Study of the impact of technology in primary schools Key aspects of the study- Impact on learners Anja Balanskat
Aims   of STEPS To compare strategies To analyse impact on   To identify To provide evidence For ICT in primary schools:  ...
Approach and Methodology /1:  Analytical   framework
Approach and Methodology /2:  Multiple   perspectives   Birmingham UK Teacher survey: 18,000 interviews 60 research studie...
Approach and Methodology /3:  30 country   briefs Common  format Evidence from  national research Examples of  good practi...
Findings Sweden
Quantitative analysis Children’s access to technology is improving <ul><li>Almost all primary schools use computers </li><...
System  Digital competence part of primary curriculum Digital competence in the primary  school curriculum in 22 countries...
Impact on  learners  /1: Knowledge, skills and competences <ul><li>Teachers are positive </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and comp...
Impact on  learners  /2: Home and school use  <ul><li>Frequency of use </li></ul><ul><li>Type of activities </li></ul><ul>...
Impact on  learners  /3: The role of school  <ul><li>Balancing inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit learner potential </...
Impact on  learners  /4: Control groups <ul><ul><li>Raising skills level and performance of students in  </li></ul></ul><u...
Impact on  learners  /5:  Control groups <ul><ul><li>Test scores in science and English improve  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Impact on  learners  /6 :  Motivation, confidence and engagement in learning <ul><li>More motivated and attentive </li></u...
Impact on  learners  /7: Sophisticated and individualised assessment <ul><li>Sophisticated feedback on performance </li></...
Impact on  learners : Enablers <ul><ul><li>ICT rich constructivist learning environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia...
Impact on  learners : Enablers « In certain subjects the longer experience of   teachers with interactive whiteboards the ...
Conclusions on  Impact   <ul><li>In some areas more evidence (e.g. teacher training) </li></ul><ul><li>than in others (e.g...
Recommendations <ul><li>Increase, diversify and  </li></ul><ul><li>certify teacher education;  </li></ul><ul><li>support  ...
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Anja Balanskateminent09 Worshop A1

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  • To compare strategies for ICT in primary schools in the EU27, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway - Their impact - Future development perspectives To analyse impact on: - Learning and learners - Teachers and teaching - School development plans and strategies To identify drivers and enablers for effective ICT use To provide evidence on which to base a set of recommendations on the integration of ICT in education. The Study of the impact of technology in primary schools (STEPS) was funded by the Executive Agency of the European Commission Directorate General Education and Culture and undertaken jointly by the European Schoolnet and Empirica between January 2008 and June 2009. The main purpose of the study was to produce a comparative analysis of the main strategies for the integration of ICT in primary schools in the EU-27, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, their impact and future development perspectives. The study also aimed to contribute to identifying the impact of ICT on learning and learners, on teachers and teaching as well as on primary school development plans and strategies. It sought to identify the main drivers and enablers for effective and efficient use of ICT, and to propose recommendations on the integration of ICT in education for policy makers and stakeholders.
  • Using a common analytical framework, the evidence was further analysed, enabling key findings to be formulated. The analytical framework is the overarching framework used for the integrated analysis and presentation of the overall findings. The framework visually captures all the elements deemed necessary and represents them in a logical and concise way. The analytical framework is built around a core of teachers, learners, and the schools as a whole. The framework helps to describe the context in which ICT is introduced and implemented. The model consists of five levels: society education system school teachers learners. These levels represent where strategies, enablers and barriers can be found. The framework reads from left to right, representing not only a hierarchical flow but also a flow from strategy to impact.
  • Teacher survey on ICT in schools: Learnind data from 18,000 interviews Research knowledge base: 60 research studies and reports reviewed by Correspondents in 22 countries Policy knowledge base: completed by 30 National Correspondents School survey of good practice: 255 respondents, every country represented Case studies: 25 structured visits, 13 countries represented. Evidence for the study came from five sources and analysed in five reports: Reviews of 60 studies (up to 4 per country plus studies covering more than one country) identified and reviewed by National Correspondents (nominated by ministries of education) in 22 countries. This is the most detailed picture ever taken in terms of EU coverage on what kind of research is carried out on the impact of ICT in primary education and the results of that research Data from interviews with a representative sample of over 18 000 primary school teachers and head teachers Responses to a survey of policy-makers in 30 countries on ICT interventions and strategies in their country Responses to a school survey of good practices completed by teachers Case studies based on visits by experts to 25 schools exemplifying the impact of strategies, including lesson observation and interviews with teachers and pupils.
