ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation
Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 201...
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ENBE Project 2 - Report

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ENBE Project 2 - Report

  1. 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 1 ENBE Final Project SPHERA Peng Yep Siang 0315259 FNBE April 2013
  2. 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 2 Content: 1. Introduction 2. A City 3. Investigation & Data Collection: The Ancient cities 4. Investigation & Data Collection: The present city/cities) 5. Investigation & Data Collection: The future city/cities 6. The “X” City 7. Sphera 8. The Conclusion 9. References list
  3. 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 3 1. Introduction This project asks us to produce a city proposal through a report and a video individually. That is the part A of the project. The Part B requires us to build a city model that is chosen by the lecturers. In the Part A of the project, we have to first understand the process and components in city building thoroughly. We have to research about various kinds of cities of different era and thinking. Then, we have to research about the key success criteria of a city in order to produce a better city. Then, plan out the city with the information extracted from the researches and critical thinking. We were given a time frame and some other city-related restriction. The time was set on 2033, the area at 25 – 40 kilometres square and a population of 150 000 – 500 000. 1.The City There are 2 definitions of city: 1. Demographic Definition A city is an urban area with the following criteria:  Permanence A permanent human active area that will only undergo development and expansion, not relocation  Large Population Size The number of people living in the area  High Population Density The number of people per unit area  Social Heterogeneity The accommodation of an area for socialization 2. Functional Definition  Focus on regional context  According to functional definition, a small settlement that plays a very important function or possess a strong certain influence is
  4. 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 4 Cities are made from development of smaller settlement or urban planning. Development of smaller settlement In the past, cities are made from combination of villages and slowly develop into a city. This kind of city is not systematic and segregated because the initial villages are not built in relation with each others. Each village has their own development before the fusion. (I.e. most ancient cities) The illustration above shows the transformation of a rural area to cities. From year 1950 – 1999, the percentage of rural areas decreases because the rural areas developed into suburbs. The percentage of cities also decreases because the development of suburbs into cities takes a much longer time than the development of rural areas into suburbs. At 1999, the percentage of cities decreases to 24.7% even when the real area of cities did not decrease at all. Urban Planning After human possess the building knowledge and the ability to plan, large empire plan out their city. They pick a strategic location and design the structure of the city. The cities are more organized and systematic. Cities built on a strategic location also have better economy. (I.e. Alexandria)
  5. 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 5 Cities are generally urban area. Big cities are usually associated with suburbs and exurbs. A good city has 7 Essential Support Systems  Transportation- ease of access to every corner of the corner and within walking distance from the stations  Energy – cheap, efficient and environment-friendly energy source  Water - health water supply that is sufficient for the whole city  Natural Environment – Closer to the nature through green space in city  Agricultural – High production per unit area to overcome the high demand  Solid Waste -  Economic A healthy city criteria set by World health Organization (WHO)  Clean and safe environment  Meet basic needs of inhabitant  Involve community in local government  Easy access to health service A good city also has a good structure. The structures of cities are normally in: Grid - a formation of city where the streets intersect each other in 90 degrees This system facilitates development and can be easily divided into sections for easier planning. However, the long , straight road promotes speeding which lead to high accident rate. Concentric ring – multiple rings expanding from a point This formation is often interrupted natural or physical landscape features for example a lake. Its zone can be blurred by modern development
  6. 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 6 Sectoral – a modified concentric ring with wedge-shaped sectors Modified from the concentric ring, instead of expanding outwards equally, sectoral formation has a few sectors that are more attractive and developed. This is due to the unbalanced development. Multiple nuclei – a few formation with a few focal point of city Different focal point of city has different specific development forming a another zoning. This formation is designed for increased car ownership because it hass a low walkability since every zone is clearly-defined. Irregular pattern – a undeveloped third world structure This is the result of lack of urban planning. It has no fix order and no city center.
