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People within the EU institutions and in the media dealing with EU affairs often use 'Eurojargon' words and expressions that they alone understand. In the field of EU careers, it can be very confusing to the general public, which is why the following “plain language guide” was created.

Please note: this glossary, written by András Baneth at Online EU Training, does not include purely technical or legal terms, or jargon used in only one language. Neither is it legally binding and it is purely for information purposes. Manuscript closed in May 2013.

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Epso glossary Epso glossary Document Transcript

  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossary“EU Career jargonPeople within the EU institutions and in the media dealing with EU affairs often use Eurojargonwords and expressions that they alone understand.confusing to the general public, which is whyPlease note: this glossary, written by András Baneth at Online EU Training,purely technical or legal terms, or jargon used in only one language.and it is purely for information purposes.Abstract Reasoning:One of the tests in the pre-selection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centre itself). Usinga series of images, this test requires candidatesto identify which one should be next in the row,based on an inherent logic between thepresented images. Generally, there are 10abstract reasoning questions in a competition,and the allocated time is 10 minutes.Accuracy Test:One of the tests in the pre-selection phase ofthe Assistant exams for EU careers. This testrequires candidates to identify, based on a tableand various icons, mistakes, errors, typos orother inaccuracies in a control line under aheavy time-pressure. The more inaccuracies canbe identified the usually allocated 9 minutes,the higher score the candidate gets.AD5 - AD7 - AD9:According to the Staff Regulations of EuropeanUnion civil servants, all permanent EU officialswho are in the Administrator (AD) group arecategorised into administrative grades rangifrom 1-16. For Administrators, this goes from 516 where AD5 is the entry level for graduateshttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusjargon” Explained: EPSO GlossaryPeople within the EU institutions and in the media dealing with EU affairs often use Eurojargonwords and expressions that they alone understand. In the field of EU careers, itconfusing to the general public, which is why the following “plain language guide”written by András Baneth at Online EU Training, does not includepurely technical or legal terms, or jargon used in only one language. Neither is it legally bindingpurposes. Manuscript closed in May 2013.selection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centre itself). Usingest requires candidatesto identify which one should be next in the row,based on an inherent logic between thepresented images. Generally, there are 10abstract reasoning questions in a competition,and the allocated time is 10 minutes.selection phase ofthe Assistant exams for EU careers. This testrequires candidates to identify, based on a tableand various icons, mistakes, errors, typos orother inaccuracies in a control line under apressure. The more inaccuracies canbe identified the usually allocated 9 minutes,the higher score the candidate gets.According to the Staff Regulations of EuropeanUnion civil servants, all permanent EU officialswho are in the Administrator (AD) group arecategorised into administrative grades ranging16. For Administrators, this goes from 5-16 where AD5 is the entry level for graduateswith little or no work experience and AD16 isthe highest level in the hierarchic system.A head of unit, who is the manager of a teamcomprising anything betwadministrators and assistants, must have atleast AD9 grade. A Director-General, who is theadministrative head of a directorate (DG), hasthe administrative ranking of AD15 or AD16.European Commissioners, however, are notranked according to this system since theirnomination is advanced by EU Member Stategovernments and they are not permanentofficials recruited by EPSO.Administrators (AD):European permanent officials, whorecruited by the European Personnel SelectionOffice (EPSO) are categorised into Administrator(AD) and Assistant (AST) groups. Administratorsmust have a college or university diplomaissued on the basis of at least 3 years of studies,and they must have passed a recruitmentcompetition to be given an openpermanent contract. There are other criteriathat need to be met, see the article onAdmission criteria.1: EPSO GlossaryPeople within the EU institutions and in the media dealing with EU affairs often use EurojargonIn the field of EU careers, it can be veryn language guide” was created.does not includeNeither is it legally bindingwith little or no work experience and AD16 islevel in the hierarchic system.A head of unit, who is the manager of a teamcomprising anything between 8-30administrators and assistants, must have atGeneral, who is theadministrative head of a directorate (DG), hasthe administrative ranking of AD15 or AD16.European Commissioners, however, are nots system since theirnomination is advanced by EU Member Stategovernments and they are not permanentEuropean permanent officials, who had beenrecruited by the European Personnel SelectionOffice (EPSO) are categorised into Administrator(AD) and Assistant (AST) groups. Administratorsmust have a college or university diplomaissued on the basis of at least 3 years of studies,must have passed a recruitmentcompetition to be given an open-endedpermanent contract. There are other criteriathat need to be met, see the article on
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryAdmission Criteria:To become an EU official, applicants must meetsome basic criteria (apart from the specificrequirements for any given competition). Theseinclude a citizenship requirement (must becitizens of one of the European Unions 27Member States or in case of competitionslinked to accession, e.g. Croatia, they must havethe given specified citizenship); must have fullrights as a citizen (no criminal record); mustmeet the character requirements of being anEU official (a general rule for proper behavioappearance, ethical standards etc.); must speakat least 2 official EU languages (one fluently, theother one on a strong conversation level); musthave fulfilled all requirements of the militaryservice (if relevant in the given country).Admission Test:See Pre-selection tests.Age Limit:There is no age limit to apply for EU careers andjobs, however, the maximum age is determinedby the retirement limits provided by the StaffRegulations of EU officials, which is 65 yin some special cases and on an individual basis,even before that). The minimum age is notdetermined either given the fact that to meetthe formal criteria, candidates are certain to beat least 18 years old.Analysis and Problem Solving:This competency is one of the 7 that EPSO isevaluating in candidates via the AssessmentCentre exercises and exams. To achieve a goodscore in this competency, candidates mustdemonstrate they can quickly understandcomplex files (e.g. in the Case study), are able topropose viable solutions and practicalapproaches to the matters outlined therein, andbe able to separate key elements andinformation from irrelevant data.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusTo become an EU official, applicants must meetsome basic criteria (apart from the specificrequirements for any given competition). Theseinclude a citizenship requirement (must becitizens of one of the European Unions 27ase of competitionslinked to accession, e.g. Croatia, they must havethe given specified citizenship); must have fullrights as a citizen (no criminal record); mustmeet the character requirements of being anEU official (a general rule for proper behaviour,appearance, ethical standards etc.); must speakat least 2 official EU languages (one fluently, theother one on a strong conversation level); musthave fulfilled all requirements of the militaryservice (if relevant in the given country).There is no age limit to apply for EU careers andjobs, however, the maximum age is determinedby the retirement limits provided by the StaffRegulations of EU officials, which is 65 years (orin some special cases and on an individual basis,even before that). The minimum age is notdetermined either given the fact that to meetthe formal criteria, candidates are certain to beThis competency is one of the 7 that EPSO isevaluating in candidates via the AssessmentCentre exercises and exams. To achieve a goodscore in this competency, candidates mustdemonstrate they can quickly understandcomplex files (e.g. in the Case study), are able topropose viable solutions and practicalapproaches to the matters outlined therein, andbe able to separate key elements andAppeal (or Complaint):If a decision by the EPSO Selection board isconsidered to be unlawful, candidates cansubmit an appeal or a complaint against suchdecision based on the Staff Reguofficials (e.g.. if the selection board has notaccepted a diploma or other qualification asrelevant to the exam profile and consequentlydisqualified an applicant). The Europeanombudsman also receives claims but those arelimited to maladministration, which essentiallymeans that the candidate challenges the rulesrather than the individual decision.Assessment Centre (or Assessment Center)A common method of personnel selection inthe public and private sector that has proven tobe one of the best ways to find suitableemployees for a given position. EPSOintroduced Assessment Centres (ACas part of the reformed EU recruitment systemso that candidates are evaluated on the basis oftheir competencies instead of solely on thebasis of their specific knowledge. AssessmentCentres are used for all profiles includingAdministrators, Assistants, Linguists andSpecialists on all levels: entry level, head of unitand even directors or directorThe Assessment Centre is alwaysBrussels (travel and accommodation costs arereimbursed) where a number of trainedassessors, who are usually seconded EU officialsfrom various directorates and EU institutions,evaluate candidates in the different exercisesduring a full day. The tests depends on thegiven competition one is sitting, neverthelessthey generally include a Structured interview, aGroup exercise, an Oral presentation, a Casestudy and in some cases, a professiotest or translation.2If a decision by the EPSO Selection board isconsidered to be unlawful, candidates cansubmit an appeal or a complaint against suchdecision based on the Staff Regulations of EUofficials (e.g.. if the selection board has notaccepted a diploma or other qualification asrelevant to the exam profile and consequentlydisqualified an applicant). The Europeanombudsman also receives claims but those areinistration, which essentiallymeans that the candidate challenges the rulesrather than the individual decision.Assessment Centre (or Assessment Center):A common method of personnel selection inthe public and private sector that has proven tof the best ways to find suitableemployees for a given position. EPSOintroduced Assessment Centres (AC-s) in 2010as part of the reformed EU recruitment systemso that candidates are evaluated on the basis oftheir competencies instead of solely on thesis of their specific knowledge. AssessmentCentres are used for all profiles includingAdministrators, Assistants, Linguists andSpecialists on all levels: entry level, head of unitdirectors or director-generals.The Assessment Centre is always held inBrussels (travel and accommodation costs arereimbursed) where a number of trainedassessors, who are usually seconded EU officialsfrom various directorates and EU institutions,evaluate candidates in the different exercisestests depends on thegiven competition one is sitting, neverthelessthey generally include a Structured interview, aGroup exercise, an Oral presentation, a Casestudy and in some cases, a professional skills
