75% of teachers use computers in class Range of learning and teaching styles supported Rich constructivist learning environments improve learning outcomes Teachers in some countries are more optimistic about ICT than others A significant minority (21%) consider that using computers in class does not have significant learning benefits There is little to no correlation between impact optimism and level of equipment or sophistication of use, and even teacher skills. 75% of primary teachers (and their pupils) use computers in class according to the LearnInd data: from around 90% in the Nordic countries to approximately 35% in Greece, Latvia and Hungary. Teachers find that ICT supports in equal measure a range of learning and teaching styles, whether didactic or constructivist, in passive activities (exercises, practice) or in more active learning (self directed learning, collaborative work). The research shows that rich constructivist learning environments improve learning outcomes, especially for learners from disadvantaged areas. Teachers in some countries (United Kingdom, Cyprus, the Netherlands, Portugal and Poland) are more optimistic about ICT than others (Sweden, France and Austria). Nevertheless a significant minority (21%) consider that using computers in class does not have significant learning benefits. There is little to no correlation between impact optimism and level of school equipment or sophistication of use, and even teacher skills. There is a cluster of countries with high skills levels and high expectations as to ICT impact: the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Cyprus and Malta. Only some relationship between teacher’s ICT skills and optimistic impact expectations Correlation between skepticism re ICT benefits and the motivation to ICT us in class and The older the teachers, the more likely they will lack motivation to ICT use in class.
Teachers use ICT more for administration, organisation and planning, according to some studies Teachers are aware of the potential benefits of ICT for students, but lack the pedagogical vision to integrate ICT in teaching ICT can promote new pedagogical approaches, but only if integrated into subject lessons. Despite the high level of reported classroom use (above), teachers use ICT more for administration, organisation and planning, according to some studies. They also show that teachers are aware of the potential benefits of ICT for students, have a positive perception of ICT in terms of supporting active autonomous learning and creating authentic tasks but lack the pedagogical vision to integrate ICT effectively in teaching. The research shows that ICT can promote new pedagogical approaches, but only if ICT is fully integrated into subject lessons. In the Nordic countries teachers in primary schools more often regard ICT as supporting their pedagogy than teachers in secondary school.
From LearnInd data
Teachers consider that using ICT improves their motivation and teaching skills All 30 countries are investing in developing teachers’ ICT skills New teachers may have little training in using ICT in teaching in some countries Teachers adopt technology more easily step by step with minimal disruption On-site preferable to off-site training. There are some worrying findings: Failure to acquire sufficient ICT skills No gains in pupils’ learning Courses lack the practical dimension No technical and pedagogical support. Teachers responding to the good practice survey consider that using ICT improves their motivation and teaching skills. We know from the policy survey that the 30 countries are investing in developing teachers’ ICT skills but that teachers entering the profession may have little formal training in using ICT in teaching in a significant number of countries. Research has some worrying conclusions about the effectiveness of continuing professional development in ICT: that teachers have failed to acquire the desired level of ICT skills for classroom instruction and that training has not translated into gains in pupils’ learning. Research suggests that teachers adapt new technologies more easily in a step by step process with minimal disruption, and that on-site training is preferable to off-site training. Training courses fail to match needs and lack the pedagogical and practical dimension, according to the analysis of responses to the policy survey.
ICT integration into subjects and classrooms is the key to changing teaching practices The school leader´s support is crucial Countries with high levels of ICT favour dispersion into classrooms rather than in computer labs 68% of primary schools have located computers in classrooms. ICT integration into subjects and classrooms is the key to changing teaching practices, according to research, and the school leader´s support is crucial where primary schools are free to integrate ICT in the curriculum. The policy survey suggests that countries with high levels of ICT favour dispersion into classrooms. 68% of primary schools have located computers in classrooms rather than in computer labs according to the Learnind data. In more than 90% of primary schools this is the case in Luxembourg, Slovenia, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Cyprus and Ireland. On the contrary, there are ten countries with computers in classrooms in fewer than 50% of schools (Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Spain). In these countries a majority of primary schools use computers for education in dedicated computer labs.
Schools have incorporated ICT into management tasks ICT is increasingly used by teachers for administration and planning Whole school planning improved with the help of ICT ICT makes administration accessible to wider groups School ICT plans tend to concentrate more on infrastructure than teaching and learning Virtual learning environments are becoming more widespread: - But are used more for administration than for learning - Time is needed to assimilate virtual learning environments. Schools have incorporated ICT into management tasks and ICT is increasingly used by teachers for administration and planning. In several case studies whole school planning improved with the help of ICT; ICT makes administration accessible to wider groups through a web interface; school records are easily maintained, exchanged and updated. However, the research indicates that school ICT plans tend to concentrate more on infrastructure than on how ICT can be used to enhance teaching and learning, and can actually work against innovation (as found in some case studies). Virtual learning environments are becoming more widespread, but are used more for administration than for learning. Research shows that sufficient time is needed to assimilate virtual learning environments; once introduced, however, they are increasingly used by teachers.