  7. 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 7 2.Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient Cities Amsterdam Amsterdam is the capital and the most populous city in Netherland or more commonly known as Holland. 20% of its lands are below sea level and 50% less than one metre above sea level. Amsterdamn has a city structure of four concentric half-circle of canal. 3 canals are known as Grachtengordel, namely the Herengracht, keizergracht and Prinsengracht. The outermost canal is Singelgracht and the innermost is Singel as moat. The purposes of these canals are defense, water management and transport. The fort was built outside of Singelgracht and the houses outside of the fort were built so that it can be burn easily. Amsterdam defense system has no chance to its worth because by the time the fort was completed, air invasion was practiced. The early construction of these canals was carried out from the west to east, not from the center expanding out. The transportation in Amsterdam is mainly water transport because the water canals connect to everywhere. Bicycling is also a popular choice of transport in Amsterdam as most of the places have excellent walkability and city scenery is attractive. However, this has become a problem recently. The bicycles are cheap and there is too many bicycles owned by an individual, thus bicycles are abandoned around the city. it is a problem to manage all these abandoned bicycles The public space in Amsterdam is the Dam Square which has a national monument and a royal palace. Amsterdam also has a red-light district called the De Wallen. It used to a tourist attraction but it has developed into a asocial ill now because of the increased crime rate in that area and exploitation of women. It also causes social distress for the society. Conclusion Amsterdam has an organized city structure of concentric ring formation. Instead of streets, there are canals running the city. The canals serve multiple functions. Initially,
  8. 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 8 it was built because Amsterdam stands in the way of a river. They need to channel the water away and it was also for defensive purpose. The water act as a primary defensive barrier which can be used in my city. The problem with bicycle need to be taken care of if my city is to like Amsterdam Havana Havana is located in Cuba. Havana is not an ancient city but several years back. Havana faced a big event which changed it. In 1989, the Soviet Bloc collapsed and Cuba was cut out of resources because Soviet Bloc is Cuba food import and agricultural input of 50% of Cuba caloric intake. The condition was serious especially in Havana because of transportation problem. Shortage of petroleum inhibits the rural area from transporting food to the city. The citizen response by planting vegetation around their house and the government support them by securing land use for gardener, provide free land for agricultural purpose, distribute agricultural knowledge and advices. They also establish centres around the city that sell agricultural supply and tools. After 2 years of struggle, the city was back on its track and the city changed. The citizens did not stop farming in their houses. This leads to urban farming in the city. it was a rare scene in city back then. Conclusion We should avoid relying on external source to support the city because it is unreliable. Sustainability in city is very important. This can be achieved with urban farming. As the mayor, I have to provide specific utilities such as processed waste distribution to encourage urban farming. I have to provide them with spaces as well.
  9. 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 9 Alexandria Alexandria is an ancient city located in the Egypt. It was built on a strip of land between Mediterranean and Lake Mareoits. It was a city found by Alexander the Great, developed by the the first 2 Ptolemy and designed by Dinocrates, Alexander’s personal architect. It was a city planned right from the beginning. This was an early practice of urban planning. Not many cities were planned in that era. The city was built in a grid formation with a huge boulevard running through the center. It was made for transportation by cart or other larger transportation mean. This is due accommodate the large amount of traffic that is going on in the city because of its trading activities. The city was placed in a strategic spot where traders pass by before going to the Mediterranean. Its water supply originates from the Lake Mareotis which is linked to the Nile River. Alexandria also has trading activities with the Roman through the lake. The landscape of the city is quite unique. It has a T-shaped peninsula extending out of its mainland. Erected on the T-shaped peninsula is the Pharos Lighthouse which is one of the Ancient 7 Wonders of the world. The lighthouse serves as a monument and a beacon for the ships and boats. The whole city is now submerged underneath the sea. It became a myth before people found it. Conclusion Economy and trading is very important to ward a city development. However, the city should have the suitable infrastructure to accommodate the activities. The infrastructure and the amenities of a city should be made to suit the city and people’s need. Alexandria was able to reach its peak of development because of its grid city structure. Therefore, a city structure is important.
