ESA ISS Node 3 & Cupola Infokit


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Ownership of Node 3, the final European-built habitable module for the International Space Station (ISS), was transferred from the European Space Agency to NASA on 20 November 2009. Node 3 will now begin final activities prior to its launch to the ISS on the STS-130 mission in February 2010. ESA's Cupola was mated to Node 3 in September 2009. Both Node 3 and the Cupola will help in the efficient exploitation of ISS operations and provide the accommodation for facilities intended to improve the well-being of the crew.

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ESA ISS Node 3 & Cupola Infokit

  1. 1. and Information Kit Updated: November 2009
  2. 2. Node 3/Cupola Overview 3 Node 3 and Cupola: An Introduction Remaining steps before launch Mission Overview Node 3 7 The Cupola ISS Observation Module 10 Node 3 Internal Racks and Equipment: Environmental Control 12 Water Recovery System Racks Oxygen Generation System Rack Air Revitalization System Waste and Hygiene Compartment Node 3 Internal Racks and Equipment: Conditioning/Exercise Equipment 14 T2 COLBERT Treadmill Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Node 3 and Cupola On-Orbit Activation 15 Launch and Docking Node 3/Cupola Installation Entering Node 3 Cupola Relocation and Node 3 Activation Cupola Outfitting and Rack Transfer Cupola Thermal Shroud/Launch Bolt Removal Undocking/Landing ISS Intergovernmental Agreement 18 ISS and Europe’s Major Contributions 19 Columbus Laboratory Node 2 and Node 3 Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) European Robotic Arm (ERA) Data Management System (DMS-R) Cupola Observation Module Credits 22 Contacts 22 2
  3. 3. Node 3/Cupola Overview Node 3 and Cupola: An Introduction laboratory equipment and services to NASA in At the end of a challenging and successful return for launching the European Columbus undertaking, the ownership of Node 3, the final laboratory to the ISS in February 2008. European-built habitable module for the International Space Station (ISS), will be transferred from the European Space Agency to NASA on 20 November 2009. Node 3 will now begin final activities prior to its launch to the ISS on the STS-130 mission in February 2010. ISS close up showing ESA’s Columbus laboratory (top right) attached to the European-built Node 2, photographed from STS-128 Space Shuttle Discovery following its undocking on 8 September 2009. (Image: NASA) The Cupola (covered in thermal blankets) attached to an end cone of Node 3 in November 2009 at the Kennedy Space Center Generally recognised by the ISS community as the in Florida, USA. Assembled group includes members of the STS- most complex pressurised element of the ISS, 130 crew during familiarisation training (Image: NASA/Kim Shiflett) today’s Node 3 is significantly different to the Node 3 that Europe initially agreed to develop back in The Nodes are the interconnecting elements 1997. It has evolved over the years from a between the various pressurised modules on the connecting module into a very complex element, International Space Station, allowing the passage able to accommodate sophisticated crew and life of astronauts and equipment, and providing support equipment. It is now a much more complex important resources to the other modules attached element with many more capabilities than originally such as distribution of electrical power and thermal foreseen. and environmental control. The Cupola observation module, which was Transfer of Node 3, or ‘Tranquility’ as it has now shipped to the Kennedy Space Center in 2004, and been named, will complete the final major element whose ownership was transferred to NASA in 2005, of the barter agreement between the European will provide an unprecedented capability for external Space Agency (ESA) and NASA under which ESA ISS operations as a command tower for robotic supplied two of the Station’s interconnecting Nodes operations as well as a stunning view of earth for (Nodes 2 and 3) and additional high-technology the ISS Expedition crews on board the orbiting 3
  4. 4. After almost 12 years of design, development and storage, Node 3 was shipped to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida in May 2009 and has been undergoing final preparations prior to its launch. This included mating the Cupola Observation Module to Node 3 on 1 September 2009. With the transfer of Node 3 to NASA the two combined European-built modules can now begin launch processing and should be integrated into Shuttle Endeavour’s cargo bay by the end of 2009. Remaining steps before launch Prior to its handover to NASA, Node 3 has undergone final activities prior to starting launch preparations. This has included: mating the Cupola to Node 3 on 1 September 2009; loading of ammonia in the heat exchanger loops; the The Cupola being moved by crane to a work stand at the Space Crew Equipment Interface Test, which allowed the Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in STS-130 astronauts to work closely with the Florida on 19 November 2008. (Image: NASA/Cory Huston) hardware they'll be using on orbit; installation of stowage platforms for transporting cargo to the Space Station. Both Node 3 and the Cupola will ISS inside Node 3; outfitting and leak testing of help in the efficient exploitation of ISS operations the docking port where Node 3 will be berthed to and provide the accommodation for facilities Node 1; installation of a special centre cover on intended to improve the well-being of the crew. the forward docking port for thermal protection and protection against orbital debris; and additional inspection and close out activities. The Cupola being aligned with the Node 3 end cone docking port prior to the two modules being mated on 1 September 2009 (Image: NASA) Once the transfer is complete The Node 3/Cupola will undergo microbial sampling to make sure that no adverse biological organisms are transported to the Station; cargo will be installed on the stowage platforms; the module will be filled with the correct atmosphere and the Node 3 hatch will be closed and sealed and a thermal cover installed. With this Node 3 being lifted from its shipping container on 26 May 2009 complete the Node 3 Cupola will be integrated into following its arrival at the Kennedy Space Center. the Shuttle’s cargo bay. (Image: NASA/Jim Grossmann) 4
