Prezentacija Ekoloske politike Evropske unije


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Prezentacija Ekoloske politike Evropske unije

  1. 1. EU environmental policy andenlargement: challengesand opportunitiesEU Delegation to the Republic of SerbiaDG Environment
  2. 2.  Increased awareness about the ecological problem ofeconomic development United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm,1972) Report of the Club of Rome on “the limits of growth” Eco-movement in Western Europe Summit Conference of Head of State and Government(Paris, 1972) opened the way Pressure of public opinion, political will at high-level andabsence of deep-rooted national policiesA common environmental policy in the EU:The birth
  3. 3.  Common market of pollution Risk of distortion of competition(avoid environmental dumping) Common environmental problemsrequire common solutions Trans-boundary aspects ofenvironmental protection The European Institutions are betterplaced to regulate based on long-term strategies and programmesA common environmental policyWhy?
  4. 4. Legal base- Single Act (1987); Maastricht Treaty- Lisbon Treaty- 300 Directives, Regulations, Decision and ECJcase law = the ACQUIS- 80% of Member State ENV Law is EU LawPublic Consent- 70 % of EU citizens rank environmentalprotection as priorityEU environmental policyLegal Base and Public Consent
  5. 5.  Principle of precautionary and preventiveaction (eg: Environmental Impact Assessment, StrategicEnvironmental Impact Assessment) Principle of Public Participation and Information Principle “polluter pays” It refers to expenditure and charges, in order to avoidtransfer of costs(Eg: Environmental Liability Directive with regard to prevention andremedying environmental damage, Environmental CrimeDirective on the protection of environment through criminal law)A common environmental policyThe main principles – Horizontal legislation
  6. 6.  EU’s 6th Environmental Action Program (2002 – 2012)focuses on 4 priority issues Tackling climate change by reducing GHG according to theobjectives of Kyoto Protocol Nature and biodiversity by protecting and restoring the structureand functioning of natural systems Environment and health by achieving a quality of environment whichdoes not endanger human health Sustainable management of natural resource by decouplingresource use from economic growth EU’s 7th Environmental Action Program under reviewA common environmental policy:The 6th EAP
  7. 7. Sustainable use andmanagement ofnatural resources &waste6th EAPClimate changeNature &biodiversitySoilEnvironment, health& quality of lifeUrbanenvironmentAirPesticidesResourcesRecyclingMarineenvironment6th EAP: overview
  8. 8.  8 sectors Horizontal Air quality Water quality Waste management Nature protection Industrial pollution control Chemicals Noise (some are not covered by this presentation i.e. soil, spatialplanning, fiscal instruments)EU environmental policiesThe sectors
  9. 9. EU Environmental PoliciesAIR SECTORAir Pollution causes 500,000 premature death the EU alone and € billions in damage to publichealth, water, soil, ecosystem and infrastructure.SO2 NOx VOCNH3PMHealth AcidificationEutrophication OzoneCAFE policy targets for 2020
  10. 10.  Fight against air pollutionAmbient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC defines the management objectivesand principles of a common strategy on air quality objectives for ambient air.Establishes Limit Values for the Main Pollutantsi.e. particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogendioxide (NO2), Benzene and lead and its compounds;Separate legislation for pollutants such as VOC, sulphur in fuels , heavy metals etc.National Emmission Ceilings Directive 2001/81/EC (under review). Capstotal emmissions for 4 established pollutants for member statesEU environmental policiesAir sector
  11. 11. How EU air quality legislation worksMobileSourcesIED incl. the4 belowstationarysourcesNationalemissionsceilingsIPPC LCP’sRoadNon-road Fuels QualityCAFE DirectiveIncl. 1st-3rd1St Daughter2nd Daughter3rd DaughterExchangeInformation4th DaughterImmission(concentration) EmissionsIncineration VOC’s
  12. 12. How EU air quality legislation works
  13. 13. How EU air quality legislation worksTransport emissions ofair pollutants for EEA 31(acidifying substances,ozone precursors andparticulates), 1990-2005
  14. 14. Changes in loss of life expectancy in the EU in 2000 and in the interim objective in20202000 Strategy in 2020Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution
