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Introduction to European Schoolnet's work on "travel well" content (Melt, Hewlett & eQnet) - Riina Vuorikari, European Schoolnet
 

Introduction to European Schoolnet's work on "travel well" content (Melt, Hewlett & eQnet) - Riina Vuorikari, European Schoolnet

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  • 1. Teachers did find some content useful, 2. when they met with other teachers from various different countries and language context, and when they talked about learning resources, they found ways to use them in their own teaching, 3. We tried to work on understanding what makes them cross contexts?? 4. Is it a) the resource, b) the context where it is used in? or c) could it even be something about the user? 5. We have continued working on check-lists for learning resources that could help us to revel the quality...
  • 1. Teachers did find some content useful, 2. when they met with other teachers from various different countries and language context, and when they talked about learning resources, they found ways to use them in their own teaching, 3. We tried to work on understanding what makes them cross contexts?? 4. Is it a) the resource, b) the context where it is used in? or c) could it even be something about the user? 5. We have continued working on check-lists for learning resources that could help us to revel the quality...
  • The concept and creation of the first cataloguing cards occurred during the French Revolution (1789)- The idea is that the object, for example a book, can be described and indexed separately by using metadata. Essentially, metadata is “data *about* the data”.
  • A cataloguing card represents metadata about each object in the collection and helps accessing the object. The metadata description determines *click* the author, *click* the title and *click* makes the access points available. The metadata description is usually done by librarians or trained indexers who know the cataloguing system, are familiar with controlled vocabularies and know the content area.
  • Now I present the learning resource portal where most studies for this dissertation took place.It is an access point for primary and secondary teachers in Europe to find learning resources. *click*. The resources come from more than 20 different content providers and digital libraries from around the world. The content is aligned to different national curricula and, of course, is also in different languages. *click*. What makes it possible for teachers to search learning resources on this portal is the metadata that is used to describe each learning resource, just like in our earlier example of libraries. A LOM based application profile with mandatory indexing terms from a multilingual thesaurus is used to facilitate the cross-language retrieval of resources. sqdsdS
  • There are a number of problems when searching learning resources across language boundaries. (click) I give you examples of our main problems. The learning resource description by a librarian or indexer in one context, let’s say a learning resource described with metadata in Finland based on the Finnish curriculum, might not yield relevant results for a teacher who is searching for resources in another country context, say, in the Netherlands. Second, the expert vocabularies by pedagogical and linguistic experts, even when made in collaboration with end-users, seldom translate well to the information seeking tasks of the end-users - teachers.This problem is propagated when taken to a different lingual and country contexts. Despite the multi-million euro efforts of making standardised metadata available for sharing and reusing learning resources, we find that there is still room for improvement.
  • Furthermore, related to the problematic, I give you an example of Google. It is the most common way for anyone to find information nowadays. It’s success lies in the PageRank algorithm, which, unlike in our case, does NOT build on cataloguing or metadata. It actually measures the relative importance of a website, within a set of websites. This relevance is based on hyperlinks between these websites. It is important to note that these hyperlinks are placed usually when the content is created and rely on the creators’ judgement on the importance of these links. * Click *Unfortunately, such link-structure rarely exist between learning resources in heterogeneous repositories, and even less often across different languages. Thus, it is im possible to assign similar numerical weights for learning resources in a multilingual context. This forces us to evaluate other options.
  • So, an idea came about to combine the two approaches that were introduced in the beginning. The learning resource portal with metadata represent the human-made top-down order. So, then, of course, we wondered if the behaviour of an ant colony could be of any help? Tagging came about around 2003 and introduced a new way for any individual to organise digital objects around them by using simple keywords, called tags. *click* On our portal, this means that we let teachers add simple tags and ratings to a resource when they find it relevant. sqdsdS
  • This, in turn, has a potential to modify the behaviour of other individuals, as they might be inclined to use the tag as a navigational aid for their own resource discovery process.
  • This follows the same ideas as in nature, where we can see different ways where order and patterns emerge from the bottom-up. Like these birds, no one is in control to tell them what to do, every individual follows 2 simple rules: “stay aligned” and keep the distance. When focusing on the colony level, *and not on individuals,* complexity and patterns arise.
  • An ant colony is an often used example where larger scale order emerges from small scale interaction. Self-organisation here represents the idea that even if individuals follow simple rules, the resulting group behaviour can be surprisingly complex and effective, for example, success in finding the shortest route to a food source.
  • Similar behaviour can also be observed among humans, we also look for the “shortest way for the food sources” and follow trails from others. In that process we leave marks, *Click* in this case foot paths emerge *Click* that are more efficient and time saving than the original road. it is typical that they are reinforced over time. *Click* This phenomenon is known as stigmergy.
  • As teachers add tags to individual resources that they find relevant, new patterns start emerging at the “colony level” which modifies the environment of the portal. * Click * The tags and ratings now appear related to the resources. * Click * On the other hand, lists of the most bookmarked items and global tagcloud emerge creating patterns on the system level. sqdsdS
  • We found that tags create new link-structures between learning resources in different languages. These resources, *click* represented here by Slovakian, Finnish and Spanish resources and which reside in different servers in different countries, never had any links between them *click* before the users created the tag “interactive” that now connects them using the orange edges. sqdsdS
  • Similarly, thanks to tags, new connections between users from different countries emerge. *Click* here are users from Austria, Hungary and Finland, *click* who all have showed their interest through tagging on the same learning resource. sqdsdS