  10. 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 10 3.Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities Shanghai Shanghai is located in China. As one of the world trade center, Shanghai has a very busy traffic. Shanghai has a lot of trains but it is still not enough. The main reason for this scenario is because the locals that travel from further in the mainland usually take their own private transportation. The local population density is also very high. So Shanghai has other solution to solve this problem – inner ring elevated road. Inner ring elevated road is a kind of ring road. Ring road is a highway which encircles a town or a city. Most metropolitan community has ring road, mostly circumferental city. the ring road allows people to have a quick look of the whole city. Elevated road is, as its name described, a road which is above ground level. The objective of this road system is to reduce traffic light and traffic congestion which in turn reduce traffic accident rate. Shanghai has a many elevated ring road. The tallest of them all is a 7-floor elevated road. Assuming every floor has 3 lanes, 7 floors will make up to 21lanes. 21 lanes can accommodate a huge traffic flow. Conclusion The elevated road is a good idea. It will not obstruct the development on the ground and it can provide a partial shade to the pedestrian on the ground. An elevated road can also provide a good scenery.
  11. 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 11 Paris Paris is another city which a ring road. The road has a name called Boulevard Peripherique. It is built on the last remaining city wall of Paris. The destruction of the wall provides a vacant land for the construction of the road. The ring road in Paris is a dual ring road. It is two-way, unlike Shanghai’s ring road. It provides an unhindered flow of traffic highway. There is no traffic light, no at grade crossing and no hard shoulder. It is not always on the ground. 50% of the road is above grade, 40% of the road is below grade and 10% of the road is at grade. However, the outcome of the ring road in Paris is different from Shanghai’s. It has certain side effects. Although the initial objective of the road is to reduce traffic congestion, it has causes a widespread congestion. It also inhibits the expansion of the surrounding urban area because it is not elevated like Shanghai’s. Conclusion Using the same system may not produce the same effect because the location and condition is different. It is better to modify the system to suit your local culture and condition.
  12. 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 12 Singapore Singapore is a South East Asian nation that is located right below of Malaysia. Although Singapore is officially a nation, Singapore is also known as a city due to its scale. Singapore has a few disadvantages compared to other nations. It has a shortage of land and natural resources and high population density. However, Singapore was still able to become a world- class country because of its urban planning. Singapore is the modern closest example of a self-sustain city. 4 Principle of a sustainable city - Eco-industrial park An industrial region where the companies practice industrial symbiosis. i.e A production company collaborates with a chemical company so that it can sell its waste to the chemical company. - Urban farming Integrate agriculture with urban planning. Agriculture and urban have always been separated because the use of space for both field is different. This problem can be overcome with technology. - Urban infill Migration of human resource into the city to supplement urban farming and contribute to the nation’s development. - Walkable urbanism Focus on mixed use development, walkable street and public spaces in urban planning so that a space can have multiple functions. This increases walkability a scale of city expansion. Singapore is also a very high density development. 10 principles to livable high density city 1. Plan for long-term growth and renewal 2. Embrace diversity, foster inclusiveness 3. Integrate nature with people and city
  13. 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 13 4. Develop affordable and mixed use neighborhood 5. Maximize potential of every space 6. Prioritize green buildings and transport to reduce energy consumption 7. Relieve density with variety and green boundaries by intersperse high-rise with low rises to reduce sense of crowded spaces 8. Activate space for greater safety by activating visual access to space so that residents can foresee danger 9. Promote innovative solution 10.Forge “3P”(people, public, private) partnership – community collaborate to improve each other’s quality of life. Conclusion Generally, the concept of a sustainable city is to utilize every single space without crowding the city. The green element can help to reduce the sense of a crowded space. The balance between energy output and energy input of a city is also very important. The sustainability of a city cannot be determined by the city planning alone. The community has to play a part as well. The city can provide the community that chance to get involved such as urban farming.