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryFor those Specialist exams where the number ofapplicants has not reached a certain threshold(e.g. 600 applicants), the pre-selection testscomprising abstract, verbal and numericalreasoning tests are held as part of theAssessment Centre instead of being held a fewweeks or months earlier.Assistants (AST):European permanent officials, who had beenrecruited by the European Personnel SelectionOffice (EPSO) are categorised into Administrator(AD) and Assistant (AST) groups. Assistant musthave a high school or vocational schoolqualification and may or may not possessprofessional experience.For AST3, however, professional experience orhigher level qualification is required as thereare AST3 positions coverinmanagement, project management,communication or other related issues.All permanent officials, however, must pass arecruitment competition to be given an openended permanent contract. There are othercriteria that need to be met, see theAdmission criteria.AST1 - AST3:According to the Staff Regulations of EuropeanUnion civil servants, all permanent EU officialswho are in the Assistant (AST) group arecategorised into administrative grades rangingfrom 1-16. For Assistants, this goes from 1where AST1 is the entry level for secretarialtasks with little or no work experience andAST11 is the highest level in the hisystem for Assistants.A senior executive assistant, who is themanager of a team comprising other assistants(or even administrators), is usually at least AST5http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreuss where the number ofapplicants has not reached a certain thresholdselection testscomprising abstract, verbal and numericalreasoning tests are held as part of theAssessment Centre instead of being held a fewEuropean permanent officials, who had beenrecruited by the European Personnel SelectionOffice (EPSO) are categorised into Administrator(AST) groups. Assistant musthave a high school or vocational schoolqualification and may or may not possessFor AST3, however, professional experience orhigher level qualification is required as thereare AST3 positions covering financialmanagement, project management,communication or other related issues.All permanent officials, however, must pass arecruitment competition to be given an open-ended permanent contract. There are othercriteria that need to be met, see the article onAccording to the Staff Regulations of EuropeanUnion civil servants, all permanent EU officialswho are in the Assistant (AST) group areinto administrative grades ranging16. For Assistants, this goes from 1-11where AST1 is the entry level for secretarialtasks with little or no work experience andAST11 is the highest level in the hierarchictive assistant, who is themanager of a team comprising other assistants(or even administrators), is usually at least AST5or higher. From AST3 onwards, a domainknowledge or other specific qualification isrequired, e.g. for project management, ICTcoordination or other types of assistantpositions.Auditor:This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3auditor profile announced for more technicalpositions. Auditors are required to have arelevant diploma, which is nevertheless notlimited to audit studies but any other that isclosely associated with the tasks of an auditor.Decision is always made by the Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma.Case Study:One of the exercises in the EPSO AssessmentCentre for Administrators is to complete acomplex cases study task. This meansexam candidates (including Specialists) aregiven a comprehensive background file whichthey need to quickly read through and answer2-4 open-ended questions.The answers need to be written on paper, ormore recently, on a computer screen, andreflect the candidates understanding of thedata, issues at stake, ideas and positions thatare outlined in the background file.The main competency that is assessed in thecase study is the domain-specific knowledge(which can be demonstrated by adding manyreferences to EU institutions, procedures,technical terms, industry jargon, expressionsand notions that reflect the candidatesknowledge of his or her field), along with theanalysis and problem solving, prioorganising skills.3or higher. From AST3 onwards, a domainknowledge or other specific qualification isrequired, e.g. for project management, ICTdination or other types of assistantThis is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3auditor profile announced for more technicalpositions. Auditors are required to have arelevant diploma, which is nevertheless notlimited to audit studies but any other that isclosely associated with the tasks of an auditor.he Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma.One of the exercises in the EPSO AssessmentCentre for Administrators is to complete acomplex cases study task. This means that ADexam candidates (including Specialists) aregiven a comprehensive background file whichthey need to quickly read through and answerThe answers need to be written on paper, ormore recently, on a computer screen, andect the candidates understanding of thedata, issues at stake, ideas and positions thatutlined in the background file.The main competency that is assessed in thespecific knowledge(which can be demonstrated by adding manyreferences to EU institutions, procedures,technical terms, industry jargon, expressionsand notions that reflect the candidatesknowledge of his or her field), along with theanalysis and problem solving, prioritising and
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCommunication skills are also assessed to acertain degree, given the written expressionnature of the exercise.CAST (Contract Agent for Specific Tasks)CAST exams refer to the EU competitions thataim to recruit contract agents, though theprimary purpose of the competition is to createa pool of eligible candidates who can be calledin at short notice if and when a position needsto be filled due to increased workload, coverifor maternity leave or other reasons.CAST exams tend to have only a single round inwhich only verbal and numerical reasoning testsneed to be passed by applicants, though CASTexams for translators also include a secondround in which a translation must be made bythose who have passed the pre-selection phase.The salary of contract agents depends on whichFunction group they are placed in. If it isfunction group IV, the salary is quitecomparable to that of an AD5 official, that is,around 4000 euros net per month, dependingon various circumstances.Committee of the Regions:One of the EU advisory bodies representing theinterest of European regions and localauthorities that is based in Brussels, along withthe Economic and Social Committee.It is EPSO that recruits officials for positions inthe Committee of Regions, along with other EUinstitutions and bodies. It is interesting to notethat the Committee of the Regions and theEconomic and Social Committee share theadministrative services, including translationand interpretation services, which maytherefore affect employment opportunities.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusskills are also assessed to acertain degree, given the written expressionCAST (Contract Agent for Specific Tasks):e EU competitions thataim to recruit contract agents, though theprimary purpose of the competition is to createa pool of eligible candidates who can be calledin at short notice if and when a position needsto be filled due to increased workload, coveringfor maternity leave or other reasons.CAST exams tend to have only a single round inwhich only verbal and numerical reasoning testsneed to be passed by applicants, though CASTexams for translators also include a secondust be made byselection phase.The salary of contract agents depends on whichFunction group they are placed in. If it isfunction group IV, the salary is quitecomparable to that of an AD5 official, that is,s net per month, dependingrepresenting theinterest of European regions and localauthorities that is based in Brussels, along withthe Economic and Social Committee.It is EPSO that recruits officials for positions inthe Committee of Regions, along with other EUbodies. It is interesting to notethat the Committee of the Regions and theEconomic and Social Committee share theadministrative services, including translationand interpretation services, which maytherefore affect employment opportunities.Communicating:One of the 7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the Case study andGroup exercise.Competencies:The generic name for the 7 skills and abilitiesthat are measured throughout the EPSOAssessment Centres various tests, such as theGroup exercise, Case study and others.Competencies in an EU context are thefollowing: analysis and problem solving,communicating, delivering quality and results,learning and development, prioritising andorganising, resilience and working with others.Administrators are evaluated on one morecompetency, namely that of leadership.Competency Passport:A written document that EPSOrecruitment selection procedure is finished. Itincludes a full evaluation of the candidatescompetencies based on the matrix EPSO hascreated. For successful candidates, it becomespart of their EU official personal profile so thatfuture training needs can be plannedaccordingly. For unsuccessful candidates, itserves as a benchmark report so they can drawindividual conclusions and improve whereneeded.Competition Stages and TimingEU competitions are split into two main stages,namely the pre-selection part and theAssessment Centre part. For certain Specialistexams, the two stages may be held in one singleday or two consecutive days, but wheneverthere are lots (more than 600) applicants, thepre-selection takes places shortly after the4One of the 7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the Case study and theThe generic name for the 7 skills and abilitiesthat are measured throughout the EPSOAssessment Centres various tests, such as thestudy and others.Competencies in an EU context are thefollowing: analysis and problem solving,communicating, delivering quality and results,learning and development, prioritising andorganising, resilience and working with others.aluated on one morecompetency, namely that of leadership.A written document that EPSO issues after therecruitment selection procedure is finished. Itincludes a full evaluation of the candidatescompetencies based on the matrix EPSO hascreated. For successful candidates, it becomespart of their EU official personal profile so thate training needs can be plannedaccordingly. For unsuccessful candidates, itserves as a benchmark report so they can drawindividual conclusions and improve whereompetition Stages and Timing:EU competitions are split into two main stages,selection part and theAssessment Centre part. For certain Specialistexams, the two stages may be held in one singleday or two consecutive days, but wheneverre are lots (more than 600) applicants, theselection takes places shortly after the
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryapplication closes, and there is a 2-between the pre-selection test and theAssessment Centre.The timeline usually goes as follows:1. Exam announced on day X (published inthe Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion)2. Applications can be done online via theEuropean Personnel Selection Office(EPSO) website until 20-30 days afterday X3. The pre-selection exam (if there is one)can be taken in the period thatabout 45 days after day X and lastsaround 4-6 weeks (estimated dates,may vary for each exam)4. The Assessment Centre is held in theperiod that starts about 6 months afterday X and lasts about 2 months,depending on the number of candidates5. The reserve list (names of candidateswho have passed the exam and arerecruitable) comes out in about 9months after day X - Please note thatthe times may vary according to theexam type, but this is a generaloverview of the EU exam timeline.Complaint:See Appeal.Computer Based Tests:Since 2010, EPSO has been administering allpre-selection tests on a computer in order toenhance reliability, efficiency and accuracy ofthe exams. This also ensures that candidatesare assessed on an equal and nondiscriminatory basis and there is no national,gender or other bias in the selection methods.For generalist competitions (Administrators,http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreus-3 month gapselection test and theThe timeline usually goes as follows:y X (published inthe Official Journal of the EuropeanApplications can be done online via theEuropean Personnel Selection Office30 days afterselection exam (if there is one)can be taken in the period that startsabout 45 days after day X and lasts6 weeks (estimated dates,The Assessment Centre is held in theperiod that starts about 6 months afterday X and lasts about 2 months,depending on the number of candidateserve list (names of candidateswho have passed the exam and arerecruitable) comes out in about 9Please note thatthe times may vary according to theexam type, but this is a generaloverview of the EU exam timeline.has been administering allselection tests on a computer in order toenhance reliability, efficiency and accuracy ofthe exams. This also ensures that candidatesare assessed on an equal and non-discriminatory basis and there is no national,other bias in the selection methods.For generalist competitions (Administrators,Assistants, Linguists) EPSO many times usescomputer based tests for the Case Studyexercise and/or for the Professional skills testsas well.The downside of computer basedcandidates cannot highlight, circle or mark partsof the question, though for numerical reasoningtests and on-screen and a physical calculator isoffered.Computer Literacy Test:This test is part of the Assistant (usually AST1,secretary) exam in which candidates are askedquestions on their knowledge of MicrosoftOffice software. This general includes Excel,Word, PowerPoint, along with other computerskills such as online awareness, internet securitybasics, e-mail rules and Outlook literacy,keyboard shortcuts and similar items.Concours:The generally used French equivalent for EUrecruitment exams, meaning "competition",referring to the competitive nature of the EUselection procedures. The reason for thiscompetition is that in all cases there are 2factors that are considered when drawing upreserve lists: each exam has an objective passmark which is usually 50-70% of the total scoresof the given exercise to pass, otherwise thecandidate is ejected from the exam (e.g. averbal reasoning exam may have 20 total pointsof which 10 must be obtained at minimum),while the second benchmark is aachieving candidates of whom only the top xwill be invited to the Assessment centre or willbe placed on the reserve list of eligiblelaureates.Given that the pre-2010 EPSO system had beenbased on the French administrative5Assistants, Linguists) EPSO many times usescomputer based tests for the Case Studyexercise and/or for the Professional skills testsThe downside of computer based tests is thatcandidates cannot highlight, circle or mark partsof the question, though for numerical reasoningscreen and a physical calculator isThis test is part of the Assistant (usually AST1,secretary) exam in which candidates are askedquestions on their knowledge of MicrosoftOffice software. This general includes Excel,Word, PowerPoint, along with other computerls such as online awareness, internet securitymail rules and Outlook literacy,keyboard shortcuts and similar items.The generally used French equivalent for EUexams, meaning "competition",referring to the competitive nature of the EUselection procedures. The reason for thiscompetition is that in all cases there are 2factors that are considered when drawing upreserve lists: each exam has an objective pass70% of the total scoresof the given exercise to pass, otherwise thecandidate is ejected from the exam (e.g. averbal reasoning exam may have 20 total pointsof which 10 must be obtained at minimum),while the second benchmark is a list of the bestachieving candidates of whom only the top xwill be invited to the Assessment centre or willrve list of eligible2010 EPSO system had beenbased on the French administrative
