Determinants of the mathematics performance of the iv year high students by eugene d. gabriel
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur iDETERMINANTS OF THE MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF THE FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF STA. LUCIA DISTRICT EUGENE D. GABRIEL ILOCOS SUR POLYTECHNIC STATE COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOOL TAGUDIN, ILOCOS SUR MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION (MATHEMATICS) FEBRUARY 2012
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur ii APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Determinants of the MathematicsPerformance of the Fourth Year High School Students of Sta. LuciaDistrict” conducted and submitted by EUGENE D. GABRIEL in partialfulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE INEDUCATION (MATHEMATICS) has been examined and passed by theGraduate Thesis Review Committee on February 18, 2012 composed of:EDERLINA M. SUMAIL, Ph. D LITO W. BINAY-AN, MASE Adviser/ Statistician Member/ Review CommitteeTESSIE L. DELA CRUZ, Ph. D. HELEN C. ABELLA, Ph. D Member/Review Committee Internal Expert RAFAEL B. QUERUBIN, Ph. D. Chairman, Review Committee Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements forthe degree Master of Science in Education (Mathematics). NELLIE L. TABANGIN, Ph. D. REMEDIOS B. OBILLE, Ed. D. Associate Dean Dean, Graduate School RAFAEL B. QUERUBIN, Ph. D. SUC, President II Recorded by: FRANCISCO N. DIVINA, MSA Graduate Secretary Contribution No. ________ Date: ___________________
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH A baby boy was born at Brgy. Libtong, Tagudin, Ilocos Sur on theevening of August 10, 1978. His name was taken after the name of theworld‟s famous chess master “Eugene” Torre by Mr. Primo V. Gabriel, acarpenter and Mrs. Tita D. Gabriel, an instructor of the Ilocos SurPolytechnic State College, South Cluster, Tagudin Campus, Tagudin,Ilocos Sur. Having been enlightened by the word of God, Eugene grew in a FullGospel Christian belief where he learned how to value serving God, goodcharacter, manners and morals. At his early age he was trained servingGod and trusting Him no matter what circumstances come. To serve Godas a minister was one of his dreams during his childhood. Each individual needs to acquire knowledge, so he began hisformal education in elementary at Libtong Community School from 1985to 1991 and graduated with honors. He continued his secondaryeducation at Tagudin General Comprehensive High School now IlocosSur Polytechnic State College (ISPSC), Tagudin Campus from 1991 to1995. Due to his enthusiastic desire to serve God being a minister heenrolled at Pentecostal Bible College (PBC) now Asian Mission BibleSeminary San Fernando City, La Union, in his ministerial studies for twoyears and six months practicum. After his graduation he started his firstpioneering work in Nagtenga, Sta. Cruz, Ilocos Sur and then transferredat Pudoc, Tagudin, Ilocos Sur. Pursuing the challenge to grow as aperson and as a professional he took his Bachelor in SecondaryEducation for the second semester at ISPSC Tagudin Campus in 1997while he was having his ministry in Pudoc, Tagudin, Ilocos Sur. He wastransferred to work as a minister in Sagat, Sta. Cruz, Ilocos Sur, so hedecided to continue his studies at the University of Northern Philippines,Candon, Ilocos Sur. He finished his Bachelor in Secondary Educationmajor in Mathematics and minor in Physical Education and English onMarch, 2002. New graduates need to prove that they are qualified in the teachingprofession as imposed by the PRC, so he took his Licensure Examinationfor Teachers on August 25, 2002 and luckily he passed the examinationwith a rating of 79.20%. In January, 2005, he took the opportunity to exercise hisprofession as a teacher. He accepted the challenge to teach at Sta. LuciaAcademy, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur where he taught Mathematics III and IVup to the present. The desire to serve God is still there so he is enjoying
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur ivthe position being the music director and assistant pastor of the mainchurch, Christ‟s Servants Full Gospel Ministry, Inc. (CSFGMI). Eugene is happily married last December 27, 2006 to JovelynBanquiad, a licensed teacher and presently working at Tagudin General Hospital and Capillariasis Center as administrative aide. They wereblessed by God with two beautiful daughters namely Genelyn Grace andEunice Ashley. He believed that everything can be accomplished through the helpof God and by His Power nothing is impossible. EUGENE D. GABRIEL
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur v ACKNOWLEDGMENT The researcher‟s foremost gratitude to the Almighty God, the giverof life, full of blessings and grace, and the source of all wisdom, for allthe bountiful enlightenment and guidance He provided in makingeverything possible in the completion of this research work. Sincere gratitude is also extended to the following individuals whoshowed genuine support to the completion of this research work. Dr. Ederlina M. Sumail, his adviser and statistician for herpatience in giving brilliant pieces of advice, encouragement andassistance in analyzing gathered data; Dr. Remedios B. Obille, Dean of the Graduate School andchairman of the panel defense for her guidance, valuable suggestions inthe formulation of the problem and scholarly pieces of advice in theimprovement of this study; Dr. Tessie Dela Cruz and Sir Lito W. Binay-an, the members of thereview committee, for their expertise and valuable suggestions in therefinement of this study; Dr. Helen C. Abella, Internal Expert, for her intellectualsuggestions that gave meaning to the research results and that greatly