  14. 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 14 4.Investigation & Data Collection: Future Cities Water Re-balance Water Re-Balance is actually a skyscraper that is designed to improve the water supply of Shanghai. Shanghai has a major problem of water supply. It is lack of underground water, municipal water and rainfall. Shanghai have taken so much water from under the city since 1860 that the city itself has sunk 1.7 meters in the past 40 years. Most of the river water in Shanghai is polluted and unusable. Despite that shortage, the city does experience flood during monsoon season. Water Re-balance is created to overcome this problem by collecting rainwater and purified it. The tower is thin and is based underground, allowing the structure to pump collected and cleaned rainwater into the underground water table. From this base it spirals up and flowers at the top with a large platform that holds a green roof that collects the rainwater. After it is collected on top, water filters as it flows down through the tower, and is clean by the time it reaches ground level. Conclusion The idea of collecting rainwater is good because rainwater is technically the cleanest water. So the purifying process will not take long and cost a lot of money.
  15. 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 15 Tehran Tower Tehran, Iran’s largest city and its capital, is plagued by extreme air pollution, 80% of which is caused by auto traffic. Amongst its 8.5 million residents, it is estimated that 27 people die daily from pollution-related diseases, showing the tangible and deadly dangers that result from the traffic caused by urban sprawl. To combat this reality, the designers of the Tehran Tower propose building up, locating massive skyscrapers within Tehran to house masses of residents centrally. The Tehran Tower is actually a residential tower. The tower stands on two legs and joins at the top. The legs only occupied 1200 square metres of land compared the 30 000 metres of a typical high-rise. The tower utilizes the space well. The towers also diverge at the top, giving shade to the residential unit that is placed below. There is a green rooftop expanse to be enjoyed by residents. The tall height of the garden and the prefab residential cells help protect them from the noise pollution of the city, Conclusion The idea of maximizing the use of space and land is parallel to the concept of sustainability. The development of should not be just expansion to the side. The development should be within the city and solve the problem of the city instead of escaping. The garden is deprived of noise pollution I also a very good move because it allow the garden’s function to be fulfill which is to relax
  16. 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 16 5.The “X” City In 2030, the Earth begins to get hotter. First in the core then it radiates to the surface. The land was so hot that people can’t walk on it. The glacier and ice caps begin to melt. Freshwater lakes evaporate. Sea is the only escape thus a floating city is built. “X” city is located in the middle of the travel path from west to east by hip. In the past, “X’ city is a very rich city because the traders travelling to the east will stop by “X” city to replenish their fuel, food and water. After the introduction of air transport, “X” city has become less developed but “X” city can still stand in the global battle of the developed civilizations. The people in the old “X” city are comprised of different races and ethnics forming a multicultural society. The 3 main races in “X” city are Malays, Chinese and Indian. There are also negligible numbers of other ethnics. Malay occupied most of the population with Chinese coming second and Indian, the least. In the past, there is a discrimination of races through economic role. The discrimination has been eradicated but the people of “X” city are still not united. In conclusion, the new city for the old “x” city needs to cater for all the races and ethnics. They will need some space to preserve their respective culture. Each race should have a fair share of the spaces. The new city should obtain food source that can be consume by all races.
  17. 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 17 In term of environment, the new city should have a balance between the natural environment and the built environment. The new city can be a fusion of both. The new city will need to have good ventilation and cooling system. More importantly, the new city should be able to self-sustain because the natural resourcess will finish eventually and the external source is unpredictable and unreliable. The new city should maximize every single space and utilize fully the renewable energy source. The new cannot be a pollutant to the environment as that will harm us eventually. 6.Sphera Sphera is a self-sustaining city that floats on water. In present time, a fully self- sustainable city is still impossible because of lack of resource. The present cities are interdependent. With rising sea level, building a self-sufficient city on water is the best choice because it consumes the least cost and energy. Disadvantages of different terrain Underwater  Need to concern about the pressure exerted onto the structure – leading to high consumption of expensive high material to build a structure that can withstand the structure.  Hard to access the city  May not receive sufficient natural sunlight Underground  Lacking of sunlight  Highly likely to lose track of direction and time because of absence of day and night  Prone to earthquake
  18. 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 18 On sky  Cold climate due to high altitude  High energy consumption to stay afloat.  Malfunction of floating system cause huge disaster – high risk Floating on water Pros  Closer to human former habitat’s characteristics  Ease of water supply  Sunlight available  Buoyancy reduce energy needed to stay afloat Cons  Prone to drastic weather change.  Disorientation caused by losing track of direction.  High sunlight exposure. Design Concept The main concept of Sphera’s design is sustainability. Sustainability is to maintain a balance between the net consumption and net production. A sustainable city will maintain the physical resources and system that support life and insure the quality of life or system that interact with life such as the farm system. A sustainable city maximizes the utility of the natural resources without harming the ecosystem.