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryexamination system, even Englishwould refer to the exams as "concours"Contract Agent:Contract agents, similarly to temporary agents,are EU personnel working for any EU institutionon a fixed-term contract. According EPSO andthe EU civil service portal, there are two sucategories of contract agent.The first covers those who are hired to work: inCommission Directorates-General to do manualor administrative support-service tasks; inCommission Offices attached to a DirectorateGeneral, such as the two Offices forInfrastructure and Logistics in Brussels andLuxembourg and the Paymasters Office; inAgencies; in Commission Representations andDelegations. Contract agent of this type enjoylonger-term employment prospects, with aninitial contract running for a maximum period offive years and renewable for a maximum of fiveyears.The contract can be converted into a contract ofindefinite duration. The second subcovers contract agents that can be hired towork in Commissions DGs dealing with othertasks than manual and administrative supporttasks. That is to say, they are recruited:temporarily to replace officials absent due toillness, maternity leave, etc.; as a response toacute staff shortages at times of intense workpressure; to undertake work for a temporaryperiod providing additional capacity inspecialised fields where officials with therequired skills are not available.Contract agent of this type has shortemployment prospects, working on the basis ofcontracts running up to a maximum of threeyears. The minimum length of contract is threemonths.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreussystem, even English-speakersefer to the exams as "concours".Contract agents, similarly to temporary agents,are EU personnel working for any EU institutionterm contract. According EPSO andthe EU civil service portal, there are two sub-The first covers those who are hired to work: inGeneral to do manualservice tasks; inmmission Offices attached to a Directorate-General, such as the two Offices forInfrastructure and Logistics in Brussels andLuxembourg and the Paymasters Office; inAgencies; in Commission Representations andDelegations. Contract agent of this type enjoyterm employment prospects, with aninitial contract running for a maximum period ofle for a maximum of fiveThe contract can be converted into a contract ofindefinite duration. The second sub-categoryagents that can be hired towork in Commissions DGs dealing with othertasks than manual and administrative supporttasks. That is to say, they are recruited:temporarily to replace officials absent due toillness, maternity leave, etc.; as a response toacute staff shortages at times of intense workpressure; to undertake work for a temporaryperiod providing additional capacity inspecialised fields where officials with theContract agent of this type has short-termemployment prospects, working on the basis ofcontracts running up to a maximum of threeyears. The minimum length of contract is threeCouncil of the European UnioThe Council of the European Union (also knownas Council of the EU, Council of Ministers orsimply Council) is one of EPSOs clientinstitutions to which they recruit EU officials.However, the Council has one of the smalleststaff among EU institutions given the fact that itis the "hub" of national governments, thereforeits own Secretariat employs a limited number ofEU officials in its sectoral services, legal service,communication staff and other areas. Thenumber of Council staff has been reducedto the creation of the European External ActionService (EEAS) in December 2010.CV Sift:For Specialist exams, EPSO applies the methodof "CV sift", which essentially means thatcandidates CVs are manually checked and readto ensure that only those who qualify for thegiven position will be invited to sit theexamination. As opposed to generalAdministrator or Assistant exams, the CV siftfocuses on specific diplomas, work experience,industry knowledge or language skills that onlya limited number of candidates are likely topossess.The CV sift is partly based on the TalentScreener, which is an online system in whichcandidates provide self-declared answersregarding their work experienceor knowledge (e.g. ability to give a publicspeech, draft a note or work experience in thefield of environmental impact assessment etc.),which is then evaluated individually for eachcandidate by the selection board of the givenEU exam.Delivering Quality and ResultsOne of the key competencies EPSO evaluates inthe Assessment Centre, similarly to organising6Council of the European Union:The Council of the European Union (also knownas Council of the EU, Council of Ministers orsimply Council) is one of EPSOs clientinstitutions to which they recruit EU officials.However, the Council has one of the smallestgiven the fact that itis the "hub" of national governments, thereforeits own Secretariat employs a limited number ofEU officials in its sectoral services, legal service,communication staff and other areas. Thenumber of Council staff has been reduced dueto the creation of the European External ActionService (EEAS) in December 2010.For Specialist exams, EPSO applies the methodof "CV sift", which essentially means thatCVs are manually checked and readto ensure that only those who qualify for thegiven position will be invited to sit theexamination. As opposed to generalAdministrator or Assistant exams, the CV siftfocuses on specific diplomas, work experience,try knowledge or language skills that onlyndidates are likely toThe CV sift is partly based on the TalentScreener, which is an online system in whichdeclared answersregarding their work experience, specific skillsor knowledge (e.g. ability to give a publicspeech, draft a note or work experience in thefield of environmental impact assessment etc.),which is then evaluated individually for eachcandidate by the selection board of the givenDelivering Quality and Results:One of the key competencies EPSO evaluates inthe Assessment Centre, similarly to organising
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryand prioritising and other skills. It is mostthe case study and the oral presentation thatthis competency is tested: candidates mustdemonstrate that they are not only able toidentify a problem or analyse a complex file butthey can come with actionable, specificproposal or plans as a result of their exercise.Diploma Requirements:The minimum qualification required to sit an EUcompetition and become an EU official varieswhether it is an Assistant (AST1 or AST3) examor an Administrator (AD). For Administrators, auniversity diploma of at least 3 years (Bachelorlevel) is the absolute minimum requirement,while for Assistants in the AST1 (entry level), nodiploma is required other than a high school orvocational school certificate (though for AST1who have no specialised education, generally 3years of work experience is needed).For AST3 level, a university diploma is notrequired if the candidate possesses a highschool level education and 6 years of relevantwork experience, otherwise a diploma isneeded (usually in field that is relevant to thetopic of the competition, e.g. projectmanagement or audit) with only 3 years of workexperience. The diploma must be recognized byan EU member states public authority.Disqualification:Candidates may be disqualified in case theyprovide false or intentionally inaccurateinformation, such as their basic qualification,citizenship, diploma or other inforcandidate does not show up in the test centre,he or she can also be disqualified, similarly towhen a candidate fails to submit documentsdespite being requested to do so by EPSO, orbreach the rules of the exam in the test centreor in the Assessment Centre by usinghttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusand prioritising and other skills. It is mostly inthe case study and the oral presentation thatthis competency is tested: candidates mustdemonstrate that they are not only able toidentify a problem or analyse a complex file butthey can come with actionable, specificof their exercise.The minimum qualification required to sit an EUcompetition and become an EU official varieswhether it is an Assistant (AST1 or AST3) examor an Administrator (AD). For Administrators, auniversity diploma of at least 3 years (Bachelorlevel) is the absolute minimum requirement,while for Assistants in the AST1 (entry level), nodiploma is required other than a high school orl certificate (though for AST1who have no specialised education, generally 3of work experience is needed).For AST3 level, a university diploma is notrequired if the candidate possesses a highschool level education and 6 years of relevantexperience, otherwise a diploma isneeded (usually in field that is relevant to thetopic of the competition, e.g. projectmanagement or audit) with only 3 years of workexperience. The diploma must be recognized byan EU member states public authority.Candidates may be disqualified in case theyprovide false or intentionally inaccurateinformation, such as their basic qualification,citizenship, diploma or other information. If acandidate does not show up in the test centre,he or she can also be disqualified, similarly towhen a candidate fails to submit documentsdespite being requested to do so by EPSO, orbreach the rules of the exam in the test centressessment Centre by usingunauthorised external help, mobile devices orother.An appeal may be launched against anydisqualification in the normal way, ie. by filing acomplaint to the selection board and/or to theEuropean Ombudsman.Economic and Social CommitteeOne of the EU advisory bodies representing theinterest of European regions and localauthorities that is based in Brussels, along withthe Committee of the Regions. It is EPSO thatrecruits officials for positions in the Economicand Social Committee, along with theCommittee of Regions and other EU institutionsand bodies.It is interesting to note that the Committee ofthe Regions and the EconoCommittee share the administrative services,including translation and interpretationservices, which may therefore affectemployment opportunities.Economist:This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3economist or economicsannounced for more technical positions.Economists are required to have a relevantdiploma, which is nevertheless not limited tostudies in economics in a strict sense but anyother subject that is closely associated with thetasks of an economist is also acceptable.Decision is always made by the Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma.EPSO:See European Personnel Selection Office7help, mobile devices orAn appeal may be launched against anydisqualification in the normal way, ie. by filing acomplaint to the selection board and/or to theEconomic and Social Committee:One of the EU advisory bodies representing theinterest of European regions and localauthorities that is based in Brussels, along withittee of the Regions. It is EPSO thatrecruits officials for positions in the Economicand Social Committee, along with theCommittee of Regions and other EU institutionsIt is interesting to note that the Committee ofthe Regions and the Economic and SocialCommittee share the administrative services,including translation and interpretationservices, which may therefore affectprofiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3economist or economics-related profileannounced for more technical positions.Economists are required to have a relevantnevertheless not limited tostudies in economics in a strict sense but anyother subject that is closely associated with thetasks of an economist is also acceptable.Decision is always made by the Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma.European Personnel Selection Office.