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur viimproved the final manuscript; Madame Agnes Torres, for her invaluable contributions to makethis piece more meaningful; The School Principals and Mathematics teachers of both publicand private schools of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur forallowing him to conduct a research and for patiently providing the dataneeded in the research; His younger sister Helen D. Gabriel who helped him financially andto his Mama Tita, who is always giving him the word of encouragement tofinish this study and her effort in tallying some of the gathered data; His loving and understanding wife Jovelyn and his lovely kidsGenelyn Grace and Eunice Ashley, who always extend unconditionalsupport and serve as his inspiration in this endeavor. This piece of workcarefully craved with patience and endurance is dedicated to all of you. e.d.g.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur vii DEDICATION To My loving and understanding wife: JOVELYN, Daughters: GENELYN GRACE And EUNICE ASHLEY Loving parents: PRIMO V. GABRIEL And TITA D. GABRIEL Sisters: EUGENIA and HELEN And To my beloved CO-PASTORS, CO- TEACHERS, FRIENDS AND MENTORS who are always there ready to render their love and support so as to make this work materialize, and above all, To the dear Almighty GOD!!! EUGENE
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur viii ABSTRACT GABRIEL, EUGENE D. February 2012, Determinants of theMathematics Performance of the Fourth Year High School Studentsof Sta. Lucia District. M. S. E. Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College,Graduate School, Tagudin Campus, Tagudin, Ilocos Sur.Adviser: Ederlina M. Sumail, Ph. D. The major purpose of this study was to identify the Determinants ofthe Mathematics Performance of the Fourth Year High School Students ofSta. Lucia District during the school year 2011 – 2012.. The descriptive – correlational research was employed withproportional random sampling as mode of obtaining the sample. Therewere 602 student- respondents, 14 Mathematics teacher- respondents andfive schools of both public and private high school of Sta. Lucia District.The statistical tools used were frequency counting, percentage, weightedmean, t-test, Pearson r, and stepwise linear regression. Results of the study showed that most of the fourth year high schoolstudents were females with 318 out of 602 students, aged 15 – 16 yearsold, graduated from public elementary schools and having 77 – 82 gradepoint average (GPA) in third year Mathematics. Their parents were both high school graduates with below Php10,000.00 monthly income having a semi – skilled job living in permanentdwellings located in the rural areas. The attitudes of the students toward Mathematics was “slightlyfavorable” with little overall Mathematics beliefs and excellent impressionsto their Mathematics teachers. Most of the teacher-respondents were females were of 21-30 yearsbeing singles and married, had been in the service for 15 years and below,all were qualified to teach, were bachelor’s degree holders, most of themwere teacher I, and had attended regional trainings/seminars. They haddifferent attributes and qualifications that made them qualified to teachsecondary Mathematics. Most of the schools had an average of 56 – 60 students per classmostly were public high schools located in the poblacion and had slightlyadequate school facilities and equipment.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur ix It is concluded that the student-respondents of the secondaryschools of Sta. Lucia District are a blend of different profile variables. Theteacher-respondents represent a variety of different profile variables. Theschools vary in terms of class size, type of school, location of school andadequacy of school materials. The Mathematics IV students recognize theimportance of Mathematics in their overall development. The MathematicsIV students manifest varied self confidence, success and defenseorientations in Mathematics and show a slight positive attitudes towardMathematics. The fair and good performance of students in MathematicsIV demands a more intensive and innovative approach in teaching thesubject to increase the level of attitudes and beliefs toward the subject.The Mathematics teachers meet the standard requirements set by theDepEd and the Civil Service to qualify them to teach. The basicrequirement needed to operate a school does not come up with thestandard. The students posses the same characteristics in terms ofattitudes toward Mathematics, Mathematics beliefs and impressions toMathematics teachers and shows a slight difference in Mathematics IVperformance. The performance of the students in Mathematics IV isassociated with sex, age, type of elementary graduated from, GPA in thirdyear Mathematics, highest educational attainment of the father and themother, income of parents, occupation of parents and type of dwelling. TheMathematics performance of the students is also dependent on theteachers’ profile in terms of sex, highest educational attainment andplantilla position, and school profile in terms of class size and location ofschool are interrelated to the Mathematics performance of the students.Personal profile