  5. 5. Mission Overview composite will be removed from the Shuttle’s February 2010 will be an important landmark for cargo bay and installed on the port-side hatch of the European Space Agency when the Node 3 Node 1 by robotic arm. and Cupola modules are launched on STS-130 Space Shuttle Endeavour to be permanently attached to the International Space Station. As the final European-built pressurised module to be launched to the ISS, Node 3 follows in the steps of Node 2, which was launched to the ISS in October 2007 and the Columbus laboratory, which has been the central focus of European research activities on the ISS following its launch and installation in February 2008. Node 2 in STS-120 Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay on 26 October 2007 prior to its installation on the ISS. Photo was taken the day after Discovery docked to the ISS (Image: NASA) Node 3 Activation and Outfitting After installation, Node 3 will undergo activation and outfitting including attaching relevant power Launch of STS-122 Shuttle Atlantis on 7 February 2008, transporting the European Columbus laboratory to the ISS together with its seven-member crew which included ESA astronauts Hans Schlegel and Léopold Eyharts (Image: NASA) The major parts of the STS-130 mission are as follows: Node 3/Cupola Installation After Shuttle Endeavour docks to the Station with Interior view of Node 2 on 27 October 2007, following its its six-member crew the Node 3/Cupola attachment to the International Space Station during the STS-120 mission. (Image: NASA) 5
  6. 6. and data cabling, thermal control and ventilation installing handrails, footplate interfaces and gap lines, and installation of the Regenerative spanners on the outside of Node 3; removing Environmental Control and Life Support Systems thermal covers from the Cupola; and removing bolts racks i.e. two Water Recovery System racks and that secure the shutters over the Cupolas windows. the Oxygen Generation System rack, as well as installation of the Air Revitalization System, a Waste and Hygiene Compartment, a treadmill and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. ESA astronaut Christer Fuglesang during the third STS-128 mission EVA in September 2009. During the spacewalk Fuglesang and NASA astronaut Danny Olivas installed cabling to provide Node 3 with power and data when it is berthed. (Image: NASA) To bring important supplies to the ISS ESA astronaut Frank De Winne, exercises using the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in Node 1 of the ISS on The Shuttle will bring some important supplies and 3 June 2009. (Image: NASA) equipment to the ISS for the Expedition crew on board including items of food and clothing and Cupola Relocation and Outfitting additional equipment for undertaking the routine The Cupola will be moved by robotic arm from the work on the ISS. docking port on the end cone of Node 3 to the Earth-facing port of Node 3. Once attached, the ISS Reboost Cupola will also undergo relevant outfitting and As part of the mission the Space Shuttle may be activation. used to reboost the ISS to a higher orbit to account for atmospheric drag. If so this is likely to happen Three Mission Spacewalks towards the end of the mission. Three spacewalks are scheduled to take place during the STS-130 mission in support of STS-130 Crew installation and activation of Node 3 and the STS-130 Space Shuttle Endeavour will have a six- Cupola. This includes: preparations for removing member crew, which consists of NASA astronauts Node 3 from the Shuttle’s cargo bay; connecting George Zamka (commander) Terry Virts Jr. (pilot) relevant avionics and power cabling, and ammonia and Mission Specialists Nicholas Patrick, Robert lines following Node 3/Cupola berthing to the ISS; Behnken, Stephen Robinson and Kathryn Hire. 6
  7. 7. Node 3 The European-built Node 3 being lowered onto a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in the United States on 26 May 2009. This image shows a clear view of the uncovered docking mechanism to which the Cupola will be attached during its transport to the ISS in Space Shuttle Endeavour’s cargo bay. (Image: NASA/Jim Grossmann) The European-built Node 3 is the final one of the able to accommodate sophisticated crew and life three International Space Station Nodes, which support equipment with many more capabilities will be launched into orbit. The Nodes are the than originally foreseen. Node 3 will support a six- interconnecting elements between the various member Expedition crew on the ISS by pressurised modules on the ISS. They provide a accommodating relevant hardware as well as shirtsleeve environment to allow the passage of supporting Node 3 cabin crew operations. astronauts and equipment through to other Station elements and provide vital functions and Node 3 consists of a pressurised cylindrical hull resources for the astronauts and equipment. 4.5 m in diameter with a shallow conical section enclosing each end. It is almost 7 m long and will Node 3 has systems, which provide many different weigh together with the Cupola over 13.5 tonnes at functions and resources to the attached modules, launch. The pressurised shell of Node 3 is and to itself, for maintaining a safe and ideal constructed from aluminium alloys. This is covered working and living environment onboard the ISS. with a multi-layer insulation blanket for thermal Today’s Node 3 is significantly different to the stability and around 75 sections of panelling to act Node 3 that Europe initially agreed to develop as a protective shield against bombardment from back in 1997. It has evolved over the years from a space debris. This panelling is also constructed of connecting module into a very complex element, an aluminium alloy together with a layer of Kevlar 7