  19. 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 19 Section of the city Water catchment area above Sphera
  20. 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 20 Plan view Above ground
  21. 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 21 Ground Underground
  22. 22. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 22 Shape Sphera is made up of 3 equal spheres and one bigger sphere. The spheres join together and form a fusion of spheres with 4 main regions. The middle region is supposedly empty. After the fusion, the middle section is become a circle. The landscape of Sphera is basically overlapping circlre. Sphera is made out of sphere for a few reasons. - With a limited perimeter, the area enclosed within a shape increases as the number of vertices increase. This is also why honeycomb shape is used rather than square in some urban planning. From here, we can conclude that circle has the largest area. A sustainable city needs to maximize its land as much as possible. - The drag resistance experienced by a sphere is the one of the lowest. The owner with the lowest drag resistance is aerofoil shape. - The characteristic of a sphere to able to withstand large force from out as the force is distributed over the curved surface. At the same spot, a force from the opposite direction, the inside of the sphere will break the structure easily as the force is converging to that one point. After earthquake, the assessment team always check the pipes from the inside because that is where it starts to crack
  23. 23. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 23 The overall structure is made up of 4 spheres because it provides the stability needed when floating on water like boat. Each sphere supports each other so the structure does not sway too much. The urban region has a stage-like topography. There Is 4 stages in total. The length of the area decreases and the height increases as the stages go higher. This creates a curve which helps in ventilating the air in the structure
  24. 24. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 24 Zoning The city contains an urban area and a suburb area. The urban area (large sphere) contains regions that run the city economy and production while the suburb (3 small spheres) contains residential region and farming region. The suburb produces raw material and the urban manufacture it.
  25. 25. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 25 Urban region Stage 4 - The government building The government building has the highest stage with the a large open spaces which is actually a lake. The water act as a access restriction for the people who have no good intention. Stage 3 – Defense towers The defense towers have water all around them as a primary military defense barrier which limit the valid access points. This allow them to manage invasion or any military attack easily. The towers also stand between the government buildings and the rest of the urban area to control the access to the government buildings and ensure safety of political bodies like a custom. The ring-road railway to the government buildings is also control by the defense towers. The railway is retractable.
  26. 26. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 26 The defense tower s is built on stage 3 to have a better view of the whole city and foresee any danger. Stage 2 – Central business district, commercial area, hospital and fitness centre The business and commercial buildings are placed on stage 2 to avoid blocking the sunlight for the other buildings as the business and commercial buildings are usually high-rises. The commercial area and the business area are place together because the people in the business field have more consuming power. The fitness centre is place close to the business area for the white people to exercise after work. This will maintain the average health of the citizen and deter any formation of unhealthy condition such as obesity. The fitness centre is place beside the hospital because people are more prone to injuries when exercising. Stage 1 and ground- residential, education, hospital, museum and cultural On the left flank of the urban region, the residential and education area is place together so that the students do not have to travel far to their school. They are place nearer to the lake which is the city center so that they have a scenic view and a more relaxing atmosphere. The religion area is place right in front of the residential area on the lake.
  27. 27. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 27 In the middle is the port entrance which connects to the outside of Sphera. The port is partially underground. On the right flank, there is a tourism spot. There are museum, science center and culture for the tourist to understand our culture better and offer the students an opportunity for case study. The hotel, theme park and shopping complex are place closer together. The theme park is partly on the water because there is a water amusement park. An artificial waterfall separates the urban region and the suburb region. The water fall acts as the center of Sphera and a cooling system for the Sphera. The constant moving water absorbs the heat from the heat island which is a side effect of a high density city.