of the students in terms of age, sex and Grade PointAverage (GPA) in Mathematics III, and their socio-economic profile in termsof highest educational attainment of the father, highest educationalattainment of the mother, income of parents, occupation of parents andtype of dwelling, the impressions to Mathematics teachers and, the schoolprofile in terms of class size and location of school emerge as determinantsof the Mathematics IV performance. It is then recommended that: the administrators and Mathematicsteachers starting from first year shall strengthen the students’ foundationin Mathematics subjects and should continuously search for someinnovations in teaching so that in the higher years they will be prepared toundertake higher Mathematics subjects and to enhance the desirableattitudes and beliefs toward Mathematics. The school administratorsshould take into consideration the normal class sizes, so that the teacherscan cater the needs of these students individually and that the schoolmaterials will become available for these students. TEEPS and SCOPE,
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xInstructional Materials, Mathematics Bulletin Board and Science laboratorymust be made more adequate by the school administrators and teachersconcerned. The Mathematics teachers should be updated with the newtrends and techniques in teaching. They should be encouraged to attendtrainings and seminars related to this and they should be encouraged alsoto enrol and finish graduate studies in Mathematics for them to becomemore efficient and effective to teach the subject. Parents should give fullsupport and tutor their children in their studies in order to help theteachers in developing the skills of the students along Mathematics. Asimilar study should be conducted in all Mathematics subjects from firstyear to fourth year levels as well as in other areas of specialization to findout the determinants which may influence the performance of the studentsin that particular area.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xi TABLE OF CONTENTSPRELIMINARIES PageTitle Page iApproval Sheet iiBiographical Sketch iiiAcknowledgment vDedication viiAbstract viiiTable of Contents xiList of Tables xivList of Figures xvCHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xii Situational Analysis 1 Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework 7 Statement of the Problem 15 Hypotheses 16 Significance of the Study 17 Scope and Delimitation 19 Definition of Terms 20CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF LITERATURE 26CHAPTER III – RESEARCH METHODOLY Research Design 48 Population of the Study 49 Data Gathering Instrument 49 Categorization of Data 51 Data Gathering Procedure 53 Statistical Treatment 54CHAPTER IV – RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xiii Personal Profile of the Student- 57 respondents Socio-economic Profile of the Student- 61 respondents Attitudes toward Mathematics 67 Mathematics Beliefs 69 Impressions to Mathematics Teachers 72 Mathematics Teachers’ Profile 74 School Profile 79 Level of Performance of the Students in 83 Mathematics IV (First Grading) Relationship between the Students’ 87 Profile and Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading) Relationship between the Mathematics 91 teachers’ profile and Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading) Relationship between the School 93 Profile and Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading) Determinants of the Mathematics IV 96 PerformanceCHAPTER V – SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xiv Summary 101 Findings 102 Conclusions 110 Recommendations 111BIBLIOGRAPHY 115APPENDICES A. Request Letter to the Division Schools 122 Superintendent, School Principals and Approval B. The Questionnaires for the Fourth Year High 129 School Students, Mathematics teachers Respondents C. Statistical Printouts 136
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xv LIST OF TABLESTable Title Page1 Personal Profile of the Fourth Year High School 58 Students of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur2 Socio-economic Profile of the Students 643 Attitudes toward Mathematics 684 Mathematics Beliefs of the Fourth Year High School 70 Students in Public and Private Schools5 Impressions to Mathematics Teachers as perceived by 73 the Students6 Profile of the Mathematics Teachers in Public and 77 Private High Schools7 Profile of Schools of both Public and Private Schools of 80 Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur8 Level of Adequacy of School Materials 829 Level of Performance in Mathematics IV in Public and 84 Private High Schools (First Grading)
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur xvi10 Summary of Mathematics IV Performance of Fourth 86 Year High School Students (First Grading)11 Relationship between the Students‟ Profile and 88 Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading)12 Relationship between the Mathematics Teachers‟ 92 Profile and Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading)13 Relationship between the School Profile and 94 Mathematics IV Performance (First Grading)14 Determinants of the Mathematics IV Performance 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page 1 The Research Paradigm 14
