Herschel HIFI: The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared

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ESA Space Science Talks March 2009. Juergen Stutzki: The Herschel infrared observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared in a nutshell.

ESA Space Science Talks March 2009. Juergen Stutzki: The Herschel infrared observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared in a nutshell.

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  • 1. Herschel HIFI: the Heterodyn Instrument for the Far-Infrared PI-Institut: SRON, Groningen – PI/CoPI-Team: Frank Helmich(PI), Thijs de Graauw, SRON Groningen Jürgen Stutzki, KOSMA, Universität zu Köln Tom Phillips, Caltech, USA Emmanuel Caux, CNRS, Toulouse – major partner nations NL, D, USA, F in total 25 institutes form 13 nations HIFI Focal Plane Unit Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 1
  • 2. The heterodyne principle – mixing light – We mix the sky signal with an ultra-stable local signal such that the difference frequencies can be detected – This difference signal can be electronically amplified and analysed – The difference signal contains all information of the sky signal Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 2
  • 3. Herschel HIFI: Key technologies – superconducting heterodyne mixers – at close to quantum-limited operation – local oscillators, without mechanical tuning elements – up to frequencies of 2 TeraHz – compact and low power spectroscopy backends – complex total setup with 2x7 frontends 7 frequency bands 2 polarizations each only previous heterodyne instruments in space: NASA Submm Wave Astronomy Satellite (60 cm telescope; 557 GHz water ground state transition) and very similar: ODIN (astro & atmospheric) Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 3
  • 4. Herschel HIFI: The life-cycle of gas and dust in galaxies ISM in the Milky Way ISM in Galaxies • Physical conditions • Physical conditions • Chemistry • Star formation • Energetics • Dynamics • Isotopic gradients Star formation • Physical conditions • Chemistry • Energetics • Dynamics • Role of Water Solar System • Water in Giant Stellar evolution Planets • Mass loss • Chemistry Martian • Composition atmosphere Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 4
  • 5. Herschel HIFI: the need for high spectral resolution example 1: line profile bipolar outflow from young star line width  • thermal velocity-distribution (0.1-1 km/s) • turbulent motion (3-10 km/s) systematic motions  • outflows (10-100 km/s) • rotation (3-30 km/s) • etc. thus: R = λ/Δλ =C/Δv= 3000 – 3x106 needed example 2: galaxy rotation Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 5
  • 6. Herschel HIFI unique science – SPECTRAL SURVEYS – HIFI is able to scan the complete frequency range between 480-1250 GHz and 1.4-1.9 THz Caux et al. – IRAS16293 HIFI – Instrument Level Test Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 6
  • 7. Herschel HIFI unique science – SPECTRAL SURVEYS goals • To determine physical and chemical conditions • To determine tracers for different processes going on at the same time • To determine evolution, based on chemical clocks • To find new species • Observations of one typical object per class, three high-mass star- forming regions are chosen. • Analysis execised with gas-cell data obtained in the laboratory Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 7
  • 8. HIFI Key Programmes http://herschel.esac.esa.int/Key_Programmes.shtml Star-formation WISH – water is star forming regions HEXOS – Herschel/hifi observations of EXtrordinary Sources: the Orion and Sgr B2 regions HS3F = HIFI Spectral Surveys of Star-Forming regions ISM WADI – Warm And Dense ISM PRISMAS – PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies Extragalactic HEXGAL – the HIFI EXtraGALactic key project Stellar Evolution HIFISTARS – The physical and chemical properties of the circumstellar environments around evolved stars HSSO - Herschel Solar System Objects Water and related chemistry in the Solar System Herschel HIFI | Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team | Universität zu Köln| Pag. 8
  • 9. Herschel HIFI left out due to the limited time: • many other exciting scientific opportunities with HIFI • very exciting technological advancements, with spin-off to many other new projects in the field Looking forward to the continuing discussions today and tomorrow ... THANK YOU Jürgen Stutzki for the HIFI team stutzki@ph1.uni-koeln.de