European associationagroforestry dec2011_portugal_final
Agroforestry in Portugal Pics – Facts – Figures – Present – Future Contribution to the European Agroforestry Association João HN Palma, Joana A Paulo Paris, December 2011Forest Research Centre, School of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAPics “extensive” pig production Holm oak grassland
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAA FactsTextual references in legislation: • 1546 – Letter from the “sailing business” to the king, asking to avoid over cork extraction due to “wood weekneess” in cork wood • 7th August 1546 – King João III forbids cork oak cuttings for charcoal production in a region along the tagus river • “Tree Law” of 1565 determining the plantation of trees in “all adequate land” • 1605, Felipe II protects the royal forests against cuts , hunting and abusing grazing • 1783, D Maria I forbids indiscriminated tree cuttings and induced fire • 1926 Starts the “wheat campaign”, an intensive agricultural demand with depleption of trees in the land • 1986, Portugal enters in EU and in 1980‟s/1990‟s, new forest plantations occur. • 2008, Transposed EU directive 1698/2005 to Portuguese law supporting Agroforestry
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAFigures 2005 Land Use Area % Forest 3 458 557 39 Shrubland 1 926 630 22 Inland water 161 653 2 Agriculture 2 929 544 33 36% Other uses 432 050 5 of forest
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAPresent “Article 44” implemented since 2008:Aids:50% for the establishmentMaintenance premium:•Broadleaves: 160€/ha/year•Conifers: 100€/ha/yearCompensation (NON CUMULATIVE with SFP):Majoration of 1.3 in case of high quality wood (Acer pseudoplatanus, Castanea sativa, Fraxinusspp., Juglans nigra, Juglans regia, Quercus coccinea, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, Prunusavium)Max compensation per beneficiary: Farmers: 20 000 €/year, Others: 10 000 €/yearArea Farmers Other (€/ha/year) (€/ha/year)<5ha 250 125>5ha and <25ha 200 100>25ha and < 50ha 150 75>50ha 100 50
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAFutureLimitations: • Knowledge and recognition about the economic, social and ecological benefits of agroforestry systems • Knowledge about new forest-agricultural combinations possibilities. • Aids restricted to 50% in establishment. The establishment is the highest economic input, especially if the understorey is to be grazed, needing more elaborated tree protection. • Legal restrictions to the aids attribution (for example: areas must be included in a „forest management plan‟ approved by the national forest authority; minimum area of 5ha required for requesting financial support) • Land area fragmentation in North and Central Portugal • Unorganized/non established market for quality wood (saw-mill, transport, etc...) • Empirical perception on limitations in the agro component. Its profitability in an agroforestry context. • Land abandonment
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAFutureLimitations. Possible solutions: • AF systems in Portugal are often called Agro-Silvo-Pastural. Temporary grazing may be limiting factor for tree establishment. Changes should occur in the restrictions to aids attribution, in particular in the percentage of the establishment (small amount reduction in maintenance premium could correct this) as trees need stronger protection (higher initial costs). • Scientific and technical knowledge dissemination to stakeholders, especially to landowner‟s organizations which are frequently directly related to the landowner‟s decision. Spreading the word through forestry associations/organizations (Forest Intervention Areas - ZIF) • Regional market organization • Practices valuing social demands such as certification, and added values other than production
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAFutureEuropean Agroforestry Association • Discussion, exchange of ideas, networking, meetings, research networking • Lobby in the EU for the spread of AF implementation • Lobby for Biodiversity conservation/improvement and other env services in agricultural land, (supported by the EU Lisbon treaty), either by promoting the maintenance of existing traditional agroforestry (avoid tree removals under CAP „good agricultural practices‟) and exploring management approaches that maximise env services, e.g. biodiversity • Permanent plot and experimental trials inventory among European countries • Promotion of scientific knowledge transfer to stakeholders (public and private organizations, landowners) • Diffusion of economic, social and ecological benefits of AF systems, available tools for management purposes, new forest-agricultural combinations possibilities… • Fact Sheets database. Do’s and don’ts in AF. Myth explorer? • Geo photographic database of existing agroforestry. Traditional and new systems • General Information gathering.
Agroforestry in Portugal, contribution to the EAAFutureEuropean Agroforestry AssociationMakes sense!Agroforestry needs it!We needed it!Stakeholders need it!Let‟s go for it...