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Chapter I INTRODUCTION Situational Analysis Mathematics plays a vital role in peoples‟ daily lives. For thismatter, Betz as cited by Salazar (2001) said that a citizen of the modernworld could not afford to be ignorant of Mathematics because the worldis highly mathematical. Hence effective Mathematics instruction hasbecome an absolute necessity in all levels of education. Furthermore, Sagun as cited by Lubina (2004) stated thatMathematics plays an important role in many aspects of life. It helps tounderstand and use quantities like weight, height and age properly. Ithelps individual to determine the size of a population and predictwhether the country‟s available resources are enough to meet the needsof the people. It has become useful with the emergence of computer andother technological devices. Indeed, there is a need to learn Mathematics
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surin order to function effectively and become active participants in thischanging information-based society. Mathematics becomes a part of ourlives. Tesoro as cited by Villanueva (2009) averred that Mathematics isinseparable to man‟s life, it is the solid foundation in satisfying hiswants. He further mentioned that through mathematical concepts andideas, he may be able to appreciate the beauty of life, the environmentand the real world. The course of history shows that the secrets of the universe yieldmost easily to Mathematics. The motion of the planets about the sun, theexplanation of the moon‟s orbital path, and the nature of the earth‟smagnetic field are some of the samples of those secrets. Man has justbegun to dream about many unsolved secrets. It took a long time to discover the importance of Mathematics inthe world. Those discoveries led mankind to a more technological or thewhat is called Industrial Era, wherein the different usage of technologicaldevices occur. In this era, application of Mathematics helps to developand invent such technological devices. Through these applications,human‟s life becomes easier. Nowadays, Mathematics is the key to allSciences. Despite explaining the importance of Mathematics, the students oftoday still have that negative attitudes toward the subject. They think
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surthat Mathematics is a boring subject, and it is difficult to memorize andunderstand formulas. Some students who cannot appreciate theimportance of Mathematics even say that learning the four (4)fundamental operations is enough, the use of graphs and formulas haveno relevance to their daily living, so there is no need for further knowingthe subject. Only if they understand the logic behind this subject andthe principles applied in different problems, then they will find thatMathematics is an interesting and a challenging subject. However, students of Mathematics have had and continue tohaving negative experiences with the subject. They like to continuetaking up or study the subject to be able to get a passing grade as aprerequisite to the next level of education. The issue of low quality Mathematics education as mentioned byDuque (1999), possesses more implication as man strive to deal with theplethora of globalization, educational reforms, technological change, andsurvival issues. The individuals concern and commitment are at stake.Mathematics as one of the languages of survival should be an attendanttool to reengineer the nomenclature of the 21st Century criterion. Mathematics performance has improved, again, through expectingstudents to achieve, providing instruction based on individual studentneeds and using a variety of methods to reach all learners. One factor
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surhas been aligning the Mathematics curriculum to ensure that thedelivery of instruction is consistent with the assessment frequency. Pacho as cited by Villanueva (2009) said that teaching and learningMathematics is a complex process. Achieving high quality ofMathematics education calls for coherent, well articulated Mathematicscurricula, competent and knowledgeable teachers who can integrateinstruction with assessment, educational policies that enhance andsupport learning, classroom with ready access to technology, and acommitment to both equity and excellence. There are some studies like Lubina (2004), Del Castillo (2010),Balbalosa (2010) and Yara (2011) claiming that Mathematicsperformance is determined by several factors, such as student-relatedfactors, teacher-related factors and school-related factors. But todetermine whether these factors affect the performance of the students inMathematics has not yet been totally proven. It is read and heard thatthe students of Mathematics and Science are receiving medals in theInternational Competitions as mentioned by Brawner. She said that: “In our 23 years of participation in the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO), we have gathered two silvers, 11 bronze medals, and 13 honorable mentions. Our performance is improving as well and we are optimistic that we can get even better in the coming years," http://www.gmanews.tv/story/227196/pinoy-abroad/phl-