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryEPSO Account (or EPSO Profile):Each candidate to EU competitions needs toregister in two ways: you need to create anonline account on EPSOs website in which youprovide information about yourself, yourqualifications, language knowledge and otherrelevant information. Secondly, you need toapply for a specific exam that is currently open.All this information is shown in your EPSOaccount (or profile) so you can consult it at anymoment, update contact information if neededand this is where EU institutions take theinformation from when they need it.EPSO Address:EPSO s official address is European PersonnelSelection Office, Candidate contact service,Office C-25 5/34, B-1049 Brussels. The phonenumber is by phone: on +32 (0)2.299.31.31. TheAssessment Centre is located at the corner ofRue Stevin and Avenue Cortenbergh in Brussels,Belgium.E-tray Exercise (or In-tray Exercise)The electronic, computerised version of the intray exercise simulates a work environment ona computer where e-mails need to be read,sorted and responded to in a timely manner.This test is used for Assistant (AST) exams in theAssessment Centre phase, mainly for AST1exams (secretaries) but possibly for other ASTprofiles as well.EU Careers:See European Personnel Selection OfficeEU Competition:See EU Recruitment Exam.EU Exams:See EU Recruitment Exam.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusEach candidate to EU competitions needs toregister in two ways: you need to create anonline account on EPSOs website in which youprovide information about yourself, yourwledge and otherrelevant information. Secondly, you need toapply for a specific exam that is currently open.All this information is shown in your EPSOaccount (or profile) so you can consult it at anymoment, update contact information if neededis is where EU institutions take theinformation from when they need it.EPSO s official address is European PersonnelSelection Office, Candidate contact service,1049 Brussels. The phoney phone: on +32 (0)2.299.31.31. TheAssessment Centre is located at the corner ofenbergh in Brussels,tray Exercise):The electronic, computerised version of the in-tray exercise simulates a work environment onmails need to be read,sorted and responded to in a timely manner.This test is used for Assistant (AST) exams in theAssessment Centre phase, mainly for AST1exams (secretaries) but possibly for other ASTEuropean Personnel Selection Office.EU Institutions:The European Personnel Selection Office (EPSO)is the centralised recruiting arm of all EUinstitutions such as the European Commission,the European Parliament, the Council ofMinisters, the European Court of Auditors, theEuropean Ombudsman, the European Ecoand Social Committee, the Committee of theRegions, and the European Court of Justice. Itdoes not recruit, however, for EU agencieslocated in Member States, nor does it recruitfor the European Central Bank or the EuropeanInvestment Bank.EU Jobs:EU or European Union jobs can be mainly splitinto those in which employees work for EUinstitutions directly, and those in thsector which are nevertheless working in closecooperation with these institutions, such asresearch, academia, consultancy, dipposts and other fields.presentation of EU jobs and learn how to gainemployment, please read taccessible via the link below.EU Officials:Anyone who has passed recruitment exams viaEPSO and was placed on the reserve list iseligible for an EU job in one of the EUinstitutions. Becoming an AD or AST levelEuropean official means a permanentemployment contract that is covered by theStaff Regulations which spells out the rights andobligations of EU civil servants.EU Recruitment Exam:See Concours.Europass CV:A special CV format that is suggested to be usedby European employers and job seekers, the8European Personnel Selection Office (EPSO)is the centralised recruiting arm of all EUinstitutions such as the European Commission,the European Parliament, the Council ofMinisters, the European Court of Auditors, theEuropean Ombudsman, the European Economicand Social Committee, the Committee of theRegions, and the European Court of Justice. Itdoes not recruit, however, for EU agencieslocated in Member States, nor does it recruitfor the European Central Bank or the EuropeanEU or European Union jobs can be mainly splitinto those in which employees work for EUinstitutions directly, and those in the privatesector which are nevertheless working in closecooperation with these institutions, such asresearch, academia, consultancy, diplomaticposts and other fields. For a detailedpresentation of EU jobs and learn how to gainemployment, please read the free e-bookAnyone who has passed recruitment exams viaEPSO and was placed on the reserve list iseligible for an EU job in one of the EUtitutions. Becoming an AD or AST levelEuropean official means a permanentemployment contract that is covered by theStaff Regulations which spells out the rights andobligations of EU civil servants.A special CV format that is suggested to be usedmployers and job seekers, the
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossarytemplate of which can be downloaded from thelink below.European Central Bank:Based in Frankfurt and responsible for themonetary policy of Eurozone countries, the ECBrecruits its staff independently of EPSO.European Commission:The European Commission, the largest client ofEPSO in terms of recruitment targets, employssome 32000 permanent officials and severalthousand more temporary agents and contractagents in Brussels, Luxembourg and around theworld.European Court of Auditors:The European Court of Auditors, based inLuxembourg, is a relatively small institution, butall its staff is recruited via EPSO.European Court of Justice:The European Court of Justice, based inLuxembourg, employs a large number oflawyer-linguists, along with others who work inthe secretariat of the Court. EPSO regularlyrecruits EU staff for the Court.European Data Protection SupervisorThe European Data Protection Supervisor is asmall entity compared to other EPSO clients butoccasionally there are specialist or generalist(lawyer) exams organised by EPSO to recruit forthe EDPS.European External Action Service (EEAS)As a main rule, the European External ActionService (EEAS) comprises national diplomatsdesignated via their national channels, formerofficials from the Council of Ministers and fromthe European Commission. EPSO, however, mayhttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreustemplate of which can be downloaded from theBased in Frankfurt and responsible for themonetary policy of Eurozone countries, the ECBrecruits its staff independently of EPSO.largest client ofEPSO in terms of recruitment targets, employssome 32000 permanent officials and severalthousand more temporary agents and contractagents in Brussels, Luxembourg and around theThe European Court of Auditors, based inLuxembourg, is a relatively small institution, butThe European Court of Justice, based inLuxembourg, employs a large number oflinguists, along with others who work inthe secretariat of the Court. EPSO regularlyEuropean Data Protection Supervisor:The European Data Protection Supervisor is asmall entity compared to other EPSO clients butoccasionally there are specialist or generalister) exams organised by EPSO to recruit forEuropean External Action Service (EEAS):As a main rule, the European External Actionational diplomatsdesignated via their national channels, formerofficials from the Council of Ministers and fromthe European Commission. EPSO, however, mayorganise competitions for the EEAS is the nearfuture.European Ombudsman:The European Ombudsman, similarly to theEuropean Data Protection Supervisor, is a smallentity with a few dozen EU officials inStrasbourg. Their posts are neverthelvia EPSO competitions.European Parliament:The bulk of the European Parliaments staff isrecruited directly by the Members of theEuropean Parliament (MEPs) and givetemporary contract that is now under the StaffRegulations, however, there are a few thousandpermanent jobs at the EP that are filled in viaEPSO recruitment exams.European Personnel Selection Office (EPSO)The European Personnel Selection Office(EPSO), created in 2003, is the centralisedrecruiting arm of all EU institutions such as theEuropean Commission, the Council of Ministers,the European Parliament, the European Courtof Auditors, the European Ombudsman, theEuropean Economic and Social Committee, theCommittee of the Regions, and the EuropeanCourt of Justice. It does not recruit, however,for EU agencies located in Member States, nordoes it recruit for the European Central Bank orthe European Investment Bank.EPSO has been instrumental in modernising theEU recruitment procedures by not only relabeling the procedure as EU Careers but alsoby making sure that anyone seeking a Europeancareer or job in EU affairs can take part in anunbiased, streamlined and centralised selectionprocedure to work for EU institutions.9organise competitions for the EEAS is the nearThe European Ombudsman, similarly to theEuropean Data Protection Supervisor, is a smallentity with a few dozen EU officials inStrasbourg. Their posts are nevertheless filled inThe bulk of the European Parliaments staff isrecruited directly by the Members of theEuropean Parliament (MEPs) and given atemporary contract that is now under the StaffRegulations, however, there are a few thousandpermanent jobs at the EP that are filled in viaEuropean Personnel Selection Office (EPSO):The European Personnel Selection Office(EPSO), created in 2003, is the centralisedrecruiting arm of all EU institutions such as theEuropean Commission, the Council of Ministers,, the European Courtof Auditors, the European Ombudsman, theEuropean Economic and Social Committee, theCommittee of the Regions, and the EuropeanCourt of Justice. It does not recruit, however,for EU agencies located in Member States, norit for the European Central Bank orthe European Investment Bank.EPSO has been instrumental in modernising theEU recruitment procedures by not only re-labeling the procedure as EU Careers but alsoby making sure that anyone seeking a Europeanob in EU affairs can take part in anunbiased, streamlined and centralised selectionprocedure to work for EU institutions.
