,feel of guilty
COMMITMENT : seriously take the responsibilities
CONFIDENCE : feeling sure about ones ability
COMPETENCE : do the best to be done .
LEVELS OF HEALTH CARE
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
WHO (1978) defines PHC as essential care made
universally accessible to individuals and families in
the community by means acceptable to them through
their full participation and at a cost that the
community and country can afford at every stage of
The term „primary health care‟ (PHC)gained
widespread currency following the 1978.
PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY
COMPONENTS OF PRIMARY
Food supply and nutrition
Safe drinking water and sanitation
Maternal and child health, family planning
Expanded programme on immunization (EPI)
Prevention and control of endemic diseases
Appropriate treatment of common diseases , injuries and accidents
Provision of essential drugs.
SECONDARY HEALTH CARE
The first referral level ,deals with more complex
problems ,which provides mainly curative and
Health facilities level includes hospitals and
TERTIARY HEALTH CARE
More specialised level such as teaching hospital and
The care is usually given by the specialist ,major
surgeries are included in this level
Basic standard for health and fitness. Lacking these basic levels of
strength, flexibility, and work capacity may limit you in life activities.
The complete Level I should be attainable within 3 to 12 months for
those with no significant limitations.
A proper basic movements such as hip flexion and active shoulder use
while healed injuries and structural problems are resolved.
All healthy adults can aspire to this level of fitness. Basic
movements are perfected and advanced skills are
The complete Level 2 may take from six months to several
years to reach after achieving Level I.
Few people possess this level of general fitness any healthy
person can achieve it.
The strength, work capacity, power and skill required to
meet these goals can prepare to tackle any kind of physical
performance with competence and confidence.
Expect to invest another three to five years of consistent
This level of achievement requires long-term dedication and a
passion for fitness.
The skills required of Level 4 are very advanced and represent a
highly skilled and well-rounded athlete. While few may attain all of
the Level 4 skills,
should continually seek improvement and get closer to achieving
ILO‟s Definition “Rehabilitation involves the
combined and coordinated use of medical,
social, educational and vocational measures for
training or retraining the individual to the
highest possible level of functional ability”
Defined as “combined and coordinated use of medical , social ,
educational and vocational measures for training and retraining the
individual to the highest possible level of functional ability “
Areas of concern in rehabilitation :
• Medical rehabilitation
• Vocational rehabilitation
• Social rehabilitation
• Psychological rehabilitation
THE MEDICAL MODEL
Definition of disability was composed by the World Health
Organisation (WHO) in the early 1980s.
IMPAIRMENT - loss or abnormality in structure or function;
DISABILITY - inability to perform an activity within the
normal range for a human being, because of impairment;
HANDICAP - inability to carry out normal social roles
because of an impairment/disability.
WHO definition of CBR
“CBR involves measures taken at the community
level to use and build on the resources of the community,
including the impaired, disabled and the handicapped
persons themselves, their families and their community as a
THE REHABILITATION PROCESS
Relates problems to
problems and target
,and co ordinate
The WHO (2001) framework of disability (after Hurri 2003).
Functioning and disability depend on complex interactions between
all the components.
EVOLUTION OF REHABILITATION
The discipline of rehabilitation developed after the Second
World War. In 1951 the UNO established a Rehabilitation
Unit with the aim of facilitating the transfer of these new
medical and technical advances to developing countries.
PROMOTIONAL IDEAS FOR
DISABILITY HISTORY AND
Hang banners in schools and/or use school marquee to
recognize Disability History and Awareness Week.
Allow students to design posters, fliers, and/or buttons
related to Disability History and Awareness. Post student-
designed posters and fliers in the school.
Use school and district Web sites to promote disability
history and awareness.
Ask schools to include biographical information on famous
people with disabilities in morning announcements
Encourage district school board to pass a resolution
recognizing Disability History and Awareness Week
Distribute a letter announcing Disability History and
Awareness Weeks, including a flier to all parents
Ask the local PTA/PTO to include articles related to
disability history and awareness in their newsletters and
Ask teachers to incorporate into their lesson plans information about
disability history and awareness
Post a timeline of disability history in every school. Allow students to
Encourage school libraries to do a book exhibit to expand students‟
understanding and awareness of individuals with disabilities and
related history and on the disability rights movement.