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur reaps-3-bronze-medals-in-intl-math-olympiad/ September 15, 2011 Despite of that scenario, there is a strong perception that thePhilippines is lagging behind other Asian countries such as Thailand,Malaysia and Singapore. Among the reasons given is the low quality ofbasic education in the country. Recent High School Readiness Test givento all Grade 6 graduates in public elementary schools in May, 2004showed very low scores in Science and Mathematics test. In the NationalSecondary Achievement Test (NSAT) given in year 2000, students gavecorrect answers to less than 50% of the questions in Science andMathematics. Based on the Trends International Mathematics and ScienceSurvey (TIMSS), wherein the Philippines was evaluated for the 8th Gradein 1999, it was reported that the Philippines was one of the 34participating nations in which Eighth-grade boys and girls performedsimilarly in Mathematics. The Philippines was third from the bottom ofthe participating countries. The Philippines got 345 points as comparedto Singapore having 604 points for Mathematics. The two lower countrieswere Morocco (337) and South Africa (275). For Science, the samepattern emerged. http://nces.ed.gov/timss/results99_1.asp /October10, 2011
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Likewise, the average score of 4th and 8th Grades was 495 forMathematics in the 2003 TIMSS. The Philippines was again third fromthe bottom (358 points) while Morocco (347points) and Tunisia (339points) were the lowest among the countries participated. The Philippinesdid not participate in the 1995, 2007 and 2011 TIMSS.http://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2005/2005005/ October 10, 2011 During the 2006 State of Education Address, Lapus admitted thatthe quality of education in the country had sunk to its lowest level andsaid that: “Our students continue to perform poorly as revealed by our ranking in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and by our lacklustre performance in our own National Achievement Test. http: //_output/xm/htmt/20070611-70597xml html/ June26,2011 The Mathematics performance of the fourth year high schoolstudents is deteriorating as observed by the researcher in his seven yearsof teaching Mathematics IV in Sta. Lucia Academy, Sta. Lucia Ilocos Sur.Furthermore, the interests and attitudes of the students toward thesubject is quite low. They lack enthusiasm and interest in this subjectwhich they cannot realize that these are important values in learning.Though the researcher is doing his best in teaching the subject usingsome innovations in teaching and using other teaching devices such as
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surworkbooks, visual aids and presentations, the results of the students‟quizzes, assignments and examinations were still unfavorable. This wasalso observed by some Mathematics teachers in Sta. Lucia District. Thisis why the researcher felt that there is a need to discover deficiencies inthis subject and to discover the determinants that may contribute to theacquisition of proficiency in Mathematics IV. Thus, these observationsprompted the researcher to conduct a study on the determinants of theMathematics performance of the fourth year high school students of bothpublic and private high schools of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, IlocosSur. Theoretical /Conceptual Framework This study is guided with the following theories and concepts. The attribution theory as cited by Lubina (2004) is one of thelearning theories that support this investigation. This theory holds thatperformance like a test could be attributed to lack of hard work; thetheory predicts the behavior of students depending on their responses. Furthermore, the Behavioral Approach Theory of Skinner stressedthat the essential characteristics of the behavioral approach to learningis that events in the environment are understood to predict a person‟sbehavior, thoughts, feelings, or other events that take place inside aperson. This theory maintains that learning can be explained by
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surexamining the stimuli, reinforcements and punishments that a personexperience. Therefore the learning environment of the students needs toconsider the following aspects: socio – economic, teachers‟ background,and school background to determine the future performance inMathematics. In the same vein, Hull‟s Theory also maintains that learningdepends on several factors. The factors include the number of previouslyrewarded experienced; the internal drive or need of the learner; and theexternal incentives offered to the learner. Thus, the three (3) profilevariables included in this study manifest varied extent of effect onMathematics performance of students. The Vector Topological Theory as cited by Villanueva (2009)explains that the behavior of an individual is the result of forcesoperating simultaneously within his environment and life. With thistheory, it could be the personal, socio-economic, attitudes inMathematics, mathematical beliefs, and impressions to teachers are thedeterminants within the learner‟s environment that affect theirMathematics performance. The Fixed IQ Theory advocated by Balbalosa (2010) stated thatability is fixed, probably at birth, and there is very little if anything theycan do to improve it. They believe ability comes from talent rather than