  28. 28. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 28 Suburb region The suburb area has a symmetrical distribution of function. There are residential area, mix-use development area, an open square and a park surrounding the artificial river. There is a bridge connecting both sides. The open square and the park allow people to have events or celebration as Malaysia has multicultural society and a lot of festivals. Hanging above the suburb, there is a lake garden with residence. There is a monumental hanging crystal which hangs onto the roof underneath the rain catchment area. The water from the catchement area will flow down the tips of the crystal onto the the lake like a veil.
  29. 29. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 29 The monumental hanging crystal above the lake
  30. 30. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 30 Underground The industrial area is place near the port and directly underneath the urban area to allow the industrial activity goes smooth. Communication or contact between the industrial area and business area will be easier and faster. The industrial area is place underground to improve the surface appearance. The power plant, water supply and waste management is place close to the industrial area because it consumes more electrical power and water and the waste produced is harder to process. The underground hospital is place in the middle for easy access. The research institute mainly focus on biological and medical research because medical is very important. (refer to “Medical” below) The research institute is placed underneath the farming section so that it is more convenient to obtain raw material. The institute is also closer to the hospital so that it can communicate and exchange medical data.
  31. 31. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 31 The waste storage system is place furthest from the hospital and it is isolated for the health of the patients The waste is channel back to the residence to encourage urban farming. In case of accidents, buffer zone surrounding the underground hospital leads the leaked waste to waste management centre underneath the urban area.
  32. 32. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 32 Transport
  33. 33. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 33 Walkability radius from the stations
  34. 34. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 34 Sphera is a car-free city with only public transport which is trams and trains. Objective of transport planning:  To reduce consumption of energy  Prevent traffic congestion  Prevent pollution as Sphera is an enclosed structure. The trams only concentrate at the urban region. On each stage (except the last and highest stage) there are 2 separated trams. The separated trams shorten the travel distance of each tram, thus reduce the waiting time interval. The underwater train There are 2 trains that connect the urban area and suburban area. One is the underwater train and the other is the cargo train. The underwater train is designed for the passengers to experience the underwater world in the quickest and easiest way. The cargo train has 2 lines moving thru and forth from the industrial area, the port, the research institute. The last train railway is a ring-road railway. Ring road is highway that circles a metropolis. In Sphera, the ring road is modified into an elevated railway. The passengers can have a clear and scenic view of the city. Food and energy Sphera’s main energy source is wind energy and tidal energy because Sphera is a floating city and ocean always has a unpredictable and drastic weather.
  35. 35. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 35 Wind turbines and water turbines are scattered on the outer wall of Sphera. The wind turbines extend from sea level to middle line of the whole structure as to not blocking the sunlight. Air can go into Sphera through the wind turbines and ventilates the inner atmosphere of Sphera. Sphera also utilize the high sunlight exposure in the ocean for solar energy. The buildings in the city have solar panel to absorb energy. As for food source, Sphera has a farming section in the suburb area. There are two main agricultural activities in the farm – plantation farm and fish farm. Earlier civilizations always build their settlement around a river for 2 reason – water and fish. Fish is Sphera’s main source of protein. Fish is easier to take care and they are confined to the lake. They will not intrude the residential area and cause disturbance. Fish also contain less cholesterol and more b-complex vitamin which is essential for brain development. As a result, the children born in Sphera can have a full development in term of physical and mental. Green space Green space is scattered around Sphera. The green space in Sphera can also be considered tourist attractions. In the suburb area, the bigger green space is the park around the artificial waterfall and river. Most of the residential units also have a balcony to plant. They will be provided with processed waste from their own isolated waste storage system. This is to encourage urban farming. Linear park below railway
  36. 36. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 36 Green space is especially important in the urban area because high density development always causes heat island. The green spaces can mitigate the effect of heat island. In the urban area, there is a linear park underneath the ring-road railway. The linear parks also act as the secondary ring-road which allows people to walk around the city. The trees filter out the loud noise from the train. People can go travel between the stagesthrough the stairs
