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How do new media change the urban public sphere? An analysis by looking at 4 historic case studies and 3 from the future.

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  1. 1. How Mobile and Digital Media are Changing Our Cities Martijn de Waal
  2. 2. Scenario 1: SoftwaretopiaBill Gates, The Magic of SoftwareThe continued growth of processing power,storage, networking, and graphics is making itpossible to create almost any device imaginable.But its the magic of software that will connectthese devices into a seamless whole, makingthem an indispensable part of our everyday lives. Bill Gates, Information Week
  3. 3. Wait-a-minute: Magic?Phil Aigre:Technology at present is covert philosophy. Thepoint is to make it more openly philosophical
  4. 4. Scenario 1I: Technopolitopia[Telelogs] could serve as a medium throughwhich individuals can communicate theirthoughts and ideas with others within theirenvironmentThis would result in a better sense ofcommunity solidarity. Telelog Research Project, 2005
  5. 5. Scenario III: Urbocalypse‘... the street is the ultimate public space andwalking along it is the defining urban experience.It is all of us--different people who lead differentlives--coming together in the urban mixingchamber.But what if half of them are elsewhere, there inbody but not in any other way?’ ‘.. Paul Goldberger
  6. 6. Introduction: What is a City 4 Case studies from the Past3 Case Studies from the Future Conclusion: what’s up?
  7. 7. Introduction: What is a City
  8. 8. Chicago School (1920s): A City Is Heterogenity & Density Mike Davis reworking the Chicago School’s Concentric Zones Theory
  9. 9. Great Cities are not like towns only larger;They are not like suburbs only denser. Jane Jacobbs The Death and Life of Great American Cities
  10. 10. They differ fromtowns and suburbs in basic ways, and one of these is that cities are by definition full of strangers. Jane Jacobbs The Death and Life of Great American Cities
  11. 11. How do we Cope? The Urban Public Sphereas a site for encounter, trust- building & confrontation
  12. 12. Historic Case Study 1The 17th Century Coffee House: the emergence of the Modern Public sphere
  13. 13. Habermas: Public Sphere emerges in C17th Coffee Houses
  14. 14. Habermas: Discussion emerged around Cultural ObjectsNewspapers address ‘issues of concern’
  15. 15. C17th Newspapers included ‘User Generated Content’
  16. 16. C17th Geography of the Public sphere
  17. 17. Historic Case Study 2The 19th Century BLVD
  18. 18. Paris BLVDs by Haussmann (1852-1870)Motives: Sanitation Modernization Crowd Control (Canon shot boulevards) Optimizing Traffic Paris BLVD network by Haussmann -
  19. 19. Paris BLVDs by Haussmann (1852-1870Outcome: Meeting Ground Cafe Culture & Terraces Mingling of Classes Pissaro Avenue de l’Opera (Musée des Beaux Art, Reims)
  20. 20. The Boulevard is the Communication Line of the 19th Century Marshal Berman All that is Solid Pissaro Avenue de l’Opera (Musée des Beaux Art, Reims)
  21. 21. BLVD as ‘Confrontation Scene’The setting that magically inspired the romance now works a contrary magic and pulls the lovers out oftheir romantic enclosure, into wider and less idyllic networks.In this new light, their personal happiness appears as class privilege. The boulevard forces them to react politically Marshal Berman All that is Solid Louis Léopold Boilly
  22. 22. BLVD as ‘Recognition Scene’ On the morning of December 4, 1876, severalhundred of the miscellaneous people on the Nevsky will suddenly coalesce into a crowd and convergecollectively on the magnificent baroque colonnade in front of the Kazzan Cathedral History’s First Flash Mob? Marshal Berman All that is Solid
  23. 23. Walter BenjaminFlaneur vs Etui-mensch
  24. 24. Historic Case Study 3 Pendrecht,Rotterdam, 1946The Neighborhood Planning Principle
  25. 25. ‘Zijn onze groote steden nog wel stedelijke gemeenschappen? Zijn zij eigenlijk niet langzamerhand geworden tot groote agglomeraties van afzonderlijk levendemenschen, die wel het verband voelen tot de sociale groep waartoe zij behooren, doch die zich buiten deze groep verloren wanen in de massa?? Burgemeester Oud, De Stad der Toekomst (1946)