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryEPSO, as a main rule, handles all recruitment forpermanent posts, and occasionally administersCAST exams but it does not deal withselection of individual temporary agents orcontract agents.European Public Administration (EPA)This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions that tends to be themost popular one given that any college oruniversity diploma qualifies applicants tochoose this profile. That may include a diplomain history, political sciences, languages,engineering or any other, unlike other profilwhich tend to require a "relevant" degree.Diplomas issues outside the European Unionusually have to be recognised by thecandidates country of residence or citizenshipto be eligible. Decision on the adminissibility ofa diploma is always made by the Selectionboard of the given EU competition. Those whopass this competition can reasonably expect ajob offer from virtually any EU institution, giventhe horizontal nature of their profile.Financial Policy Officer:This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3financial policy officer or finance-related profileannounced for more technical positions.Financial policy officers are required to have arelevant diploma, which is nevertheless notlimited to studies in finance in a strict sense butany other subject that is closely associated withthe tasks of a financial officer is also acceptable.Decision is always made by the Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma.Those who are recruited on the basis of thisprofile can expect to work at the EuropeanCourt of Auditors, the various Directorateshttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusEPSO, as a main rule, handles all recruitment forpermanent posts, and occasionally administersCAST exams but it does not deal with theselection of individual temporary agents orEuropean Public Administration (EPA):This is one of the profiles in the Administratorcompetitions that tends to be themost popular one given that any college oruniversity diploma qualifies applicants tochoose this profile. That may include a diplomain history, political sciences, languages,engineering or any other, unlike other profileswhich tend to require a "relevant" degree.Diplomas issues outside the European Unionusually have to be recognised by thecandidates country of residence or citizenshipto be eligible. Decision on the adminissibility ofthe Selectionboard of the given EU competition. Those whopass this competition can reasonably expect ajob offer from virtually any EU institution, giventhe horizontal nature of their profile.This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3related profileannounced for more technical positions.Financial policy officers are required to have arelevant diploma, which is nevertheless notlimited to studies in finance in a strict sense butsely associated withthe tasks of a financial officer is also acceptable.Decision is always made by the Selection boarde admissibility of the diploma.Those who are recruited on the basis of thisprofile can expect to work at the Europeanuditors, the various DirectoratesGeneral (DGs) of the European Commissiondealing with financial policy, financialregulations, EU budget or antipossibly at the European Economic and SocialCommittee or the Committee of the Regions.Flagging System:"Once on the reserve list, candidates (or as theyare called at this stage, ""laureates"") are""flagged"" by the EU institutions, meaning thattheir profile listed in the "database can be assigned different statuses,such as any institution can recruit them, theyare reserved for a specific institution etc. Eachflag has a specific color and meaning to it. Formore information, see the The Ultimate EU TestBooks free chapterhere."Freelance Interpreter or TranslatorFreelance interpreters and translators are notrecruited centrally by EPSO but the EuropeanCommissions DG Translation and the SCIC(interpretation service) occasionally publishescalls for applications from private individuals orservice providers to work as an externaltranslator or on-call interpreter.More information and an up-found in our EU jobs menu, available at the linkbelow.Function Groups:Function groups refer to the AD (Administrator)or Assistant (AST) function group, which isdetermined for each recruitment competitionorganised by EPSO. Within function groups,there are different grades, which represent thelevel in the hierarchy for Assistants andAdministrators alike.This is also reflected in the saofficial in that given level. Accordingly, there areAST1-AST11 levels, whereas for AD there is10General (DGs) of the European Commissiondealing with financial policy, financialregulations, EU budget or anti-fraud efforts, orpossibly at the European Economic and SocialCommittee or the Committee of the Regions."Once on the reserve list, candidates (or as theyare called at this stage, ""laureates"") are""flagged"" by the EU institutions, meaning thattheir profile listed in the ""E-laureates""database can be assigned different statuses,such as any institution can recruit them, theyare reserved for a specific institution etc. Eachflag has a specific color and meaning to it. Formore information, see the The Ultimate EU TestFreelance Interpreter or Translator:Freelance interpreters and translators are nottrally by EPSO but the EuropeanCommissions DG Translation and the SCIC(interpretation service) occasionally publishescalls for applications from private individuals orservice providers to work as an externalcall interpreter.to-date list can befound in our EU jobs menu, available at the linkFunction groups refer to the AD (Administrator)function group, which isdetermined for each recruitment competitionorganised by EPSO. Within function groups,there are different grades, which represent thelevel in the hierarchy for Assistants andThis is also reflected in the salary of the EUofficial in that given level. Accordingly, there areAST11 levels, whereas for AD there is
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryAD5-AD16, the latter being the level of aDirector General.Group Exercise:The Group Exercise is one of the tasks in theAssessment Centre that is compulsory in allAdministrator (AD) profiles. This means thatgroups of 3-6 candidates are required to takepart in a simulation based on a background filethat all of them must read and then try to cometo a conclusion within 30 or so minutes.Assessors are not part of the group exercise andthey only observe the individual behaviours,leadership, analytical and communication skillsof each participant.Head of Unit:In the EU hierarchy, the first managerialposition is that of a Head of Unit which isconsidered a rather senior function given thatat least 9 and in some cases 12 years of workexperience is required to be appointed as aHead of Unit.Only Administrators can assume such positionand they must have AD9 grade or higher to beeligible. EPSO recruits Head of unit in a similarfashion as other Administrators with theexception of having additional requirementleadership and managerial skills.Information and Communication TechnologiesICT is one of the sub-profiles or domains of theAdministrator exams, though this field is notannounced each year but only upon specificneed from EU institutions.Internal Competition:Occasionally every 4-5 years EPSO and EUinstitutions may announce internalcompetitions in which only existingAdministrator, Assistants and temporary agentshttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusAD16, the latter being the level of aThe Group Exercise is one of the tasks in theAssessment Centre that is compulsory in allAdministrator (AD) profiles. This means that6 candidates are required to takepart in a simulation based on a background fileand then try to cometo a conclusion within 30 or so minutes.Assessors are not part of the group exercise andthey only observe the individual behaviours,leadership, analytical and communication skillsIn the EU hierarchy, the first managerialposition is that of a Head of Unit which isconsidered a rather senior function given thatat least 9 and in some cases 12 years of workbe appointed as aOnly Administrators can assume such positionand they must have AD9 grade or higher to beeligible. EPSO recruits Head of unit in a similarfashion as other Administrators with theexception of having additional requirements forInformation and Communication Technologies:profiles or domains of theh this field is notannounced each year but only upon specific5 years EPSO and EUinstitutions may announce internalcompetitions in which only existingAdministrator, Assistants and temporary agents(but not contract agents) can take part who arealready working in an EU institution.The goal is to help in the career mobility ofthose who may be eligible for higher positionsor temporary agents who wish to obtain apermanent employment contract. These examsfollow the same rules as any other set by EPSOand the Staff Regulations.Interpreters:Similarly to translators, interpreters may be EUofficials (or work as external freelancers). To bepart of the core staff, the same EPSOcompetition must be passed as for anyone else.In the annual cycle, the linguist and interpreterexams are announced in the summer, usuallyaround June or July of the year.Abstract, verbal and numerical reasoning testsmust be passed, along with a live translation orinterpreting exercise, group exercisstructured interview and possibly a case studyas well.In-tray Exercise:See E-tray Exercise.Language 1:See Language Requirements.Language 2:See Language Requirements.Language 3:See Language Requirements.Language Requirements:Citizenship and languages are dethey are not linked in any way, except forenlargement-related exams where specificcitizenship and language rules are determined.11(but not contract agents) can take part who arealready working in an EU institution.s to help in the career mobility ofthose who may be eligible for higher positionsor temporary agents who wish to obtain apermanent employment contract. These examsfollow the same rules as any other set by EPSOSimilarly to translators, interpreters may be EUofficials (or work as external freelancers). To bepart of the core staff, the same EPSOcompetition must be passed as for anyone else.the annual cycle, the linguist and interpreterexams are announced in the summer, usuallyaround June or July of the year.Abstract, verbal and numerical reasoning testsmust be passed, along with a live translation orinterpreting exercise, group exercise, astructured interview and possibly a case studyCitizenship and languages are de-connected andlinked in any way, except forrelated exams where specificcitizenship and language rules are determined.