  8. 8. and Nextel. Internal and external secondary structures are used to support the installation of equipment, piping and electrical harnesses. Two water loops (respectively low-temperature and moderate-temperature loops) allow the rejection of the heat generated inside the element to the ISS ammonia lines by means of two heat exchangers mounted on the external side of one end cone. Internal view of Node 3 showing empty rack locations (bottom and right). (Image: ESA/S. Corvaja) In its launch configuration in the Shuttle cargo bay, Node 3 will have the Cupola attached to the end cone that will eventually face out from the Station. Inside Node 3 the eight rack locations will be taken up with two avionics racks, 3 racks containing pallets with equipment and cargo for the ISS, with the three remaining racks remaining empty. Side view of Node 3 clearly showing debris protection panels covering outer surface, one with inverted ESA logo, and one of the radial docking ports with its cover installed (Image: ESA/S. Corvaja) Node 3 can be considered in two halves. One half, with a single docking port on one of the end cones where Node 3 will be docked to the ISS. This half also accommodates eight standard-sized racks, which will house relevant systems and equipment. The Cupola berthed to Node 3 in launch configuration in the The other half consists of an additional five Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space docking ports one located on the other end cone Center in September 2009 (Image: ESA/S. Corvaje) and four arranged around the circumference of the cylindrical main body of Node 3. Originally, the In its final on-orbit configuration Node 3 will look Habitation module, the Crew Return Vehicle and slightly different. The Cupola will be relocated to the Pressurised Mating Adaptor 3 (PMA-3) would the Earth-facing port of Node 3 during the STS-130 also be attached to Node 3 along with the Cupola. mission. The three cargo pallet racks will be However the first two elements were removed removed and returned on Shuttle flight STS-131 in from the ISS configuration and the PMA-3 will be March 2010. In the place of these three rack moved to the Earth-facing docking port of Node 1. locations and the three empty rack locations will This was the original docking location of Node 3 come six new racks which are already on the prior to its relocation to the port (left-hand) side Station. This includes the second Air Revitalisation docking port of Node 1. System rack for on-orbit air composition 8
  9. 9. monitoring, including carbon dioxide removal; an Special lines and sectioning devices are adopted Oxygen Generation System rack for oxygen and to distribute oxygen and nitrogen. water; Water Recovery System Racks 1 and 2 for urine and water processing; a Waste and Hygiene Fire detection is supported by two cabin smoke Compartment Rack for crew waste and hygiene sensors and monitoring of electrical equipment. processing and a second treadmill. Node 3 will also Other smoke sensors are used in particular racks. be outfitted with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Fire suppression within predefined internal Device for crew on-orbit physical exercise. All enclosures is by portable fire extinguisher. these racks and equipment are necessary since the ISS crew number was increased from three to Two avionics racks accommodate almost all the six in the spring of 2009. electronic units for the command and data handling, audio and video functions, and for the conversion and distribution of the electrical power from the ISS solar arrays to the internal and attached elements. Command and control functions, as well as fault detection isolation and recovery algorithms, are supported by processing capabilities implemented in Node 3 computers. Two of the three ISS Nodes (Node 2 and Node 3) were made under a contract in Europe, while Node 1 was made under a NASA contract in the USA. Node 1 has been in orbit since December 1998 while Node 2 has been on orbit since October 2007. Water Recovery System rack 1 at the Kennedy Space Center on 17 October 2008 prior to launch. This rack is used as part of the systems to reclaim drinking-quality water from processing urine and waste water. (Image: NASA) Photo taken during an ISS fly around during the STS-127 mission. This will be the ISS configuration on arrival of Shuttle The atmosphere of Node 3’s internal pressurised Endeavour during the STS-130 mission. (Image: NASA) volume is controlled in terms of air pressure, temperature, humidity, velocity, particulate and Nodes 2 and 3 are an evolution of Node 1. Thales microbial concentrations. Node 3 provides a Alenia Space put forward a design for Nodes 2 and piping network for the distribution of water (for fuel 3, deriving from the experience with the MPLMs, cells, drinking, waste and processes) between that took into account new habitability requirements, Node-1 and Node 3 and within Node 3. It also making possible permanent crew quarters for four provides the line for the transfer of pre-treated astronauts with the capability to treat and recycle urine from Waste and Hygiene Compartment to water, cater for personal hygiene and waste, Water Recovery System racks inside Node 3. jettison carbon dioxide and generate oxygen. 9