. Contact local media outlets concerning articles and stories related to
disability history or awareness during Disability History and
Recognize the achievement of local and other people with disabilities
all year. Focus on their abilities and achievements through the district
Web site, newsletters, morning announcements, and working with
local media for stories and articles.
Encourage schools to host school-wide Disability History &
Involve parents and other members of the community in planning and
implementing activities at the district and school level.
Encourage student councils/student government in planning and
implementing activities at district and school level.
Provide training for teachers concerning disability history
and awareness -- give inservice points for participation.
Encourage district and school personnel to participate in
Disability Mentoring Day. Additional information on
Disability Mentoring Day can be found at:
Designate a point person to coordinate disability history
and awareness activities for the district.
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?
Communication is any act by which one person gives to
or receives from another person information about that
person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or
effective states. Communication may be intentional or
unintentional, may involve conventional or
unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-
linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other
Sender Message Channel Receiver
LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION
MODES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication occurs through words, actions, or a
combination of words and actions.
Verbal messages are messages communicated through
words, and language, either spoken or written.
Non-verbal messages are messages communicated without
words, i.e., through body language
Some of the non –verbal communications are facial
expressions, posture, gestures and touch.
1. Eye contact:
al barrier S
OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH
1. To ensure that health is valued as an asset to the
2. To equip the people with skills, knowledge and attitudes
to enable them solve their health problems by their own
actions and efforts ,and
3. To promote the development and proper use of health
“Health education is a process that informs, motivates and
helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and
lifestyles, advocates environmental changes as needed to
facilitate this goal and conducts, professional training and
research to the same end”
APPROACHES TO PUBLIC
There are three well known approaches to public health
(1) REGULATORY APPROACH
(2) SERVICE APPROACH
(3) EDUCATIONAL APPROACH
CONTENT OF HEALTH
Divided into 8 main divisions:
(1) HUMAN BIOLOGY
(4) ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
(5) FAMILY HEALTH CARE
(6) CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
(7) MENTAL HEALTHA
(8) PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS
PRNCIPLES IN HEALTH
1. Unless there is motivation people will not lean.
2. There should be an interest or a desire to learn
3. The worker or the physiotherapist should include the
people or community in health education programmes
4. One should start educating people from what they know
already and then expose them to new knowledge
5. We should know the level of understanding ,education
and background of people
6. Education should be repeated
7.Imparting knowledge to people by positive
approach will give better results than the negative
8. People remember better while doing
9. The physiotherapist would be able to communicate
better if she knows thoroughly the existing practices
,religious ,belief, habits ,taboos, and customs of
people prior to the education programmes.
10.Establish good interpersonal relationships
11. Adequate planning is essential ,even if it is a five-minute
12. Health education should be carried out with the co-
operation of local leaders, school teachers, dais and other
CONTENTS OF HEALTH
It depends upon
1. Interest of the group and their needs.
2. What the group knows already
3. Age and sex.
4. Health problem of the community
METHODS OF HEALTH EDUCATION
2. Group discussion
4. Panel discussion
8. Role playing
9. Programmed instruction
10. Stimulation exercises
The advantages of AV Aids are :
1. They create interest in the learners
2. They make learning permanent
3. They increase the thinking of the people
4. They give opportunity for variety of learning
5. They offer reality of experience
VARIOUS AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS
1. Motion pictures or movies
2. Film strip
4. Black board or white board
5. Bulletin boards
6. Flannel graph
7. Flash cards
12. Health museum
13. Health magazines
14. Computer and internet
With suitable pictures a story can be very
effectively told using a flannel board.
Posters can convey a single, simple message very
strongly. They can be displayed in health centres,
clinics, schools, or in public places.
FUNCTION OF HEALTH
6. Raising morals
7. Health development
CONDUCTION OF HEALTH
EDUCATION AT THREE LEVELS
a)Individual and family health education
b)Group health education
c)Mass health education
1. Neelamkumari ;A text book of community health nursing -1
2. Kasthuri Sunder Rao :An introduction to community health nursing
;4th edition (chapter 30)
3. K.Park : Preventive and social medicine .20th edition