  15. 15. CO2 -21%EUs Energy & Climate Change Package foresees to reach by 2020- 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels;- Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewableresources to 20%;- A 20% improvement in the EUs energy efficiency.SO2 -32 %NOx -12 %PM -7 %.from the baseline of kyoto treatyAir Quality - Climate Change links
  16. 16.  Quality objectives for European watersWater plays the essential role in the natural ecological balanceand is oxygen for life, industry, fishing, recreational activitiesetc.Objective: Good ecological and chemical status of all Communitywaters by 2015. Only 50% will achieve this status Water Framework Directive 2000/60/ECEstablishes management principles with ririver basin management plans at the center.Calls for cost covering water pricing whichincludes cost of wastewater treatment.EU environmental policiesThe water sector
  17. 17.  Water quality and Control of discharges into theaquatic environment regulated for/by Water Quality Standards Directive Surface Waters Drinking Water, Bathing Water, Fish Water, Shellfish WaterDirectives Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EC Dangerous Substances to Water Directive2006/11/EC prohibits or restricts the discharge oftoxic substances Nitrates Directive 91/676/EEC protects waters against pollutioncaused by nitrates from agricultural sourcesEU environmental policiesThe water sector
  18. 18.  Efforts to combat sea pollution- Sea pollution is very dangerous because of the consequencesfor fundamental biological and ecological balanceMarine Strategy Directive 2008/56/EC establishes a framework forUE action in the field of marine environmental policy (prevention ofrisk, mutual assistance, compensation for damage in accordancewith polluter-pays principle etc.)EU environmental policiesThe water sector
  19. 19.  Fight against industrial pollution Directive 2010/75/EU on IndustrialEmissions. Regulates approx. 50,000 potentiallypolluting installations ranging fromcement plants to large pig farms- Introduces concept of Integrated Permitting i.e. one permitfor emissions into water, air, soil and other media and use ofBest Available Technology (BAT).- Introduces minimum compulsory inspection cyclesEU environmental policiesIndustrial emissions
  20. 20.  Prevention of industrial hazardsSeveso Directive 96/82/EC and its updates Seveso II andSeveso III on the control of major-accident hazards involvingdangerous substances. Regulates approx. 10,000 installationsproducing, using or storing chemicals, explosives and otherhazardous substancesRequires definition of prevention policies for eachestablishment, safety reports to identify accidenthazards, external emergency plans for approval byby competent authority. Strong focus on public information.EU environmental policiesPrevention of Accidents and Preparedness
  21. 21.  Voluntary instruments EMAS regulation (EU Eco-Management and AuditScheme ) management tool for companies and other organisations toevaluate, report and improve their environmental performance. EU Ecolabel helps identify products and services that have a reducedenvironmental impact throughout their life cycle, from theextraction of raw material through to production, use anddisposal Green Public Procurement process whereby public authorities seek to procure goods,services and works with a reduced environmental impactthroughout their life cycle when compared to goods, servicesand works with the same primary function that would otherwisebe procured.”EU environmental policiesEnvironmental governance
  22. 22. EU environmental policiesWaste management Growth of waste: Between 1994 and 2005, EUdomestic waste increased by 19.4%. Toxic substances contained in waste (3 billions tons/year in EU) arehazardous for man and environment, as they can pollute water and appearin food chain; recycled waste help overcome Europe’s scarcity in rawmaterials The EU is aiming for a significant cut in the amount of rubbish generated,through new waste prevention initiatives, better use of resources, andencouraging a shift to more sustainable consumption patterns. Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC Landfills Directive 1999/31/EC aims at reducing headverse effects of waste disposal in landfills Shipments of Waste Regulation (EC) 1013/2006
  23. 23.  Management of waste – specific rules fordisposals Packaging Waste 94/62/EC Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EC on the protection of theenvironment and in particular of the soil, when sewagesludge is used in agriculture PCB/PCT Directive 96/59/EC on disposal of polychlorinatedbiphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC,WEE Directive 2002/96/ECand ELVs Directive 2000/53/ECEU environmental policiesWaste management
  24. 24. EU Waste Hierarchy – The Principle