  10. 10. The Cupola ISS Observation Module The ESA-developed Cupola observation module at the Kennedy Space Center (Image: NASA) The Cupola will become a panoramic control Spacewalking activities can be observed from the tower for the International Space Station (ISS), a Cupola along with visiting spacecraft and external dome-shaped module with windows through areas of the ISS with the Cupola offering a which operations on the outside of the Station can viewing spectrum of 360 degrees. Thus, the be observed and guided. It is a pressurised Cupola will have an important role in external observation and work area that will accommodate Space Station activities. command and control workstations and other hardware. However, the Cupola will operate as more than a workstation. With a clear view of Earth and Through the Robotics Work Station, astronauts celestial bodies, the Cupola will have scientific will be able to control the Space Station’s robotic applications in the areas of Earth Observation and arm, which helps with the attachment and Space Science as well as holding psychological assembly of the various Station elements, very benefits for the crew. much like the operator of a building crane perched in a control cabin. At any time, crewmembers in The Cupola is a 1.6 tonne aluminium structure of the Cupola can communicate with other about 2 metres in diameter and 1.5 metres high. crewmembers, either in another part of the Station Its dome is a single forged unit with no welding. or outside during spacewalk activities. This gives it superior structural characteristics, 10
  11. 11. which helped shorten the production schedule and entire window, an astronaut would first fit an lower overall costs. external pressure cover over the window during a spacewalk. The Cupola is a ‘shirt sleeve’ module with six trapezoidal side windows and a circular top window of 80 cm in diameter, making it the largest window ever flown in space. Each window is built using very advanced technologies to defend the sensitive fused silica glass panes from years of exposure to solar radiation and debris impacts. Produced from a single forging, Cupola’s dome requires no welds. Shown is the actual flight unit dome just after machining in October 2002 at the Ratier-Figeac facility in Figeac, France (Image: Thales Alenia Space) The windows are protected by special external shutters, which can be opened by the crew inside the Cupola with the simple turn of a wrist. At the NASA astronaut Terry Virts conducts a fit check of the robotic end of their tasks, the window shutters are closed workstation of the Cupola observation module at the Space Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center to protect the glass from micrometeoroids and on 31 July 2008. (Image: NASA/Cory Huston) orbital debris, and to prevent solar radiation from heating up the Cupola or to avoid losing heat to Internally, the Cupola must provide functions to space. support the presence of two astronauts operating the instruments. Cupola’s internal layout is Each window has three subsections: an inner dominated by upper and lower handrails around scratch pane to protect the so-called pressure the inside of its cabin supporting most of the panes from accidental damage from inside the equipment and by ‘close-out’ panels, which cover Cupola; two 25 mm-thick pressure panes to help the harness and water lines attached to the maintain the cabin pressure and environment (the Cupola. These internal panels form a pressurized outer pane is a back-up for the inner pane); and a air distribution system with the outer structure. debris pane on the outside to protect the pressure These panels are removable to allow inspection panes from space debris when the Cupola and connection of different utilities. shutters are open. Limited space for the crew and equipment means The 10-year on-orbit lifetime calls for user-friendly that the man-machine interfaces have to be replacement of the windows while in orbit. The optimised for entry and exit from the Cupola and entire window or the individual scratch and debris carrying out workstation tasks and maintenance. panes can be replaced in space. To replace an 11
  12. 12. Node 3 Internal Racks and Equipment: Environmental Control Two Water Recovery System Racks delivered to the amount of water that needs to be delivered to the ISS in November 2008 and the Oxygen the station by about 65 percent, i.e. about 2,850 Generation System rack which was delivered in July litres over the course of a year. 2006 will be relocated to Node 3 after its arrival. These racks make up the core of the Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System. Water Recovery System Racks The Water Recovery System racks use a series of chemical processes and filters to treat the astronauts’ urine, perspiration and hygiene water, recycling about 93 percent of the fluid it receives to provide water clean enough to drink. The ISS Expedition 19 crew with drink bags aboard the ISS on 20 May 2009 after being given the all clear to drink water reclaimed by the Water Recovery System (Image: NASA) ESA astronaut Frank De Winne works with the Water Recovery System’s Recycle Filter Tank Assembly in the Oxygen Generation System