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryIn some cases, the candidate’s citizenship or thegiven exam’s specific language profileautomatically determines the required firstlanguage (e.g. compulsory French as firstlanguage for translator exams in the Frenchlanguage), whereas in other instancescandidates are free to choose their firstlanguage as long as the above rules oncitizenship and the official EU languagerequirements are respected.The second language is candidates first foreignlanguage and in most cases it must be English,French or German, except for some linguistexams (and sometimes for certain Assistantexams) the second language is usually the onefor which candidates are sought, along with thethird language (if required at all). In no case canany two languages be the same.Laureates:The term laureates refers to those candidateswho have been placed on a reserve list as aresult of their successful application andexaminations and now are recruitable by anyEU institution until the end of the validityperiod of the reserve list.Lawyer (Law):This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3 legalpolicy officer or law-related profile announcedfor more technical positions. Legal affairsofficers are required to have a relevant diplomain law. Decision is always made by the Selectionboard on the admissibility of the diploma.Lawyers are mainly employed by the EuropeanCommission, the European Court of Justice orthe European Data Protection Supervisor,any other EU institutions may offer positions forthose who passed a recruitment exam in law.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusIn some cases, the candidate’s citizenship or thegiven exam’s specific language profileautomatically determines the required firstuage (e.g. compulsory French as firstlanguage for translator exams in the Frenchlanguage), whereas in other instancescandidates are free to choose their firstlanguage as long as the above rules oncitizenship and the official EU languageThe second language is candidates first foreignlanguage and in most cases it must be English,French or German, except for some linguistexams (and sometimes for certain Assistantexams) the second language is usually the onedidates are sought, along with thethird language (if required at all). In no case canThe term laureates refers to those candidatesced on a reserve list as aresult of their successful application andexaminations and now are recruitable by anyEU institution until the end of the validityThis is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3 legalrelated profile announcedfor more technical positions. Legal affairsquired to have a relevant diplomain law. Decision is always made by the Selectionboard on the admissibility of the diploma.Lawyers are mainly employed by the EuropeanCommission, the European Court of Justice orthe European Data Protection Supervisor, butany other EU institutions may offer positions forthose who passed a recruitment exam in law.Leadership:Leadership is one of the competencies that isassessed by EPSO, however, it is onlfor Administrator (AD) roles but not forAssistants. Leadership does not necessarilymean a managerial skill but rather the ability todeliver results, gather a team or cobehind a specific goal, make sure there is nodeviation from plans without prior consent anda certain level of social adaptability is alsoneeded.Learning and Development:This competency is one of the 7 that EPSO isevaluating in candidates via the AssessmentCentre exercises and exams. To achieve a goodscore in this competency, candidates mustdemonstrate they are able and willing to learnnew topics, issues and subjects, and provideexamples from their career or personalexperience of situations where they faced achallenge by an unknown topic and theydecided to learn about that issue andsucceeded.Linguists:Linguists are the common name for translatorsand interpreters, however, lawyerconsidered as specialists given their requireddiploma in law. Linguist exams are announcedeach year in June or July for different languagecombinations, but the exam they need to passis by and large the same as for any otherAdministrator profile. Linguists are always ADlevel officials once recruited and they can moveto other non-linguistic positions after the initial2-3 years.Lawyer-linguists:Lawyer linguists are always Administrator (AD)level officials who may even be recruited at ahigher level (AD7 instead of AD5) to attractmost candidates, with the condition being that12Leadership is one of the competencies that isassessed by EPSO, however, it is only requiredfor Administrator (AD) roles but not forAssistants. Leadership does not necessarilymean a managerial skill but rather the ability todeliver results, gather a team or co-workersbehind a specific goal, make sure there is nos without prior consent anda certain level of social adaptability is alsoThis competency is one of the 7 that EPSO isvia the AssessmentCentre exercises and exams. To achieve a goodscore in this competency, candidates mustdemonstrate they are able and willing to learnnew topics, issues and subjects, and provideexamples from their career or personaluations where they faced achallenge by an unknown topic and theydecided to learn about that issue andLinguists are the common name for translatorsever, lawyer-linguists areconsidered as specialists given their requireddiploma in law. Linguist exams are announcedeach year in June or July for different languagecombinations, but the exam they need to passis by and large the same as for any otherdministrator profile. Linguists are always ADlevel officials once recruited and they can movelinguistic positions after the initialLawyer linguists are always Administrator (AD)level officials who may even be recruited at ahigher level (AD7 instead of AD5) to attractmost candidates, with the condition being that
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossarythey must stay in their position for at least 3 ormore years without being able to transfer toother EU institutions or positions. A legaldiploma is required, along with the knowledgeof at least two or three languages at a very highlevel so that they can carry out translations andrevisions from multiple source languagesLawyer linguists generally work for the Councilof Ministers, the European Court of Justice orthe European Parliament, though some otherinstitutions may employ a few of them as well.Main Language:See Language Requirements.Minimum Requirements:See Admission Criteria.National Quota:In EU institutions, there is no national quota forMember State citizens, however,requirement in the Staff Regulations providingthat a "proportional representation" isrequired.This means that each Directorate General hasbenchmark figures on the nationality of its staffand aims to recruit new officials in a way thatmeets this requirement.Notice of Competition:Every EU competition starts with a Notice ofCompetition, which is the official and authenticdocument in which the details and condithe exam are provided.The NoC is published in the Official Journal ofthe EU (also online) and it provides the numberof people EPSO plans to place on the reservelists, the language requirements, the diploma orqualification requirements and many othdetails.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusthey must stay in their position for at least 3 orbeing able to transfer toother EU institutions or positions. A legaldiploma is required, along with the knowledgeof at least two or three languages at a very highlevel so that they can carry out translations andrevisions from multiple source languages.Lawyer linguists generally work for the Councilof Ministers, the European Court of Justice orthe European Parliament, though some otherinstitutions may employ a few of them as well.In EU institutions, there is no national quota forMember State citizens, however, there is arequirement in the Staff Regulations providingal representation" isThis means that each Directorate General hasbenchmark figures on the nationality of its staffand aims to recruit new officials in a way thatEvery EU competition starts with a Notice ofCompetition, which is the official and authenticdocument in which the details and conditions ofThe NoC is published in the Official Journal ofthe EU (also online) and it provides the numberof people EPSO plans to place on the reservelists, the language requirements, the diploma orqualification requirements and many otherNumerical Reasoning:One of the tests in the pre-selection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centre itself). Usinga table with semi-complex data and multiplecells, it requires basic calculation (adding,subtracting, multiplying, dividing), occasionallyalso percentage calculation. Generally, thereare 10 numerical reasoning questions in acompetition, and the allocated time isminutes.Official Journal:Published by the EUs Publication Office inLuxembourg, it is the authentic document inwhich all administrative and legislativedocuments are published every weekday. In theEU career context, the Notice of Competition isalso published in the Official Journal given itslegal nature.Open Competition:Every EU competition that EPSOexternal website is by default open to anyonewho meets the formal criteria (including EUofficials who may wish to apply to jump to ahigher grade, or temporary agents who wish to"finalise" their contract).On the other hand, EPSO occasionally (usuallyevery 5 years) organises internal competitionswhich are only open to those already workingas permanent or temporary staff at theCommission or other institutions (depending onthe exams specific requirements).Oral Presentation:One of the exercises in the EPSO AssessmentCentre for generalist Administrators and inmost cases, AST3 (senior assistants) is to make apresentation of up to 10 minutes based on abackground file, and then be ready to answerquestions for another 8-10 minutes.13selection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centre itself). Usingcomplex data and multiplecells, it requires basic calculation (adding,subtracting, multiplying, dividing), occasionallytage calculation. Generally, thereare 10 numerical reasoning questions in acompetition, and the allocated time is 20Published by the EUs Publication Office inLuxembourg, it is the authentic document inwhich all administrative and legislativevery weekday. In theEU career context, the Notice of Competition isalso published in the Official Journal given itsEvery EU competition that EPSO publishes on itsexternal website is by default open to anyonewho meets the formal criteria (including EUofficials who may wish to apply to jump to ahigher grade, or temporary agents who wish tooccasionally (usuallyevery 5 years) organises internal competitionswhich are only open to those already workingas permanent or temporary staff at theCommission or other institutions (depending onthe exams specific requirements).One of the exercises in the EPSO AssessmentCentre for generalist Administrators and inmost cases, AST3 (senior assistants) is to make apresentation of up to 10 minutes based on around file, and then be ready to answer10 minutes.