  25. 25. Some Targets in EU Waste LegislationMin. recovery Min. recycling Collection ratePackaging 2008 60% 55%Cars 2015 95% 85% 100%Electronics2006201970%85%50% Min. 4 kg per inhabitant per year20 kg per inhabitant yearBatteries201150% - 75%(efficiency)2012 25%2016 45%Tyres 2006 0 landfill of tyres2006 reduction to 75% of the 1995 levelBio waste diverted from landfills2009 reduction to 50% of the 1995 level2016 reduction to 35% of the 1995 levelNew targets 2015 Separate collection: at least paper/metal/plastic/glass(WFD) 2020 50% household waste2020 70% construction and demolition waste
  26. 26. EU Waste Hierarchy - Implementation (2008)
  27. 27.  Prevention of chemical hazardsGood safeguards in EU law regarding special purposechemicals but little knowledge about > 100,000 chemicalsubstances in every day productsNew Approach since 2006 rests on two pillarsREACH - Registration, Evaluation, Authorization,Restriction of ChemicalsCLP - Classification, Labelling and Packaging Directiveintroduced in 2008.EU environmental policiesChemicals
  28. 28.  Prevention of chemical hazardsREACH- 30,000 chemicals already in use registered by 2018- No data – No Market- Progressive substitution of dangerous chemicals- Limitation of vertebrate animal testingCLP- Same hazards should be described and labelled in the sameway all around the world.EU environmental policiesChemicals
  29. 29.  Protection of flora and fauna 60% of the Earth’s ecosystem services have been degraded in thelast 50 years. In the EU, 88% of fish stocks are fished beyondmaximum sustainable yields. 38% of bird species are threatened. According to economists, each year we lose 3% of GDP due to the loss ofbiodiversity. That costs the EU €450 billion year after year. Compared tothese figures, investing €5.8 billion per year in Natura 2000 is a bargain EUs Concept - Protection of natural habitats and species - with the Natura2000 network of protected areas at the centre (at present 18% of EU landarea)EU environmental policiesNature protection
  30. 30.  Main Legal Acts Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC provides for the establishment of aEuropean ecological network of special conservation areas “Natura2000” Wild Birds Directive 2009/147/EEC (codification of the previous79/406) provides for the conservation of wild birdsCITES Regulation EC/338/97 implement the Convention onInternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna butcovers a wider field (4 classes of species, various degrees ofprotection, from monitoring to total ban)FLEGT Regulation 2173/2005 establishing a license scheme forimports of timberSeals Regulation (EC) 1007/2009Zoo Directive 1999/22/EC on keeping wild animals in zooEU environmental policiesNature protection
  31. 31.  Efforts to combat noise pollution- Serious direct as well as indirect health effects, for exampledamage to hearing or sleep and later mental disorder, as well asincreasing blood pressure Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49 relating to theassessment and management of environmental noiseEU environmental policiesNoise
  32. 32. Enlargement process: the main stages...Application for MembershipOpinion of the CommissionSerbia - Candidate Status 1/03/2012Opening of Accession NegotiationsAccession NegotiationsSignature of Accession TreatyRatification of Accession TreatyAccession.Stabilisation and Association Agreement
  33. 33. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to SerbiaCOMPARATIVE INDICATORS (Base Years for Data, 2006-2010)Definition of Units Serbia EU 27 Serbiaas % EU27GENERALPopulation Million 7.5 502.5 1.49%GDP/Capita € 4,528 23,296 19.44%Inflation Dinars/€ 6% 2% n/aHousehold Income €/HH 5,208 19,000 27.41%HH Expenditure on Utilities * % 16.10% 18.30% 87.98%Expenditure on Environment % of GDP 0.40% 1.76% 22.73%ENVIRONMENTALDrinking Water Supply % of Population Served 77% 93% 82.80%Purified % of Population Served 68% 100% 68.00%Urban Wastewater Collected % of Population Served 62% 93% 66.67%Treated % of WasteWater Treated 10% 87% 11.49%Municipal Solid Waste Collected % of Population Served 60% 99% 60.61%Compliant Treatment (Lfill/Incin) % of MSW 12.45% 99% 12.58%Recycled % of MSW 4% 43.50% 9.20%Energy Intensity Kg Oil/€ . of GDP 225 167.00 134.73%Emmissions Nox Kg/Capita 27.73 20.59 134.71%Emmissions SO2 Kg/Capita 65.33 11.62 562.35%Emmissions CO2 Tons/Capita 5.13 9.90 51.82%* Accordi ng to the 2010 EU s urvey, EU 27 HH expendi ture on Hous i ng a nd Uti l i ti es a mounts to 33,1% a nd thi s does not di fferenti a tebetween Hous i ng cos ts "per s e" a nd Uti l i ti es . In a 2006 s urvey, Hous i ng cos ts a re es ti ma ted a t 14,8% of HHI. In thi s Ta bl e we ha vema de a "bes t project es ti ma te" for onl y uti l i ti es combi ni ng thes e two s ources .