Rack Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. (Image: The Oxygen Generation System produces oxygen NASA) for breathing air for the crew and laboratory Recovering water from urine is achieved in the animals, as well as for replacement of oxygen lost Urine Processor Assembly by spinning up a keg- due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, sized distiller to create artificial gravity. module leakage and carbon dioxide venting. The Contaminants press against the side of the system consists mainly of the Oxygen Generation distiller while steam in the middle is pumped out. Assembly and a Power Supply Module. Water from the urine processor is combined with all other wastewaters and delivered to the Water The Oxygen Generation Assembly electrolyzes, or Processor Assembly for treatment. The water breaks apart, water provided by the Water processor removes free gas and solid materials Recovery System, yielding oxygen and hydrogen such as hair and lint, before the water goes as by-products. The oxygen is delivered to the through a series of multifiltration beds for further cabin atmosphere, and the hydrogen is vented purification. Any remaining organic contaminants overboard. The Power Supply Module provides and micro-organisms are removed by a high- the power needed by the Oxygen Generation temperature catalytic reactor assembly. Assembly to electrolyze the water. This rigorous treatment creates water that meets The Oxygen Generation System is designed to stringent purity standards for human consumption. generate oxygen at a selectable rate and is capable The purity of water is checked by sensors, with of operating both continuously and cyclically. It unacceptable water being reprocessed, and clean provides up to 9 kg of oxygen per day during water being sent to a storage tank, ready for use continuous operation and a normal rate of about 5.5 by the crew. The Water Recovery System reduces kg of oxygen per day during cyclic operation. 12
  13. 13. Air Revitalization System Waste and Hygiene Compartment NASA astronaut Michael Barratt working with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) in the US laboratory on the ISS on 22 September 2009. (Image: NASA) The Waste and Hygiene Compartment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station on 12 April 2009. The Air Revitalization System is one of the (Image: NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems that will be relocated to the European-built Node 3 The Waste and Hygiene Compartment currently in when it arrives at the ISS in February 2010. It the US Destiny laboratory of the ISS was the provides carbon dioxide removal, trace second toilet facility to arrive on the Station in contaminant control, and monitors the major November 2008 as part of the STS-126 mission. constituents in the cabin atmosphere. The first toilet facility is in the Russian Service Module on the ISS. Crew-generated carbon dioxide is removed from the cabin atmosphere by sorbent beds that are This Russian-built toilet system is contained in a designed to absorb carbon dioxide. The beds are booth-like compartment and separately channels regenerated upon exposure to heat and space liquid and solid waste. While the solid waste vacuum. A Trace Contaminant Control System goes to a holding tank, the Urine Processor ensures that over 200 various trace chemical Assembly, which forms a major part of the Water contaminants generated from material off-gassing Recovery System racks (see above) delivered in and crew metabolic functions in the habitable November 2008 reclaims drinking water from volume remain within allowable and safe crew members’ urine. concentration limits. The cabin atmosphere is analysed by a mass spectrometer, measuring oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour present in the cabin. 13
  14. 14. Node 3 Internal Racks and Equipment: Conditioning/Exercise Equipment T2 COLBERT Treadmill Advanced Resistive Exercise Device JAXA astronaut and ISS Expedition 19/20 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata exercising using the advanced Resistive ESA astronaut and ISS Expedition 21 commander Frank De Exercise Device (aRED) in Node 1 of the ISS on 27 May 2009. Winne, exercises on the COLBERT treadmill in the European- (Image: NASA) built Node 2 of the ISS on 15 October 2009. (Image: NASA) The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) The T2 Combined Operational Load Bearing will not take up a rack location in Node 3 but will still External Resistance Treadmill or COLBERT was be located in the new European-built ISS module. It temporarily installed in the European-built Node 2 was developed to improve existing International in September 2009 as an important exercise Space Station exercise capabilities. It mimics the device to keep the ISS Crew healthy while in orbit, characteristics of traditional resistive exercises and prepare them for return to Earth. It will be (weighted bars or dumbbells) by providing a more relocated to its permanent place in Node 3 after constant force throughout the range of motion. It its attachment in February 2010. The T2 treadmill offers traditional upper and lower-body exercises, is adapted from a regular treadmill but designed such as squats, dead lift, heel raises, bicep curls, so as not to shake the rest of the Station. This bench press, and many others. vibration damping system does not use power and hence makes it more reliable. The aRED uses vacuum cylinders to provide concentric workloads up to 270 kg, with an The astronauts use elastic straps over the eccentric load up to 90 percent of the concentric shoulders and round the waist to keep them in force. The aRED also provides feedback to the contact with the running belt and generate the foot astronaut during use and data to the NASA force necessary to give the astronaut’s bones and exercise physiologists. Flight surgeons, trainers muscles a workout in the absence of gravity. The and physiologists expect that the greater loads treadmill is also wider than the TVIS treadmill in the provided by aRED will result in more efficient and Zvezda Service Module of the Station. Although it effective exercise, thereby preventing the muscle is built to handle 240,000 km of running, it will likely and bone loss that astronauts sometimes see about 60,000 km during its time in orbit. experience during long space missions. 14