  • Information was compiled into 30 country reports, each 8-10 pages, containing: a summary of ICT policy an analysis of the interviews results from the research in that country examples of good practice case studies (for 13 countries).
  • Impact on: learners teachers schools primary education system. 209,866 primary schools in the 30 countries surveyed, ranging from 14 in Liechtenstein to 55,329 in France. Many of these schools are small and in isolated or rural areas: including, for example 4,285 in France and 1,185 in Finland. Compulsory schooling in the countries covered by STEPS begins between the ages of four to seven. Teacher supply, entry qualifications, conditions of work and salaries vary considerably: for example gross monthly salaries range from €200 (Romania) to €3,195 (Denmark) and among the 21 reporting countries the average was €1,630. Most primary schools are managed, funded and governed by the local municipal councils - and so data tends to be held locally and is not always available. However, even based on fragmented information, a number of core characteristics appear among primary schools in Europe: Teachers working at primary level are predominantly female Primary teachers typically stay with one class of children all day Most primary schools are free of exam pressure compared to secondary level Children are in relatively small schools. A primary school is defined as one that educates children between the ages of four and eleven (ISCED 1). The figures do not include private schools or kindergartens. A number of countries have all-age schools or combine primary and lower secondary schools in one school.
  • Almost all primary schools use computers: - At least 88% in each country have internet access - On average eight internet computers per 100 learners - 8 countries have more than 14 computers per 100 learners - 72% of the study’s 209,866 primary schools have broadband internet - In 20 countries over two-thirds of primary schools have broadband. However, large variations in ICT infrastructure across and within countries: - From 3.1 to 32 computers per 100 pupils - Smaller primary schools are disadvantaged. Interactive whiteboard provision ranges from very few to all schools. Analysis of the 2006 LearnInd data reveals that almost all primary schools use computers, at least 88% in each country having internet access and with on average eight internet computers per 100 pupils. However, there are huge variations in ICT infrastructure and connectivity across and within countries. The computer to pupil ratio ranges from Luxembourg (23 computers per 100 pupils), Denmark and Norway (18), the United Kingdom (16) and the Netherlands (15) to lower figures in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (6) and Greece and Slovakia (5). According to figures provided for the policy report the computer to pupil ratio now ranges from 3.1 to 32 per 100 pupils and that eight countries have more than 14 computers per 100 pupils (representing over 50 000 schools). 72% of the study’s 209,866 primary schools have broadband internet access and in 20 countries over two-thirds of primary schools have broadband. Interactive whiteboard provision ranges from very few (e.g. Finland, Norway) to near saturation (UK, where all primary schools have at least one). Denmark, Estonia and Norway have the highest levels of virtual learning environment use offering access from outside school. Smaller primary schools are disadvantaged in terms of equipment according to research, yet case studies show the benefits for schools in small communities are considerable.
  • Digital competence is in the primary school curriculum in 22 countries: - Either integrated across subjects (in 15 countries) - Or taught as a separate subject ICT (in 11 countries) Exceptions: - UK: ICT is used in most subjects in 94% of schools, computer science taught separately in 52% of school - Latvia: ICT is used in most subjects in 42% of schools, computer science taught separately in 97%. Digital competence features in the primary school curriculum in 22 of the 30 countries according to the policy survey, either integrated across subjects (in 15 countries) or taught as a separate subject ICT (in 11 countries). LearnInd data shows that teaching ICT as a separate subject, computer science, varies across Europe, ranging from being taught in nearly all schools in Latvia, Poland and Hungary to very few in Finland (19%) and Austria (9%). There is little evidence in the LearnInd data to suggest that teaching computer science as a separate subject implies placing less importance on ICT in other subjects. There are, however, exceptions to this observation. In the United Kingdom, ICT is used in most subjects in 94% of schools, but at the same time, computer science is taught separately in only 52% of schools. In Latvia, conversely, ICT is used in most subjects in 42% of schools and computer science is taught separately in 97%.
  • Teachers positive about the impact of ICT on learners and learning Skills and competence development are supported with ICT: - Communication - Language (first and second) - Mathematics - Science - Digital - Social and cognitive skills ICT helps children understand better the subject they are studying ICT improves schools’ ability to cater for individual needs However, learners may not have the necessary basic computer skills There is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use. Overall, there is a broad consensus among primary teachers about the positive impact of ICT on learners and learning. Research shows that a range of skills and competencies are acquired by the use of ICT: digital, communication, language (first and second), social and cognitive skills. Teachers interviewed in the LearnInd survey note a positive impact on basic skill acquisition (reading, writing, calculation) through the use of ICT and research echoes this finding. UK research shows that English, maths and science test scores improve with ICT. Many case studies highlight how ICT helps children understand the subject they are studying and caters for individual needs, although schools find it hard to isolate ICT’s contribution to test scores. However, research suggests pupils may not have the necessary basic computer skills and there is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use.