  34. 34. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia
  35. 35. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to SerbiaSerbia: Summary of the Cost Benefit Analysis of Applying the Acquis (2012)COST-BENEFIT RESULTS OF APPLYING THE ACQUISBased on Medium Range Benefits and EAS Project Cost Assessmentexpressed in € millionBENEFITS COSTSWATER 7.891 5.552WASTE 2.705 2.796AIR & INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION 14.737 1.992ALL OTHER NOT MONETISED 244TOTAL BENEFITS 25.333 10.584
  36. 36. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030TOTAL CST 98 385 540 713 851 884 944 1.037 1.135 1.286 1.366 1.217 1.060 957 958 933 924 896 892 876MAXIMUM AFFORDABILITY 0 16 43 83 150 228 318 421 511 612 696 788 865 948 1.012 1.079 1.151 1.227 1.307 1.39302004006008001.0001.2001.4001.600€MILLIONAFFORDABILITY,TOTAL COSTS
  37. 37. TPs BG CY CZ EE HU LT LV MA PL RO SI SKVolatile OrganicCompounds (VOCs)2009 2006 2007 2008 2004 2005 2009 2007Sulp. content fuel 2011 2006Inciner. W. (old) 2005Inciner. W. (new) 2008 2006Shipment Waste 2009 2007 2011Packaging 2014 2005 2005 2005 2006 2007 2009 2007 2013 2007 2007Waste Electrical andElectronic Equipment(WEEE)2008 2008Landfills 2014 2009 2004 2012 2017Asbestos 2004Urban Water WasteTreatment Directive(UWWTD)2014 2012 2010 2010 2015 2009 2015 2007 2015 2018 2015 2015Disch. Dang. S. 2007 2007 2009 2006Drinking Water 2013 2015 2005 2015Birds 2008Large CombustionPlants (LCP) (old)2004 2005 2007Large CombustionPlants (LCP) (new)2014 2007 2015 2015 2017 2017Integrated PollutionPrevention andControl (IPPC)2011 2010 2010 2015 2011 2011Examples of transition periods
  38. 38. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to SerbiaSerbia : Time Schedule to Achieve Strategic Goals NEASTIMELINEGOALSSHORT TERM MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 20192020 -20252025 -2030TranspositionFull cost-recovery tariffsReformed PUCsSecured co-financingReformed institutions
  39. 39. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia Since 2000 approx. € 700 million in grants(CARDS, IPA) Approx. 30 % of EU Grant Assistance Improved legislation, administrativecapacity and better water, air and wastemanagement for > 1.000,000 citizens
  40. 40. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia Breakdown of EU Assistance according to sectors(ongoing and future)
  41. 41. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia Example: Air protection Air quality does not meet Serbian = EU air quality standards in Serbias 8agglomerations (cities and towns) Sources of pollution are thermo power plants, district heating plants, trafficand others. EU supports air protection legislation, air quality monitoring, air qualityassessment and development of cleaner air plans. Examples - Belgrade,Novi Sad and Bor. EU investment focuses on the power sector clean up inlocations such as Obrenovac By 2013 - 65% of Serbian Thermal Power Plants will meet EUstandards as regards Particulate Matter - the single mosthealth damaging air pollutant.
  42. 42. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia Example: Water Supply and Protection Drinking water quality is still problematic in parts of rural Serbia. Use ofseptic tanks (groundwater pollution) and surface water pollution is one ofseveral reasons why some drinking water schemes do not meet Serbian =EU/WHO micro biological standards. EU assistance is funding drinking water schemes, waste water collectionand wastewater treatment plants in locations such as Petrovac na Mlavi,Indija, Sabac and Subotica. 500,000 citizens benefit from completed EU projects.Planned projects for an additional 800,000 people.
  43. 43. Environmental PoliciesEU Assistance to Serbia Example : Waste Management 70% of household waste is collected, 15 % landfilled to EU standard 3000 wild dumpsites await closure Average recycling of household waste is 7%- 8% Hazardous waste management system in early stages of development EU assistance supports amongst others regional wastemanagement schemes including construction of landfills,collection equipment, waste separation lines and promotes nowalso waste separation at source. Waste Management schemes have been completed in Uzice, Pirot,Sremski - Mitrovica serving close to 700,000 citizens
  44. 44.  Resources include all material andnatural resources, from food, timber,and biodiversity in the widest sense,to energy, metals, soil, water,minerals, our atmosphere and land. Resource Efficiency is about: Sustainable management and use ofresources throughout their life cycle Producing more value with lessmaterial and consuming differently,within our planet’s natural limits.EnvironmentEnvironmentThe Life-cycleSourceSource SinkSinkExtraction:Extraction:16 tons16 tonsDisposal:Disposal:6 tons6 tonsGrowingGrowingtechnospheretechnosphereTo physical stock:To physical stock:10 tons10 tonsThreats to ecosystem services !Threats to ecosystem services !A common environmental policyTowards a resource efficient economy
  45. 45. Further information General Environment for Europeans DG Environment