  15. 15. Node 3 and Cupola on-orbit activation * The astronauts will remove the cover from Node 3’s Passive Common Berthing Mechanism, i.e. the port where Node 3 will be attached to the Station. They will also disconnect the cables that provide power to the Node 3 heaters which are used to counter the extremely low temperatures reached on the Shuttle’s journey to the ISS. The European-built Node 2 in the cargo bay of STS-120 Space Shuttle Discovery as it approaches the International Space Station on 25 October 2007. (Image: NASA) Launch and Docking Following launch and opening of STS-130 Space Shuttle Endeavour’s cargo bay doors, the Node 3 heaters will be powered up to provide temperature control of the shell. Node 3/Cupola will be carried in the back or aft section of the Shuttle cargo bay fixed in place by its trunnions and keel fittings. During launch, the Cupola is protected by a multi- layer insulation shroud covering the whole After being removed from Shuttle Discovery’s cargo bay, the structure. After its two-day journey the Shuttle will European-built Node 2 is being manoeuvred to its temporary dock to Pressurised Mating Adaptor 2 (PMA-2) on installation location on the ISS by the Station's principal robotic arm on 26 October 2007 (Image: NASA) the front of the European-built Node 2. During the journey a detailed heatshield inspection will take With the astronauts coming towards the end of the place using the Shuttle’s robotic arm to confirm Node 3 unberthing procedures, the Station’s robotic the integrity of the Shuttle’s thermal protection. arm grapples Node 3. A signal is now sent from inside the Shuttle to release the special latches that Node 3/Cupola Installation hold Node 3 in place. Once released the robotic After the first full day of activities on the ISS, the arm manouevres Node 3 from the cargo bay to its first mission spacewalk will take place. This is on attachment point on the left-hand or port side of flight day 5. At the start of the 6.5 hour spacewalk Node 1. It takes about three hours to unberth Node the EVA astronauts (Nicholas Patrick and Robert 3, move it by robotic arm to Node 1, install it, and for Behnken) will make their way to the Shuttle’s cargo the Node 1/Node 3 berthing mechanisms to be bay to carry out preparations for unberthing Node 3 completely locked into each other. and Cupola. 15
  16. 16. Entering Node 3 Flight Day 6 is an important day from a European perspective as astronauts will enter the new European-built ISS module for the first time. Prior to this outfitting of the vestibule between Node 1 and 3 is undertaken i.e. utility cables (power etc.) are installed. Image of the underside of the ISS taken from STS-120 Shuttle ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli (centre), NASA astronaut Peggy Discovery after undocking on 5 November 2007. Node 2 Whitson (left), and Roscosmos cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, (centre left) is shown attached to Node 1 at the same docking working in the European-built Node 2 on 27 October 2007 after port that Node 3 will occupy. Node 2 was later moved to its its attachment to the ISS during the STS-120 mission. (Image NASA) permanent location at the forward end of the ISS. (Image NASA) Once Node 3 is berthed, the EVA astronauts will With this completed the hatch to Node 3 is opened, reconnect cables to provide initial power to Node intermodule ventilation and temporary lighting is 3 heaters, which were active during transport to established, and the new Space Station module is the ISS, and will connect avionics cables to Node entered to prepare for Cupola relocation. 3 before finishing the spacewalk. Inside the ISS, following Node 3 berthing, the area between the The first racks are installed in Node 3 on flight Day hatches of Node 1 and Node 3, known as the 6. This includes the advanced Resistive Exercise vestibule is pressurised. After pressurising the Device and the Air Revitalization System. vestibule a leak check is undertaken and the Node 1 hatch is opened. Cupola Relocation and Node 3 Activation On Flight Day 7 the cargo in the Node 3 stowage racks is removed and the stowage racks broken down to make way for the racks that will be permanently installed in these locations. It is also the day of the second mission spacewalk. During EVA 2 Node 3 is connected up to the Station’s ammonia lines which are an integral part of the ISS thermal control systems and will allow for a full activation of Node 3. Associated thermal cover booties are installed over connectors and covers are installed over the attachment points where Node 3 had been fixed in the Shuttle’s cargo bay. Other external outfitting tasks also take place such as the installation of handrails and ISS non-propulsive air venting devices, as well as ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli (right) and NASA astronaut removing the locking pins from the Earth-facing Peggy Whitson prepare to open the hatch to the European- built Node 2 on 27 October 2007 after its attachment to the ISS docking mechanism of Node 3 and opening of the during the STS-120 mission. (Image NASA) so-called petals to allow for berthing of the Cupola 16