  26. 26. Voor deze boodschappen kunnen de vrouwen even uitlopen in hun werkkleding (zij het zonderschort) ... het menselijk contact is voor haar hierbij van de grootste betekenis, zij stelt belang in degebeurtenissen in de kring van mensen met wie zij dagelijks in aanraking komt en zij speurt naar de samenhang en controversen tussen de winkels en bewoners van de buurt. Commissie Bos De Stad der Toekomst (1946)
  27. 27. Lotte Stam Beese:De moderne stad ... moet de mens het gevoelvan vrijheid van keuze uit vele mogelijkheden gevenOns democratisch bestel sluit de uitzondering,het niet deel zijn van, bij voorkeur uit. Wij staan in de ruimte en maken er deel vanuit
  28. 28. In eerste instantie werd niet naar een incidentele esthetische oplossing gestreefd maar de structuur van een maatschappelijkeconstellatie zelf als vormgevend element gebruikt. Lotte Stam Beese
  29. 29. Historic Case Study 4Archigram 1960s/70s The Plug-in City
  30. 30. ‘If only we can get to an architecturethat really responded to human wish as it occurred’
  31. 31. Computer City who likes it straight? who will buy what? who believes which? who lives or dies? thought, action chain response life forces balanced in tensionthe urban community the city CROWD Archigram, image: Seek / Software Exhibition Jewish Museum New York, 1970
  32. 32. [the City is a place]… where so much is happening that one activity is stimulated by all the rest. It is thecollection of everything and everyoneinto a tight space that has enabled the cross stimulus to continue. Trendsoriginated in cities. The mood of cities is frantic. It is all happening – all the time Archigram
  33. 33. ‘There is no desire to communicatewith everybody, only with those whose thoughts and feelings are related to our own’ Archigram
  34. 34. What have we learned? 4 Examples in which ‘urban publics’ emergedCity is a platform on which citizens make their lives public Infrastructure (by design or by accident) brought together citizens of different backgrounds Design & Infrastructure also act as ‘filters’
  35. 35. Now, Towards the FutureWhich new infrastructures? How do they allow us To make our lives publics And form Urban Publics?
  36. 36. WIFI RFID GSMGPS Augmented CCTV Reality
  37. 37. New Infrastructure paradigm:Smart City U-City Sentient City Real Time City IBM Smart Cities
  38. 38. Smart / Sentient / Real Time Cities: Sense what’s going on Aggregate, Store &Distribute these data Operate and Actuate IBM Smart Cities
  39. 39. Future Scenario 1The Software Sorted City
  40. 40. Chris Oakley The Catalogue
  41. 41. who likes it straight? who will buy what? who believes which? who lives or dies? thought, action chain response life forces balanced in tensionthe urban community the city CROWD
  42. 42. Future Scenario 2 The ‘Me’ City
  43. 43.
  44. 44. CitySense
  45. 45. CitySense‘Home’ through personalization Business Week
  46. 46. Flaneur vs Etui-mensch
  47. 47. Future Scenario 3 The ‘We’ City
  48. 48. Urban Tapestries Urban Tapestries
  49. 49. i500 Arch Os i500
  50. 50. ‘The visual and auditory function of theartwork reveal to the chemists aqualitative temporal experience of theirresearch.for the chemists flâneurs, enabling themto amble through the space whilstperceiving subtle rhythms orrecognising complex patterns.’ Paul Thomas -Arch Os i500
  51. 51. BLVD as ‘Recognition Scene’ Marshal Berman All that is Solid Monet, Boulevard des Capucines
  52. 52. We are like you: people, who get upevery morning to study, work or find ajob, people who have family andfriends.No political party, association or tradeunion represents us. Nor do we wantthem to, because each and every oneof us speaks for her or himself Urban Tapestries
  53. 53. Marshal Berman All that is Solid
  54. 54. Habermas: Discussion emerged around Cultural ObjectsNewspapers address ‘issues of concern’
  55. 55. UsingThe Internet of Things To bring out these ‘issues of concern’Senseable City Lab Trash Track Trash Track MIT Senseable City Lab
  56. 56. Conclusions:Capsularization through Software Sorting Living Together Apart Perhaps also new ‘hybrid’ sites for‘overlap’, ‘recognition’, ‘communal issues’
  57. 57. Thank You! The Mobile City www.themobilecity.nlEvents Blog - Research Network