  • Teachers positive about the impact of ICT on learners and learning Skills and competence development are supported with ICT: - Communication - Language (first and second) - Mathematics - Science - Digital - Social and cognitive skills ICT helps children understand better the subject they are studying ICT improves schools’ ability to cater for individual needs However, learners may not have the necessary basic computer skills There is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use. Overall, there is a broad consensus among primary teachers about the positive impact of ICT on learners and learning. Research shows that a range of skills and competencies are acquired by the use of ICT: digital, communication, language (first and second), social and cognitive skills. Teachers interviewed in the LearnInd survey note a positive impact on basic skill acquisition (reading, writing, calculation) through the use of ICT and research echoes this finding. UK research shows that English, maths and science test scores improve with ICT. Many case studies highlight how ICT helps children understand the subject they are studying and caters for individual needs, although schools find it hard to isolate ICT’s contribution to test scores. However, research suggests pupils may not have the necessary basic computer skills and there is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use.
  • Teachers positive about the impact of ICT on learners and learning Skills and competence development are supported with ICT: - Communication - Language (first and second) - Mathematics - Science - Digital - Social and cognitive skills ICT helps children understand better the subject they are studying ICT improves schools’ ability to cater for individual needs However, learners may not have the necessary basic computer skills There is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use. Overall, there is a broad consensus among primary teachers about the positive impact of ICT on learners and learning. Research shows that a range of skills and competencies are acquired by the use of ICT: digital, communication, language (first and second), social and cognitive skills. Teachers interviewed in the LearnInd survey note a positive impact on basic skill acquisition (reading, writing, calculation) through the use of ICT and research echoes this finding. UK research shows that English, maths and science test scores improve with ICT. Many case studies highlight how ICT helps children understand the subject they are studying and caters for individual needs, although schools find it hard to isolate ICT’s contribution to test scores. However, research suggests pupils may not have the necessary basic computer skills and there is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • 87% of teachers say that pupils are more motivated and attentive with ICT Positive impact on students´ motivation, attitudes and engagement Guided, active and enquiry-based tasks with ICT are motivating Learners participate more actively in learning when ICT is used ICT impacts on group processes and collaborative learning ICT is a means to overcome low motivation, social diversity and disengagement ICT improves links between learning inside and outside school and involves parents. 87% of teachers say that pupils are more motivated and attentive with ICT according to the LearnInd data. Much of the research suggests that ICT has a positive impact on students´ motivation, attitudes and engagement, in particular that guided, active and enquiry-based tasks with ICT are motivating. A large scale comparative study shows that pupils participate more actively in learning when ICT is used. Teachers in the school survey strongly felt that ICT is a means to overcome low motivation, social diversity and disengagement. In the case studies there are examples of schools using ICT to improve links between learning inside and outside school and to involve parents, and ICT impacting on group processes and collaborative learning.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • Nine recommendations drawn from the evidence and findings gathered together in the five analytical papers of the STEPS study are made for actions at three levels: EDUCATION POLICY Ensure training (provided by credible trainers) addresses the pedagogical and practical dimension, is related to subject-specific didactics, and is personalised (incremental, on-site, tutor-based, with peer sharing of experiences). Certificate teachers’ ICT skills to boost impact and reward significant investments already made by many teachers. Demonstrate that digital skills are a priority. Highlight models of carefully selected effective and transferable practice to inspire change in the teaching workforce, a way of inspiring change in the teaching workforce. Build up the capabilities of school leaders to manage ICT and ICT-related educational change, supporting them at national, regional and local level in their decision-making through guidelines, self-review frameworks and peer learning, linked to a set of common indicators of ICT quality in teaching and learning in the school. Give policy signals that ICT can enable wider educational and economic objectives, and that ICT should be systemically embedded and mainstreamed. Make national strategies clear, coherent, enabling and structured. They should outline ways of implementation, be operational and not overly