  17. 17. at this docking port. At the end of the EVA 2, Cupola Outfitting and Rack Transfer procedures are started to set-up Node 3 as a fully The following day the Cupola electrical and water functioning element of ISS. lines are connected, the window heaters are activated, and the Audio Terminal Unit and the two Utility Outlet Panels are installed. Other tasks, such as the filling of the water lines and the relocation of panels is performed during this period. The remaining four racks are installed in Node 3. This includes the three Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems racks i.e. two Water Recovery System racks and the Oxygen Generation System rack, as well as the Waste and Hygiene Compartment. Cupola Thermal Shroud/Launch Bolt Removal The main activities during the third mission EVA on Flight Day 10 are the removal of the insulating blankets covering the Cupola, needed during NASA astronauts Daniel Tani (left), and Scott Parazynski undertaking outfitting work on the European-built Node 2 on transfer to the ISS, and removal of the launch 28 October 2007 during an EVA as part of the STS-120 bolts that secure the Cupola’s window shutters in mission (Image: NASA) place (three bolts per shutter). The thermal shroud is jettisoned on removal. Additional Node While EVA 2 is taking place associated Cupola 3 related tasks during the EVA include the depressurisation is carried out. Towards the end installation of Worksite Interface Fixtures, to of the EVA the Cupola is grappled by the Station’s which elements such as EVA footplates can be robotic arm, demated from Node 3’s endcone connected, and disconnecting the temporary docking port and manoeuvred to the Earth-facing heaters power line to Node 3. port of Node 3 where it is reberthed. Cupola repressurisation takes place followed by relevant leak checks and the Node 3 hatch is opened. NASA astronaut Rex Walheim works to install worksite interface fixtures and handrails on the Columbus laboratory during the third STS-122 mission EVA on 15 February 2008 (Image: NASA) The robotic workstation can now be installed inside the Cupola and used by the crew to drive the robotic arm, monitor ATV and HTV berthing, make observations, or just relax and enjoy the view of Earth and the stars. Undocking/Landing Following a more relaxed day on Flight Day 11 where the crew get some off duty time, the Shuttle undocks from the ISS the next day and is scheduled to land on Flight Day 13 back at the ESA astronaut Frank De Winne moves a rack through a Node Kennedy Space Center. 2 hatch on the ISS on 2 September 2009. (Image: NASA) (*) All timeline details listed are subject to change prior to launch. 17
  18. 18. ISS Intergovernmental Agreement The International Space Station photographed from Shuttle Discovery following undocking during the STS-119 mission on 25 March 2009 (Image: NASA) The International Space Station is a co-operative National jurisdiction of the International Partner programme between United States, Russia, States extends to the ISS elements in orbit. This Canada, Japan and ten Member States of the applies to areas such as criminal matters, liability European Space Agency (Belgium, Denmark, issues, and protection of intellectual property France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, rights. Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). Utilisation rights are outlined in the Memoranda of It is governed by an international treaty, signed by Understanding. The European Space Agency these Member States on 29 January 1998, called allocation rights comprise 8.3% of the Space the ISS Intergovernmental Agreement, which Station utilisation resources including, in provides the framework for design, development, particular, 8.3% of crew time, which represent operation, and utilisation of a permanently in- approximately 13 hours per week. In habited civil Space Station for peaceful purposes. compensation for the provision of the resources (energy, robotics, cooling, telecommunications, Furthermore, bilateral Memoranda of etc.) to the Columbus Laboratory by NASA and Understanding exist between NASA and each of CSA, Europe provides 49% of the laboratory’s the four associated space agencies: The utilisation resources to NASA and 2% to the CSA. European Space Agency (ESA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), the One important point is that ESA and the other Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Japanese Space Station International Partners can barter or Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), outlining sell their unused utilisation rights among relevant ISS responsibilities, obligations and rights themselves and to other non-participants to the between the agencies. Station’s programme. 18
  19. 19. ISS and Europe’s Major Contributions The European Columbus laboratory (right) attached to the European-built Node 2. (Image: NASA) Columbus Laboratory Node 2 and Node 3 Columbus, which was launched in February 2008 Nodes are pressurised modules that interconnect is ESA’s Research laboratory on the International the research, habitation, control and docking Space Station. It provides space for research modules of the ISS. The Nodes are used to facilities in the fields of material science, fluid control and distribute resources between the physics and life science. In addition, an external connected elements. The ISS will have three payload area can accomodate experiments and Nodes. Node 1, called Unity, was developed by applications in the fields of space science, Earth NASA. It became the second module of the ISS observation, technology and innovative sciences in orbit after its launch in December 1998. Node 2 from space. Columbus is permanently stationed at and 3 are developed under an ESA contract with the International Space Station, attached to European industry with Thales Alenia Space as another European-built module, Node 2. the prime contractor. 19