  37. 37. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 37 Another major green space in the urban area is the garden above all the building blocks. All the garden is connected so it looks like a spider web. It mitigates the high temperature in the heat island, provide the working people a place to relax and provide shelter for the people below the garden. People can choose to travel through the city by walking in the garden or the streets. It also connect all the stages together. It forms a vitual hill. Medical Medical advancement is very important to preserve life and prevent plague because a plague in an enclosed structure like Sphera is very dangerous. There are two hospitals in Sphera, one in the center of urban area and one in the middle of suburb area (underground). The hospitals can be access through the subways because the hospitals entrance and the subways entrance are connected. The above diagram shows the access route to the hospitals. The black boxes is the subway entrances Activities & Features
  38. 38. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 38 Pasar malam in front of the residence and shoplots Free 3D movie on the waterfall every movie night
  39. 39. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 39 Advertisement on the wall of the stages Underwater train going through the artificial river
  40. 40. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 40 7.Conclusion Sustainability used to be a word where you have to spell it out for the other to understand. People were more focus on the functional development of the city in the past. However, people are beginning to take a concern in the environmental issue and aware of the importance of sustainability in city. The revolution of city is going down towards a greener path. The future cannot be determined but it can be predicted. Many researchers and scientists have predicted that our home will one day be gone. It is still not too late to save our home. From the cities I researched, I have gained a better insight as to how to plan a city. From the past cities, I learnt that the success of a city depends on its foundation which is the city planning; from the present cities, I learnt that the correct implementation of the city planning is very important; from the future cities, I learnt that I have to solve the problem my city faces and will face.
  41. 41. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 41 8.Reference Links Alexandria. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ancientsites.com/aw/Places/Place/419305 Amsterdam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amsterdam#Cityscape_and_architecture Canals of Amsterdam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canals_of_Amsterdam Cleopatra - Map: Cleopatra's Alexandria - Pictures, More From National Geographic Magazine. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/07/cleopatra/alexandria-map How do we make a city plan?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.futurecityarizona.org/plan-city-outline Plan / Introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sustainable-city.org/Plan/Intro/intro.htm Seventeenth-century canal ring area of Amsterdam inside the Singelgracht - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1349 The Structure of Cities - Urbanization and the Development of Cities. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-population-and-urbanization/urbanization-and-the- development-of-cities/the-structure-of-cities/ Urban planning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_planning Urban planning in Singapore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_planning_in_Singapore Wide Urban World: What is a city? Definitions of the urban. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.com/2011/02/what-is-city-definitions-of-urban.html 10 Principles for Liveable High Density Cities: Lessons from Singapore - Urban Land Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uli.org/press-release/10-principles-singapore/ A City with Too Many Bicycles ? Amsterdam?s Unique Problem | This Big City. (n.d.). Retrieved
  42. 42. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Peng Yep Siang| 0315259 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 42 from http://thisbigcity.net/too-many-bicycles-amsterdam-problem/ The Beehive, Oxford | Maths in the City. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mathsinthecity.com/sites/beehive-oxford Creating the Gherkin's curves, London | Maths in the City. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mathsinthecity.com/sites/creating-gherkins-curves-london The Future of Urban Agriculture | Sustainable Cities Collective. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sustainablecitiescollective.com/growninthecity/22664/5-questions-dr-nevin-cohen- five-borough-farm-project-food-systems-academia-and- Inner Ring Road (Shanghai) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_Ring_Road_(Shanghai) Singapore: A Sustainable City of the Future | Propertyguru. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.propertyguru.com.sg/lifestyle/article/4/singapore-a-sustainable-city-of-the-future Sustainable cities: innovative urban planning in Singapore | Guardian Sustainable Business | Guardian Professional. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable- business/sustainable-cities-innovative-urban-planning-singapore Urban Agriculture: What Cuba Can Teach Us | ArchDaily. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.archdaily.com/237526/urban-agriculture-part-i-what-cuba-can-teach-us/ Why the Future of Farming May Be in Cities - WSJ.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443855804577602960672985508.html

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