prescriptive. Specify clearly the ICT responsibilities of local authorities. Integrate ICT explicitly into the curriculum, a curriculum which is flexible, open and gives room for school-level initiative. Define the specific ICT functional skills and a set of skills and competencies developed with ICT. Aim for a culture of ‘ICT everywhere, learning everywhere’. Investigate all aspects of assessment; develop effective tools to measure ICT skills, allowing ICT use by learners in tests, and ways to assess new skills and competencies. Ensure equitable access to ICT equipment and resources, especially in small primary schools, by moving away from funding based solely on the number of students per school. Cluster remote and small schools to reduce isolation. Engage in the exchange of best practices in reaching disadvantaged schools. Support initiatives to improve the interoperability and sharing of high quality teaching and learning resources and practices in the interests of maximum exchange and deployment. SCHOOLS Capitalise on learners’ ICT skills in a variety of motivating ways for learning, by providing compelling ICT based learning opportunities at school and as extra-curricular activities, thus ensuring those who are ICT disadvantaged at home in terms of access or supervision are not further disadvantaged in school. Offer authentic and enquiry based learning tasks involving the learner more actively (including play), and use ICT for self-and peer assessment. Use the potential of ICT to support traditional and basic skills but also ‘21 st century’ skills and competencies such as learning to learn or critical thinking. Use ICT to support autonomous or self-directed learning of students, but where the teacher still stimulates, explains and supports the student. Prefer promoted independence models to models where learning is strongly controlled by the teacher or conversely where learning is organised by the pupils themselves. Integrate ICT fully into subject teaching but also use it as an interdisciplinary approach in collaborative projects. Physically locate computers in classrooms and teachers’ rooms to improve integration into subject teaching and to foster the exchange of practices. Engage with peers in the exchange of practices and resources (in subject- and topic-related working groups within and with other schools) using ICT as a driver to upgrade teachers’ professional competencies. Aim for openness and education partnerships, creating more fluid boundaries between partners in learning (school, libraries, parents and the community) during and beyond the formal school day. Use a virtual learning environment which brings together learners, teachers, management and families, resources, administration and assessment. Embed ICT into the educational vision of the school clearly showing where it can make a difference and act as a tool for change, and emphasising the positive impact of ICT to achieve a wide range of educational goals. Give incentives for teachers to use ICT and reward its use. Develop the use of technology for management, communication, administration, planning and preparation as a starting point for wider systemic change. Specify clearly roles and responsibilities for ICT and pedagogical support. RESEARCH Combine qualitative and quantitative methodologies in ICT impact studies to strengthen the current evidence base. Conduct large scale quantitative international comparative studies of primary pupils´ learning with ICT. Carry out longer-term studies on the impact of ICT on improving learning achievement, taking into account the effects of differing learning styles. Apply a range of methods to capture the effect of technology on learning, including test beds, ethnographic studies and learning from learners themselves to obtain insights into online behaviour and learning styles in different learning environments. Direct research towards the scientific evaluation of the use of ICT, its benefits and impact on outcomes, in line with the high levels of investment in infrastructure and training. Evaluate the impact of ICT on schools, including school collaboration, interdisciplinary and innovative use of ICT within projects and the school as a learning organisation. Investigate subject-specific ICT impact especially in key priority subjects such as basic skills and mathematics, science and technology and in subjects where the development of teaching materials by individual teachers is difficult and/or costly. Explore and research how quality assurance and inspection regimes are developing to take full account of ICT developments. Sustain and extend the existing knowledge base of ICT in primary education through further network activity, adding new studies and monitoring results over time regarding ICT in primary schools. Modify and apply the experience gained in the STEPS study to secondary and vocational schools (also tertiary and adult education). An evidence-based approach would shed more light on the impact of ICT in three main areas - teachers, learners and institutions - and identify the main enablers and barriers for ICT use. Develop a toolkit for indicator use by researchers, schools and policy makers. This includes achieving greater consistency across countries on definitions (e.g. broadband, a computer, e-maturity) and data collection by developing a continuous dashboard on progress on ICT use and impact on schools in Europe.