  20. 20. The first Automated Transfer Vehicle “Jules Verne” after undocking from the ISS on 5 September 2008. (Image: NASA) Node 2 became the first European Node to be Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) launched on 23 October 2007. It acts as a The Automated Transfer Vehicle is Europe’s connection point for the European Columbus unmanned supply vehicle for the ISS. It was first laboratory, the US Laboratory Destiny and the launched from the European Spaceport in Kourou, Japanese Laboratory Kibo. It is also the attachment French Guiana, on 9 March 2008. It can take up point for the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, to 7.5 tonnes of cargo to the ISS, boost the station carries a docking adapter for the US Space to a higher orbiting altitude and remove up to 5.5 Shuttle, and acts as an attachment point for the tonnes of waste from the station. It measures 10.3 Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs). The metres long by 4.5 metres in diameter, with solar MPLM is a pressurised cargo container, which arrays spanning more than 22 metres for travels in a space shuttle cargo bay. Node 2 also generating its electrical power. Cargo transported provides a working base point for the Space includes pressurised cargo, water, air, nitrogen, Station Remote Manipulator System, a Canadian oxygen and attitude control propellant. robotic arm on the ISS called Canadarm 2. European Robotic Arm (ERA) Node 3 will become the second European node to The European Robotic arm or ERA is a robotic arrive at the ISS on the STS-130 mission in arm, which serves to install solar arrays on the February 2010 and will be attached to the Russian section of the ISS. It further acts as an American-built Node 1, which was launched to the inspection tool on the Russian segment of the ISS ISS in December 1998. The Earth-facing port of and can carry out additional assembly and Node 3 will act as the connecting point for the replacement tasks on the external surface of the European-built Cupola. station such as on the Russian Research Module and Multipurpose Laboratory Module. The 11- Ownership for Node 2 was, and for Node 3 will be, metre long ERA also serves to support or transfer transferred to NASA within the framework of a astronauts carrying out tasks on spacewalks. It barter agreement between ESA and NASA. 20
  21. 21. and two control posts. It is the ‘brain’ or control centre of the Russian Segment of the ISS and carries out a great degree of the vital and fundamental functions on the station including: guidance, navigation and control of the entire ISS; failure management and recovery; and control of additional ISS systems and subsystems. Cupola Observation Module The European Robotic Arm (ERA). (Image: ESA/D. Ducros) has an extensive range, as it is able to walk around the Russian segment of the station and while in orbit is able to manipulate up to 8000 kg of mass. ERA is scheduled to arrive at the ISS in 2011. Data Management System (DMS-R) The Cupola module being lowered toward a workstand at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 November 2008. (Image: NASA/Cory Huston) The Cupola will become a panoramic control post for the ISS, a dome-shaped module with windows through which operations on the outside of the Station can be observed and guided. It is a pressurised observation and work area that will accommodate command and control workstations and other hardware. Through the Robotics Work Station, astronauts will be able to control the Space Station’s robotic arm, which helps with the attachment and assembly of the various Station elements. However, the Cupola will operate as more than a workstation. With a clear view of Earth and celestial bodies, the Cupola will have scientific The European-built Data management System. (Image: ESA) applications in the areas of Earth Observation and Space Science as well as holding psychological Europe’s DMS-R Data Management System was benefits for the crew. It is scheduled for launch to the first piece of European hardware on the ISS in the ISS on the STS-130 mission along with July 2000. It includes three fault-tolerant computers Node 3 in February 2010. 21
  22. 22. Credits Contacts This document has been compiled, produced and European Space Agency (ESA) written by the Coordination Office of the European Directorate of Human Spaceflight Space Agency’s Directorate of Human Spaceflight ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, PO Box 299 in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. It has been 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands. compiled from internal ESA sources with Tel: +31 (0) 71 565 6799 additional images and information kindly supplied Fax: +31 (0) 71 565 5441 by the following organisations: ESA Media Relations National Aeronautics and Space ESA Head Office, Paris, France. Administration (NASA) Tel. + 33 1 5369 7155 Fax. + 33 1 5369 7690 Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) National Aeronautics and Space Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency Administration (NASA) (JAXA) Russian Federal Space Agency, (Roscosmos) Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency 22