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossarySpecialists usually are not required to performthis exercise given their relatively differentprofile. In most exams, it measurescompetencies such as:• resilience• communication• analysis and problem solving• delivering quality and resultsOrganising and Prioritising Test:One of the tests in the pre-selection phase ofthe Assistant exams for EU careers. This testrequires candidates to check a table withvarious information about schedules,timetables, agendas, vehicle capacities andother practical information and find the bestsolution to a practical organisation or logisticsproblem. The tasks tend to be relatively easy, itis the time pressure that makes them ratherchallenging.Preparatory Courses:Many candidates of EU Career exams decide topractice and learn in a dedicated manner and tohave the guidance of a professional trainer.Methodology in the EPSO exams is crucial,therefore preparatory courses can increaseperformance in the pre-selection testssignificantly. Moreover, these courses oftencover tips and tricks for the Assessment Centre,which can prove also highly practical to learnabout EPSO assessors expectations.Pre-selection Tests:Pre-selection tests refer to the exams that EUcareer competition participants are required tosit to be considered for the Assessment Centre.For most exams, pre-selection tests arerequired given the large number of applicants.However, when the number of applicants (mostfor Specialist exams) is lower than approx. 600,EPSO does not require these tests to be taken,http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusSpecialists usually are not required to performthis exercise given their relatively differentprofile. In most exams, it measuresproblem solvingdelivering quality and resultsselection phase ofreers. This testrequires candidates to check a table withvarious information about schedules,timetables, agendas, vehicle capacities andother practical information and find the bestsolution to a practical organisation or logisticsend to be relatively easy, itis the time pressure that makes them ratherMany candidates of EU Career exams decide toted manner and tohave the guidance of a professional trainer.Methodology in the EPSO exams is crucial,therefore preparatory courses can increaseselection testssignificantly. Moreover, these courses oftenr the Assessment Centre,which can prove also highly practical to learnabout EPSO assessors expectations.selection tests refer to the exams that EUcompetition participants are required tosit to be considered for the Assessment Centre.selection tests arerequired given the large number of applicants.However, when the number of applicants (mostn approx. 600,EPSO does not require these tests to be taken,though there is still a pre-screening in the formof a so-called Talent Screener.Typically, the pre-selection tests includeabstract, verbal and numerical reasoning testsand a Situational Judgment Test, and forAssistants, there are extra tests such asaccuracy and precision, and organising andprioritising. The language of the pretests is Language 1, except for the SituationalJudgment Test which is usually conducted inLanguage 2.Professional Experience:EU career exams usually require the followingprofessional experience: for generalAdministrators, on AD5 level exams no workexperience is required; on AD7 level, at least 6years of experience is required (for lawyerlinguists this is usually only 3 years); for AD9level, at least 12 years is required.For Specialists, it depends on the specificprofile, but usually the same number of years isexpected.For Assistants on AST3 level, the rule is eitherhaving a secondary education diploma in thegiven field and 3 years of experience, or anyqualification giving access to posteducation and then 6 years of relevantexperience. It is important torequirements of each competition as it mayvary from one exam to another.Recruitment:Recruitment is final phase of the selectionprocedure and it is NOT handled by EPSOonly deal with selection of potential newofficials but they dont themselves recruit). It isup to the specific Directorate General or EUinstitution to decide who they wish to invite for14screening in the formcalled Talent Screener.selection tests includeabstract, verbal and numerical reasoning testsment Test, and forAssistants, there are extra tests such asaccuracy and precision, and organising andprioritising. The language of the pre-selectiontests is Language 1, except for the SituationalJudgment Test which is usually conducted inEU career exams usually require the followingprofessional experience: for generalAdministrators, on AD5 level exams no workAD7 level, at least 6years of experience is required (for lawyer-linguists this is usually only 3 years); for AD9at least 12 years is required.For Specialists, it depends on the specificme number of years isFor Assistants on AST3 level, the rule is eitherhaving a secondary education diploma in thegiven field and 3 years of experience, or anyqualification giving access to post-secondaryeducation and then 6 years of relevantcheck the specificrequirements of each competition as it mayvary from one exam to another.Recruitment is final phase of the selectionprocedure and it is NOT handled by EPSO (theyonly deal with selection of potential newofficials but they dont themselves recruit). It isup to the specific Directorate General or EUinstitution to decide who they wish to invite for
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossarya final interview from among those who hadbeen placed on a reserve list.Recruitment happens after 2-3 candidates areinvited for a classic interview in which they areasked questions on their knowledge in thespecific field, motivation and personal profile. Amedical examination is required and if all goeswell, a job offer is extended towards thecandidate who then becomes an EU official,with a 9-month probation period.Reimbursement of Costs:In order to provide equal chances for allcitizens, EPSO reimburses a flat-rate travel costand hotel expenses for those who need totravel to Brussels to the Assessment Centre.For the pre-selection exams, there is noreimbursement possible (even if a candidatehas to travel to another country where an examcentre is located in case there is no examopportunity in his or her own countryeach EU Member State has at least one examcentre, the above situation may happen inother continents around the world).The reimbursement may take a few weeks butit is a right that all candidates have once theyare invited to the Assessment Centre.Reserve List:After passing all stages of an EPSO competition,successful candidates (also called laureates)are placed on a so-called reserve list.This list is published in the Official Journal of theEU and everyone on it can be recruited by anyEU institution for a permanent post. Eachreserve list has a validity of 1depending on the competition and also onwhen the next competition in the same field isdue to be published.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusa final interview from among those who had3 candidates areinvited for a classic interview in which they areasked questions on their knowledge in thespecific field, motivation and personal profile. Amedical examination is required and if all goesl, a job offer is extended towards thecandidate who then becomes an EU official,In order to provide equal chances for all EUrate travel costand hotel expenses for those who need totravel to Brussels to the Assessment Centre.selection exams, there is noreimbursement possible (even if a candidatery where an examcentre is located in case there is no examopportunity in his or her own country - thougheach EU Member State has at least one examcentre, the above situation may happen inother continents around the world).a few weeks butit is a right that all candidates have once theyare invited to the Assessment Centre.After passing all stages of an EPSO competition,also called laureates)called reserve list.This list is published in the Official Journal of theEU and everyone on it can be recruited by anyEU institution for a permanent post. Eachreserve list has a validity of 1-3 years,ing on the competition and also onwhen the next competition in the same field isThe validity can be extended in case there arestill candidates on the list, based on thedecision of EPSO.Resilience:One of the 7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the StructuredInterview or the Group exercise.Resilience refers to the ability to cope underpressure and maintain an effectiveperformance under heavy workload. It can alsorefer to the ability to handle organisatiadministrative stress.The most common exams in which thiscompetency is tested is the oral presentationand the structured interview. The mostimportant aspect of resilience in the structuredinterview is to demonstrate a specific eventwhen stress management or the efficienthandling of a frustration can be proven via aspecific, unexpected event instead of talkingabout a prolonged period of heavy workloadSalary of EU Officials and Civil ServantsThe salary of EU officials, civil servants,temporary agents and contract agents is set outin the Staff Regulations and multiple factors areconsidered. These include the officialsseniority, work experience, the exam (s)he hadpassed and on the basis of which (s)he wasrecruited, child allowance, the place ofrecruitment (expatriate allowance) and otherfactors.The average net monthly salary of an Assistantat AST3 level is around 3200 euros, while for anentry level AD5 Administrator would earnaround 4500 euros.15The validity can be extended in case there arestill candidates on the list, based on theOne of the 7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the Structurederview or the Group exercise.Resilience refers to the ability to cope underpressure and maintain an effectiveperformance under heavy workload. It can alsorefer to the ability to handle organisational orexams in which thiscompetency is tested is the oral presentationand the structured interview. The mostimportant aspect of resilience in the structuredinterview is to demonstrate a specific eventwhen stress management or the efficientstration can be proven via aspecific, unexpected event instead of talkingabout a prolonged period of heavy workload.Salary of EU Officials and Civil Servants:The salary of EU officials, civil servants,temporary agents and contract agents is set outin the Staff Regulations and multiple factors areconsidered. These include the officialsseniority, work experience, the exam (s)he hadf which (s)he wasrecruited, child allowance, the place ofe allowance) and otherThe average net monthly salary of an Assistantat AST3 level is around 3200 euros, while for anentry level AD5 Administrator would earn
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossarySample Tests:EPSO itself makes sample tests available forcandidates on its website, and Online EUTraining has also a large number of free testsand a free demo available for anyone interestedin EU career exams.Scientist and Scientific Jobs:EPSO from time to time published opencompetitions for scientists and scientific jobs as"Specialist" exams. These always include aTalent Screener in which candidates arerequired to state their professional backgroundand prove their profiles relevance to the job.Other than that, candidates are still required togo through an Assessment Centre and in moscases they also need to take an abstract, verbaand numerical reasoning test.The most likely place of employment is in DGResearch of the European Commission, or theJoint Research Centre of the Commission, whichhas offices in several EU countries.Seconded National Experts (SNEs):The so-called Seconded National Experts (SNEs,or based on the French abbreviation, ENDs) arecivil servants from an EU Member State who aresent for a specific amount of time to work in aEuropean Commission or European Parliamentdirectorate. The goal is to bring a nationalperspective or a subject matter expertise to thegiven units policy work.Selection Board:A Selection Board is an independent body setup for every competition that EPSO announcesand administers. Legally speaking, eachSelection Board acts on its own and it isresponsible for the proper management andsupervision of a given competition.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusEPSO itself makes sample tests available forcandidates on its website, and Online EUTraining has also a large number of free testsanyone interestedEPSO from time to time published opencompetitions for scientists and scientific jobs asams. These always include aTalent Screener in which candidates arerequired to state their professional backgroundand prove their profiles relevance to the job.Other than that, candidates are still required togo through an Assessment Centre and in mostcases they also need to take an abstract, verbalThe most likely place of employment is in DGResearch of the European Commission, or theJoint Research Centre of the Commission, which:called Seconded National Experts (SNEs,or based on the French abbreviation, ENDs) arecivil servants from an EU Member State who aresent for a specific amount of time to work in aEuropean Commission or European Parliamentdirectorate. The goal is to bring a nationalperspective or a subject matter expertise to theA Selection Board is an independent body setup for every competition that EPSO announcesand administers. Legally speaking, eachSelection Board acts on its own and it isresponsible for the proper management andThe Selection Board can also check the preselection tests that candidates are required toset, and in most cases it is the Selection Boardmembers who act as assessors during theAssessment Centre.It is also them who decide on the eligibility ofcandidates work experience and qualifications.They are not part of EPSO but composed of EUofficials who volunteer to become members ofa Selection Board. There is usually a staffrepresentative and/or a trade union member ineach board, along with an administrativeassistant from EPSO who is formally speakingnot part of the board.Situational Judgment Test (orJudgement Test, SJT):Situational Judgment Tests are part of the preselection tests in most competitions and theyrequire candidates to choose the mostfavorable and least favorable coursea given situation.It is a computer-based multiplecandidates are expected to have a basicunderstanding of EU institutions values,corporate culture and code of conducsuccessfully pass the test.Specialists:Among Administrator (AD) exams, we candistinguish between generalists, specialists andlinguists, though in administrative terms thereis no such distinction at the time of recruitmentor employment.Exams which are not scheduled on a regularannual basis and the ones requiring specific,usually scientific, legal or economist profileswith experience in a specific field would beconsidered as a Specialist exam.16The Selection Board can also check the pre-selection tests that candidates are required toset, and in most cases it is the Selection Boardmembers who act as assessors during theecide on the eligibility ofcandidates work experience and qualifications.They are not part of EPSO but composed of EUofficials who volunteer to become members ofa Selection Board. There is usually a staffrepresentative and/or a trade union member ineach board, along with an administrativeassistant from EPSO who is formally speakingSituational Judgment Test (or SituationalSituational Judgment Tests are part of the pre-selection tests in most competitions and theyrequire candidates to choose the mostfavorable and least favorable course of action inmultiple-choice test, andcandidates are expected to have a basicunderstanding of EU institutions values,corporate culture and code of conduct toAmong Administrator (AD) exams, we candistinguish between generalists, specialists andlinguists, though in administrative terms thereis no such distinction at the time of recruitmentExams which are not scheduled on a regulars and the ones requiring specific,usually scientific, legal or economist profileswith experience in a specific field would beconsidered as a Specialist exam.