  • Anja Balanskateminent09 Worshop A1

    1. 1. Study of the impact of technology in primary schools Key aspects of the study- Impact on learners Anja Balanskat
    2. 2. Aims of STEPS To compare strategies To analyse impact on To identify To provide evidence For ICT in primary schools: in the EU27 + IS, NO, LI - Learning and learners - Teachers and teaching - School plans and strategies Barriers and enablers For recommendations
    3. 3. Approach and Methodology /1: Analytical framework
    4. 4. Approach and Methodology /2: Multiple perspectives Birmingham UK Teacher survey: 18,000 interviews 60 research studies, 22 countries Policy survey: 30 Correspondents School survey: 255 respondents 25 case studies, 13 countries
    5. 5. Approach and Methodology /3: 30 country briefs Common format Evidence from national research Examples of good practice Case studies LearnInd country analysis ICT in schools Education policy
    6. 6. Findings Sweden
    7. 7. Quantitative analysis Children’s access to technology is improving <ul><li>Almost all primary schools use computers </li></ul><ul><li>Large variation in infrastructure across and within countries </li></ul><ul><li>IWB provision ranges from very few to all schools </li></ul>- 88+% in each country have internet access - 8 internet computers per 100 learners - 8 countries have more than 14 computers per 100 learners - 72% of the primary schools have broadband internet - in 20 countries over 2/3 of primary schools have broadband - from 3.1 to 32 computers per 100 pupils - smaller primary schools are disadvantaged
    8. 8. System Digital competence part of primary curriculum Digital competence in the primary school curriculum in 22 countries Integrated across subjects (in 15 countries) Taught as a separate subject (in 11 countries)
    9. 9. Impact on learners /1: Knowledge, skills and competences <ul><li>Teachers are positive </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and competence development </li></ul><ul><li>are supported with ICT </li></ul><ul><li>ICT helps children understand better </li></ul><ul><li>ICT improves provision for </li></ul><ul><li>individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use </li></ul>
    10. 10. Impact on learners /2: Home and school use <ul><li>Frequency of use </li></ul><ul><li>Type of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learners lack certain skills </li></ul>
    11. 11. Impact on learners /3: The role of school <ul><li>Balancing inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit learner potential </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery and inquiry based learning rather </li></ul><ul><li>than highly structured exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Model of balance: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Accompanied or promoted independence” </li></ul><ul><li>(Feil, DE 2004) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Impact on learners /4: Control groups <ul><ul><li>Raising skills level and performance of students in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor disadvantaged areas, from a minority group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>starting from a lower level (HU) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gains in maths, science and English for key stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>(especially girls) (UK) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Impact on learners /5: Control groups <ul><ul><li>Test scores in science and English improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when using interactive whiteboards (UK) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital picture books develop linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>competences (NL) </li></ul><ul><li>No differences in test scores (SK) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Impact on learners /6 : Motivation, confidence and engagement in learning <ul><li>More motivated and attentive </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitude and engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on group processes and </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome low motivation, </li></ul><ul><li>social diversity and disengagement </li></ul><ul><li>Learners participate more actively </li></ul><ul><li>Guided enquiry-based tasks are motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Learning inside and outside school </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement </li></ul>
    15. 15. Impact on learners /7: Sophisticated and individualised assessment <ul><li>Sophisticated feedback on performance </li></ul><ul><li>Value of virtual learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement recorded in e-portfolios </li></ul>
    16. 16. Impact on learners : Enablers <ul><ul><li>ICT rich constructivist learning environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia rich content and variation </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of software and in coherence with </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum objectives </li></ul>
    17. 17. Impact on learners : Enablers « In certain subjects the longer experience of teachers with interactive whiteboards the greater the likelihood of positive attainment gains » « The biggest impact happens when pupils have the opportunity to use the IWB individually or in small groups rather than as part of whole class teaching »
    18. 18. Conclusions on Impact <ul><li>In some areas more evidence (e.g. teacher training) </li></ul><ul><li>than in others (e.g. schools) </li></ul>Potential of ICT Intended impact- real impact Perceived impact - measured impact Focus on the inputs (resources, equipment,) then on use, fewer on the outputs of the systems or impact
    19. 19. Recommendations <ul><li>Increase, diversify and </li></ul><ul><li>certify teacher education; </li></ul><ul><li>support change leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Build ICT into general </li></ul><ul><li>educational policies </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure access to quality </li></ul><ul><li>equipment and learning </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalise on learners’ ICT </li></ul><ul><li>competence; reduce digital </li></ul><ul><li>divides </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen pedagogical </li></ul><ul><li>use of ICT; develop an open </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge-sharing school </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit the potential of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>as a catalyst for change and </li></ul><ul><li>to fulfil wider educational </li></ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a variety of methods to </li></ul><ul><li>measure and assess the impact </li></ul><ul><li>of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Shift the research focus </li></ul><ul><li>towards the learner and the </li></ul><ul><li>school as a learning </li></ul><ul><li>organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a long-term and </li></ul><ul><li>continuous monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>on the impact of ICT in schools </li></ul>EDUCATION POLICY SCHOOLS RESEARCH
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