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surfrom the slow development of skills through learning. “Its all in thegenes”. Either you can do it with little effort, or you will never be able todo it, so you might as well give up in the face of difficulty. Example “Icannot do Mathematics”. And Untapped Potential Theorists, studentsbelieve that ability and success are due to learning, and learning requirestime and effort. In the case of difficulty one must try harder, try anotherapproach, seek help, and other ways. Furthermore, the Entity Theory, promotes that intelligence is moreof an unchangeable or fixed „„entity‟‟ which is in contrast with theIncremental Theory, that promotes intelligence as a malleable qualitythat can be developed. According to Inzlicht (2003), these two theories ofability were assessed separately so that the influences of each part couldbe examined by controlling prior performance. Thus, this theory wasexpected to be a negative predictor of Mathematics performance, whereasIncremental Theory was expected to be a positive predictor. Another theoretical support of this study is the MaslowsMotivation Theory. It is believed that human beings are motivated byunsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfiedbefore higher needs can be satisfied. There are general types of needs(physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfiedbefore a person can act unselfishly. In this study it is believed that the
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surattitudes of the students towards Mathematics, Mathematics beliefs andthe students‟ impressions to their Mathematics teachers will be improvedif the students‟ needs in the subject are satisfied. The Systems Approach Theory explains the importance ofinterdependence and interconnectedness of people in a group as theycontribute parts to a specific system while trying to achieve a commongoal. The theory is very important in this study because the researcherbelieved that if there is interdependence and interconnectedness betweenthe students, the teachers and the school, then the outstandingperformance result in Mathematics will be achieved. Breslich, as cited by Castillo (2010) speaks on the importance ofMathematics in general education. He says: “Mathematics is moreimportant in general education because the average citizens of todayneed considerable Mathematics knowledge in activities and experiencesin everyday life and because Mathematics supplies a mean ofunderstanding the important aspect of the world. This being so, makes itextremely necessary to include Mathematics as an integral part in theeducation of the youth.” Hull (1999) stated that growing numbers of teachers todayespecially those frustrated by repeated lack of student success indemonstrating basic proficiency on standard tests are discovering that
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surmost students‟ interest and achievement in Mathematics, Science, andLanguage improve drastically when they are helped to make connectionsbetween new information (knowledge) and experiences they have had, orwith other knowledge they have already mastered. Students‟ involvementin their schoolwork increases significantly when they are taught whythey are learning the concepts and how those concepts can be usedoutside the classroom. And most students learn much more efficientlywhen they are allowed to work cooperatively with other students ingroups or teams. On the other hand, learning means not only the acquisition ofknowledge vital to one‟s existence but it is also means of applying andusing it on one‟s own accord utilizing logical and critical habits ofthoughts. As they say, education is the systematic development andcultivation of the natural power by inculcation, example and training.According to Cajindos (2009), education plays a crucial role in thedevelopment. It is therefore necessary that the young individuals behelped to learn these acquired abilities and skills through an organizedand intensive educational program. The future of a man and his way oflife can be shaped by the present. It is for this reason that school exist,and everybody must share in the responsibility that the society hasentrusted us.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur The most important function of schools according to thepsychologist in education is to provide learning activities whichcontribute to the development of desirable traits and proper attitudesamong school children. In Mathematics, real life problems should bepresented in order to keep students interested in the subject. ModernMathematics enables students to learn symbols and place values. Vives, as cited by Cajindos (2009) said that education shoulddevelop personality. The teacher should study each student individually;adapt school work to the abilities and interest of students, quarterlyconference of teachers to thoroughly assess students‟ progress. With thisbelief it is perceived that the teacher plays a vital role in the acquisitionof the students for a better performance to a particular subject thus, theattitudes and beliefs of the students towards the subject will be improvedif not to be changed. As Bagley and Keith cited by Kapunan (1974) statedthat, “there seems to be no occupation more fundamental and fruitful todemocratic process than moulding and guiding the young people tobecome good and happy citizens.” Calderon, as cited by Villanueva (2009) said that there are factorsthat affect the transfer of learning such as attitudes of learners towardthe subject matter, mental ability, similarities between subject matter,