Nine recommendations drawn from the evidence and findings gathered together in the five analytical papers of the STEPS study are made for actions at three levels: EDUCATION POLICY Ensure training (provided by credible trainers) addresses the pedagogical and practical dimension, is related to subject-specific didactics, and is personalised (incremental, on-site, tutor-based, with peer sharing of experiences). Certificate teachers’ ICT skills to boost impact and reward significant investments already made by many teachers. Demonstrate that digital skills are a priority. Highlight models of carefully selected effective and transferable practice to inspire change in the teaching workforce, a way of inspiring change in the teaching workforce. Build up the capabilities of school leaders to manage ICT and ICT-related educational change, supporting them at national, regional and local level in their decision-making through guidelines, self-review frameworks and peer learning, linked to a set of common indicators of ICT quality in teaching and learning in the school. Give policy signals that ICT can enable wider educational and economic objectives, and that ICT should be systemically embedded and mainstreamed. Make national strategies clear, coherent, enabling and structured. They should outline ways of implementation, be operational and not overly prescriptive. Specify clearly the ICT responsibilities of local authorities. Integrate ICT explicitly into the curriculum, a curriculum which is flexible, open and gives room for school-level initiative. Define the specific ICT functional skills and a set of skills and competencies developed with ICT. Aim for a culture of ‘ICT everywhere, learning everywhere’. Investigate all aspects of assessment; develop effective tools to measure ICT skills, allowing ICT use by learners in tests, and ways to assess new skills and competencies. Ensure equitable access to ICT equipment and resources, especially in small primary schools, by moving away from funding based solely on the number of students per school. Cluster remote and small schools to reduce isolation. Engage in the exchange of best practices in reaching disadvantaged schools. Support initiatives to improve the interoperability and sharing of high quality teaching and learning resources and practices in the interests of maximum exchange and deployment. SCHOOLS Capitalise on learners’ ICT skills in a variety of motivating ways for learning, by providing compelling ICT based learning opportunities at school and as extra-curricular activities, thus ensuring those who are ICT disadvantaged at home in terms of access or supervision are not further disadvantaged in school. Offer authentic and enquiry based learning tasks involving the learner more actively (including play), and use ICT for self-and peer assessment. Use the potential of ICT to support traditional and basic skills but also ‘21 st century’ skills and competencies such as learning to learn or critical thinking. Use ICT to support autonomous or self-directed learning of students, but where the teacher still stimulates, explains and supports the student. Prefer promoted independence models to models where learning is strongly controlled by the teacher or conversely where learning is organised by the pupils themselves. Integrate ICT fully into subject teaching but also use it as an interdisciplinary approach in collaborative projects. Physically locate computers in classrooms and teachers’ rooms to improve integration into subject teaching and to foster the exchange of practices. Engage with peers in the exchange of practices and resources (in subject- and topic-related working groups within and with other schools) using ICT as a driver to upgrade teachers’ professional competencies. Aim for openness and education partnerships, creating more fluid boundaries between partners in learning (school, libraries, parents and the community) during and beyond the formal school day. Use a virtual learning environment which brings together learners, teachers, management and families, resources, administration and assessment. Embed ICT into the educational vision of the school clearly showing where it can make a difference and act as a tool for change, and emphasising the positive impact of ICT to achieve a wide range of educational goals. Give incentives for teachers to use ICT and reward its use. Develop the use of technology for management, communication, administration, planning and preparation as a starting point for wider systemic change. Specify clearly roles and responsibilities for ICT and pedagogical support. RESEARCH Combine qualitative and quantitative methodologies in ICT impact studies to strengthen the current evidence base. Conduct large scale quantitative international comparative studies of primary pupils´ learning with ICT. Carry out longer-term studies on the impact of ICT on improving learning achievement, taking into account the effects of differing learning styles. Apply a range of methods to capture the effect of technology on learning, including test beds, ethnographic studies and learning from learners themselves to obtain insights into online behaviour and learning styles in different learning environments. Direct research towards the scientific evaluation of the use of ICT, its benefits and impact on outcomes, in line with the high levels of investment in infrastructure and training. Evaluate the impact of ICT on schools, including school collaboration, interdisciplinary and innovative use of ICT within projects and the school as a learning organisation. Investigate subject-specific ICT impact especially in key priority subjects such as basic skills and mathematics, science and technology and in subjects where the development of teaching materials by individual teachers is difficult and/or costly. Explore and research how quality assurance and inspection regimes are developing to take full account of ICT developments. Sustain and extend the existing knowledge base of ICT in primary education through further network activity, adding new studies and monitoring results over time regarding ICT in primary schools. Modify and apply the experience gained in the STEPS study to secondary and vocational schools (also tertiary and adult education). An evidence-based approach would shed more light on the impact of ICT in three main areas - teachers, learners and institutions - and identify the main enablers and barriers for ICT use. Develop a toolkit for indicator use by researchers, schools and policy makers. This includes achieving greater consistency across countries on definitions (e.g. broadband, a computer, e-maturity) and data collection by developing a continuous dashboard on progress on ICT use and impact on schools in Europe.