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryThese competitions have the same tests as theothers but there is a more stringent TalentScreener in which the profiles, work experienceand other factors are carefully checked to makesure that only candidates with a fully relevantprofile are allowed to take part in theAssessment Centre.Staff Regulations:EU officials, temporary agents and contractagents are bound by the Staff Regulations whichis the official labour code setting out the rulesof their employment, obligations, rights,pension, salary and any other matterconcerning their relation with the EU institutioor body they are working for.The reason for the Staff Regulations existenceis the independence these agents or servantsenjoy from any governmental or other entity:they are not bound by the labour laws of any EUMember State given their only affiliation istowards the EU institution that employs them.Statistician (Statistics):This is one of the profiles in the Administrat(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3statistician policy officer or statisticsprofile announced for more technical positions.Statistics policy officers are required to have arelevant diploma, which is nevertheless notlimited to studies in statistics in a strict sensebut any other subject that is closely associatedwith the tasks of a statistician officer is alsoacceptable.Decision is always made by the Selection boardon the admissibility of the diploma. Statisticianscan mainly expect to work for EUROSTAT, theEuropean Unions statistics agency inLuxembourg, or various other departments ofhttp://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013ArboreusThese competitions have the same tests as theothers but there is a more stringent Talentener in which the profiles, work experienceand other factors are carefully checked to makesure that only candidates with a fully relevantprofile are allowed to take part in theEU officials, temporary agents and contractagents are bound by the Staff Regulations whichis the official labour code setting out the rulesof their employment, obligations, rights,pension, salary and any other matterconcerning their relation with the EU institutionThe reason for the Staff Regulations existenceis the independence these agents or servantsenjoy from any governmental or other entity:laws of any EUMember State given their only affiliation istowards the EU institution that employs them.This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) exams may have an AST3statistician policy officer or statistics-relatedprofile announced for more technical positions.Statistics policy officers are required to have ach is nevertheless notlimited to studies in statistics in a strict sensebut any other subject that is closely associatedian officer is alsoDecision is always made by the Selection boardhe diploma. Statisticianscan mainly expect to work for EUROSTAT, theEuropean Unions statistics agency inLuxembourg, or various other departments ofthe European Commission such as thedirectorate for Regional affairs.Structured Interview:The Structured Interview is one of the keyexercises in the EPSO Assessment Centre. It isnot to be confused with a classic job interviewwhich it is not: candidates are asked questionsabout past situations in their life todemonstrate to which level they possess (or donot possess) a given competency from the 7 or8 competencies identified by EPSO.Assessors tell candidates which competency isbeing tested so they can adapt their answersaccordingly. Given that the style and type ofquestions that are asked are relatively known, itis possible to prepare very well for this exam.Talent Screener:See CV sift.Temporary Agent:According to EPSO and EU civil service portal,temporary agents may be employed to performa wide variety of tasks, within one of thefollowing categories: (a) for non(highly specialised jobs) or temporary tasks (b)to make up for staff shortages in cases wherecompetition reserve lists have been exhausted; (c) for Commissioners private offi(cabinets); (d) for specific requirements in thescientific sector. As a temporary agent in type(d), candidates could work in one of the variousresearch centres set up by the EU to promoteresearch and to manage European frameworkprogrammes for research and development.As a temporary agent in type (c), candidatescould work in the private office of aCommissioner during their term in office.Temporary agents in types (a) and (b) can beemployed to do a wide variety of work,17the European Commission such as thedirectorate for Regional affairs.The Structured Interview is one of the keyexercises in the EPSO Assessment Centre. It isnot to be confused with a classic job interviewwhich it is not: candidates are asked questionsst situations in their life todemonstrate to which level they possess (or donot possess) a given competency from the 7 orompetencies identified by EPSO.Assessors tell candidates which competency isbeing tested so they can adapt their answersingly. Given that the style and type ofquestions that are asked are relatively known, itis possible to prepare very well for this exam.According to EPSO and EU civil service portal,temporary agents may be employed to performiety of tasks, within one of thefollowing categories: (a) for non-standard(highly specialised jobs) or temporary tasks (b)to make up for staff shortages in cases wherecompetition reserve lists have been exhausted -; (c) for Commissioners private offices(cabinets); (d) for specific requirements in thescientific sector. As a temporary agent in type(d), candidates could work in one of the variousresearch centres set up by the EU to promoteresearch and to manage European frameworksearch and development.As a temporary agent in type (c), candidatescould work in the private office of aCommissioner during their term in office.Temporary agents in types (a) and (b) can beemployed to do a wide variety of work,
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryessentially the same kind of work as permanentCommission officials. However, this depends onfactors such as the temporary needs of theCommission and the situation with regard tofilling vacant posts.Although the rules on the length of initialcontracts and subsequent contract extensionsvary, as a rule, temporary agents in types (a),(b) and (d) may be hired by the Commission fora maximum period of six years and temporaryagents who work in Commissioners privateoffices are hired for a duration linked to themandate of their Commissioner.The Ultimate EU Test Book:The best-selling preparation book on EPSOcompetitions by András Baneth, published byJohn Harper Publishing first in 2005 andupdated annually. Currently the 2013 editionsfor Administrators and Assistants are availablein major bookshops and via book retailwebsites.Time Limits in the Pre-selection TestsThe following time limits are indicative and maynot be the same for every exam.- 35 minutes to answer- 20 verbal reasoning questions- 20 minutes to answer 10 numericalreasoning questions- 10 minutes to answer 10 abstractreasoning questions- 20 situational judgment questions in 40minutes- 6 minutes to answer 40 accuracy andprecision questions (for AST examsonly)- 30 minutes to answer 24 prioritizingand organising questions (for ASTexams only)http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusind of work as permanentCommission officials. However, this depends onfactors such as the temporary needs of theCommission and the situation with regard toAlthough the rules on the length of initialact extensionsvary, as a rule, temporary agents in types (a),(b) and (d) may be hired by the Commission fora maximum period of six years and temporaryagents who work in Commissioners privateoffices are hired for a duration linked to theselling preparation book on EPSOcompetitions by András Baneth, published byJohn Harper Publishing first in 2005 andted annually. Currently the 2013 editionsfor Administrators and Assistants are availablein major bookshops and via book retailselection Tests:The following time limits are indicative and may20 verbal reasoning questions20 minutes to answer 10 numerical10 minutes to answer 10 abstract20 situational judgment questions in 406 minutes to answer 40 accuracy andprecision questions (for AST exams30 minutes to answer 24 prioritizingand organising questions (for AST- 25 minutes to answer 25 secretarialfield questions (for AST1 exams only)Traineeship:Traineeship in an EU institution is a very popularfirst step towards an EU career, though it islimited to 5 months in duration and cannot beprolonged (at the European Commission),though for other institutions the system is lessstreamlined and this often results in moreflexibility (e.g. at the European Parlithe Court of Justice).There are different traineeship schemes, themost well-known is the so-called "blue book"one which welcomes some 600 people twice ayear at the European Commission and got itsname from a blue book in which precandidates names were listed in before anonline system was put in place.Trainees are in most cases paid approximately1000 euros a month if based in Brussels,whereas in other countries where EUinstitutions are based this sum may vary. Foranyone seeking a career in European affairs atraineeship provides valuable experience andinsight.Translators:This is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) or contract agent (CAST) examsmay have translation-related profileannounced as well. Translators are usuallyrequired to have a diploma but there is noobligation to have in translation or languagestudies so as to ensure that candidates with abroad range of profiles are eligible. Translatorsare employed by all EU institutions, and manywork in Luxembourg for the EuropeanParliament or the Council of Ministers inBrussels.1825 minutes to answer 25 secretarialeld questions (for AST1 exams only)Traineeship in an EU institution is a very popularfirst step towards an EU career, though it islimited to 5 months in duration and cannot beprolonged (at the European Commission),though for other institutions the system is lessstreamlined and this often results in moreflexibility (e.g. at the European Parliament orThere are different traineeship schemes, thecalled "blue book"one which welcomes some 600 people twice ayear at the European Commission and got itsname from a blue book in which pre-selectedcandidates names were listed in before anonline system was put in place.in most cases paid approximately1000 euros a month if based in Brussels,whereas in other countries where EUinstitutions are based this sum may vary. Foranyone seeking a career in European affairs atraineeship provides valuable experience andThis is one of the profiles in the Administrator(AD) open competitions, though in some casesAssistant (AST) or contract agent (CAST) examsrelated profilesannounced as well. Translators are usuallyrequired to have a diploma but there is noobligation to have in translation or languagestudies so as to ensure that candidates with abroad range of profiles are eligible. Translatorsstitutions, and manywork in Luxembourg for the EuropeanParliament or the Council of Ministers in
  • http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryTravel Expenses:See Reimbursement of Costs.Verbal Reasoning:One of the tests in the pre-selection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centrea short paragraph of text on virtually any topic,candidates are required to choose from 4 or 5answer options the one that fully matches thestatements in the original text.There is always only one correct answerbecause other options may contain insufficientinformation or false statements. Since 2011EPSO has requested candidates to sit the verbalreasoning tests in their Language 1.Working with Others:One of the 7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the Case study and theGroup exercise. This competency requirescandidates to demonstrate understandingtowards their team members, cooperation withcolleagues and a generally positive attitudewhen tension arise within a group. Best testedin the group exercise and the structuredinterview.http://www.eutraining.eu/epso_glossaryCopyright © 2013Arboreusselection phase ofthe EU exams (or for specialists, it may berequired in the Assessment Centre itself). Usinga short paragraph of text on virtually any topic,candidates are required to choose from 4 or 5answer options the one that fully matches theThere is always only one correct answercontain insufficientinformation or false statements. Since 2011EPSO has requested candidates to sit the verbalreasoning tests in their Language 1.7 competencies that are measuredand evaluated in EU competition candidates viathe Assessment Centres various exercises suchas the Oral presentation, the Case study and theGroup exercise. This competency requirescandidates to demonstrate understandingtowards their team members, cooperation withcolleagues and a generally positive attitudewhen tension arise within a group. Best testedin the group exercise and the structured19