Introduction to European Schoolnet's work on "travel well" content (Melt, Hewlett & eQnet) - Riina Vuorikari, European Schoolnet Introduction to European Schoolnet's work on "travel well" content (Melt, Hewlett & eQnet) - Riina Vuorikari, European Schoolnet Presentation Transcript

  • Using and discovering resources across contexts Strand 2: Eminent November 27, 2009 Lithuania
  • Outline of this workshop
    • EUN work on «Travel well» content
    • Riina Vuorikari, EUN
    • «Travel well» and quality aspects
    • Silvia Panzavolta, ANSAS (ex-Indire)
    • KlasCement engages users to share (universal) learning objects
    • Hans De Four, KlasCement
    • Acer/EUN netbook pilot project
    • Riina Vuorikari, EUN & Bertnard Mellah, Acer
    • Beginning: Where did it all got started?
    • Then: Some content can really be reused by teachers from different countries
      • ... but what makes them travel well, and
      • how can they be found and shared easily?
    • Future: Can social help?
    EUN + «Travel well» learning resources
    • Sharing and reuse of digital learning resources are the drivers of a “learning object economy”
    • -> Sharing learning resources metadata to improve reuse
    • Economy of scale: “if we all share the content, production costs per unit go down”
    • Did anyone ask: “Do teachers think learning resources from a country other than their own are useful for education?
    Where did it all get started ?
    • We had gained understanding that some content is more useful than other..
    • e.g. science, cross-curriculum topics, language learning
    • BUT what makes them “Travel well”?
      • well searchable multilingual metadata, size, type, topic??
    Then....
  • Search for «travel well» attributes..
  • Next presentations
    • 2. «Travel well» and quality aspects
    • Silvia Panzavolta, ANSAS (ex-Indire)
    • 3. KlasCement engages users to share (universal) learning objects
    • Hans De Four, KlasCement
  • Why is multilingual search a challenge?
  •  
  • This is what the end user sees
    • Discovering learning resources
    • across language boundaries is challenging!
    • Main problem: the resource & its metadata description are made in a different context from where the resource is discovered and/or actually used
    The other part of the problem (?)
      • Learning resources
      • from
      • different countries
      • and
      • in different languages do not cross-reference via hyperlinks!
    Not applicable! Part of the problematics..
  • Add a rating Add a tag Can tags and social, maybe, help?
  • Social tags make digital trails visible! by Stiphy
  •  
  •  
  • Stigmergy
  • New patterns start emerging...
  • Spanish resource Tag «interactive» Finnish resource Slovakian resource Tags create link-structures between content in different languages
  • Austria Hungary Finland Resource that «Travels well» Tags create links between users in different countries (and languages)
    • Thanks to tags and “social traces”,
    • novel ways of cross-language discovery of learning resources can be thought
    • ....
    • this paves the way for recommender systems, social navigation
    • and
    • better ranking systems
    Future vision: let’s rely on new way of finding «Travel well» resources..
  • To sum up..
  • We started with the scarcity of resources
  • Then there was an abandunce of them...
  • For teachers by teachers (eQnet) Now hand-picked for you!