Roger Blamire Eminent09 Workshop A2
Teachers’ competences: ENTITLE and STEPS results Roger Blamire European Schoolnet
ENTITLE: Libraries and lifelong learning <ul><li>Results: www.entitlelll.eu </li></ul><ul><li>National reports: UK, DK, BG, AT, FI, CZ, SI, EL, HU, RO, PT </li></ul><ul><li>Six Guidelines for libraries on collaboration, use of ICT ... </li></ul><ul><li>Impact assessment framework: Generic Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>13 Recommendations, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governments should make better use of the public library network in LLL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work with partners in school and adult education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the range of skills among staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit an appropriate mix of staff </li></ul></ul></ul>
Study of the impact of technology in primary schools Teachers’ digital competences
Impact on teachers /1: Teachers use ICT and are ‘ICT-optimistic’ <ul><li>Three in four teachers use </li></ul><ul><li>computers </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pedagogies supported </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist learning </li></ul><ul><li>environments </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers in some countries are </li></ul><ul><li>more ICT-optimistic than others </li></ul><ul><li>A sceptical minority </li></ul><ul><li>Low correlation: ICT-optimism/ </li></ul><ul><li>equipment, use and skills </li></ul>
Percentage of teachers using computers in class
Impact on teachers /2: ICT is pedagogically under-used <ul><li>More use for administration, </li></ul><ul><li>organisation and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of pedagogical vision </li></ul><ul><li>New pedagogical approaches </li></ul><ul><li>only if integrated into subjects </li></ul>
What are the factors behind the decision (not) to take up ICT? Motivation Competence ICT use by teachers in class Access <ul><li>Well ICT equipped schools </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficiently fast internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>SKILL variable: confidence in using text processor, creating a presentation … installing software on PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement with „Using computers in class does not result in significant learning benefits“ </li></ul>
Impact on teachers /3: Motivation and digital and pedagogical skills Asturias, Spain <ul><li>ICT improves motivation and </li></ul><ul><li>teaching skills </li></ul><ul><li>All countries are developing </li></ul><ul><li>ICT skills </li></ul><ul><li>Step by step, on-site training, </li></ul><ul><li>minimal disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Little ICT training for new teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Courses lack practical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and pedagogical support? </li></ul>
Impact on schools /2: Whole school ICT integration and leadership matter <ul><li>ICT integration = key to changing practices </li></ul><ul><li>School leader support is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>ICT in classrooms rather than computer labs </li></ul>
Impact on schools /3: ICT improves administration and access to information <ul><li>ICT is used for management </li></ul><ul><li>Administration is more accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Whole school planning is improved </li></ul><ul><li>School ICT plans underplay learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use by teachers for administration and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual learning environments </li></ul>
Recommendations <ul><li>Increase, diversify and </li></ul><ul><li>certify teacher education; </li></ul><ul><li>support change leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Build ICT into general </li></ul><ul><li>educational policies </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure access to quality </li></ul><ul><li>equipment and learning </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalise on learners’ ICT </li></ul><ul><li>competence; reduce digital </li></ul><ul><li>divides </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen pedagogical </li></ul><ul><li>use of ICT; develop an open </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge-sharing school </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit the potential of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>as a catalyst for change and </li></ul><ul><li>to fulfil wider educational </li></ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a variety of methods to </li></ul><ul><li>measure and assess the impact </li></ul><ul><li>of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Shift the research focus </li></ul><ul><li>towards the learner and the </li></ul><ul><li>school as a learning </li></ul><ul><li>organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a long-term and </li></ul><ul><li>continuous monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>on the impact of ICT in schools </li></ul>EDUCATION POLICY SCHOOLS RESEARCH
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