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surmotivation and effort making capacity, method of teaching facilities andsupervision are also added factors. Based on the aforementioned theories and concepts related to thestudy, Figure 1 shows the research paradigm which operationallyillustrates the manner to identify the ascertained determinants ofMathematics performance. The independent variables were the students‟ profile, theMathematics teachers‟ profile and the school profile of Sta. Lucia District,Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur, both public and private high schools. Thestudents‟ profile included personal as to age, sex, type of elementarygraduated from, type of high school enrolled in and Grade Point Average(GPA) in Mathematics III; socio–economic as to parents educationalattainment, parents occupation, parents monthly income, type dwellingand place of residence, attitudes toward Mathematics, Mathematicsbeliefs and impressions to Mathematics teachers. The Mathematicsteachers profile included sex, age, civil status, educational attainment,length of service, civil service eligibility, position and number of relevanttrainings and seminars attended. The school profile included class size,location and type of school and adequacy of school facilities andequipment. The performance of fourth year high school students inMathematics in the public and private served as the moderator variable.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos SurThe dependent variable or criterion was the Mathematics performance ofthe fourth year high school students taken from their first gradinggrades. The determinant variables were identified after the analysis on theinterrelations of the independent and dependent variables as shown inthe other box for dependent variables. The arrow explains theinterrelationships of the said variables. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES STUDENTS PROFILE Students Profile a. Personal Profile A. Personal Profile 1. Age 2.1. age Sex 2. sex 3. type of elementary Mathematics graduated from. 4. type of high school performance enrolled in of the fourth 5. GPA in 3rd year year students Mathematics (First Grading) B. Socio-Economic Profile 1. parents educational attainment 2. parents occupation 3. parents monthly income 4. type of dwelling 5. place of residence C. Attitudes toward Mathematics D. Mathematics beliefs E. Impressions to Mathematics teachers Teacher’s Profile MODERATOR VARIABLE a. sex b. age Performance of the c. civil status fourth year high d. educational attainment school students in e. length of service f. civil service eligibility Mathematics in the Ascertained g. plantilla position public and private Determinants h. number of relevant schools of trainings and seminars attended Mathematics
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur School Profile a. class size b. location and type of school c. adequacy of school facilities and equipments Figure 1. The Research Paradigm Statement of the Problem This study aimed to identify the determinants of the Mathematicsperformance of the fourth year high school students of Sta. LuciaDistrict, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur in both public and private high schoolsduring the school year 2011 – 2012. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the fourth year students in terms of: a. personal profile; b. socio- economic profile; c. attitudes toward Mathematics; d. Mathematics beliefs; and e. impressions to their Mathematics teachers? 2. What is the profile of the teachers in terms of:
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur a. sex; b. age; c. civil status; d. educational attainment; e. length of service; f. civil service eligibility; g. plantilla position; and h. number of relevant trainings and seminars attended? 3. What is the profile of the secondary schools in Sta. LuciaDistrict in terms of: a. number of students or class size; b. location and type of the school; and c. adequacy of school facilities and equipment? 4. What is the level of Mathematics‟ performance of the fourth yearhigh school students in public and private schools of Sta. LuciaDistrict? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the profilesconsidered with the Mathematics‟ performance of the fourth year highschool students?
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur 6. Is there a significant difference between the Mathematics performance of public and private fourth year high school students? 7. What are the determinants of the Mathematics performance of the fourth year high school students of Sta. Lucia District? Hypotheses This study tested the following statistical hypotheses at 0.05 levelof significance. 1. There is no significant difference between the Mathematicsperformance of the public and private fourth year high school studentsalong the following: a. attitudes toward Mathematics; b. Mathematics beliefs; c. impressions to their Mathematics teachers; and d. Mathematics performance. 2. There is no significant relationship between Mathematicsperformance of the fourth high school students along the three profiles: a. students‟ profile; b. school profile; and c. teachers‟ profile.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur 3. There are determinants of Mathematics IV performance ofstudents in the public and private high schools in Sta. Lucia District,Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur. Significance of the study This study is very important to the following: Students are given insights for the improvement of theirperformance and achievements, not only for the betterment of their studyand understanding Mathematics subjects, but also in the development ofgood attitudes and beliefs in Mathematics. It will also help the studentsdevelop their interest toward Mathematics and appreciate the importanceof the subject in their daily lives. Mathematics IV Teachers are provided with some eye-openers tocreate and innovate relevant teaching materials, and to use varied andappropriate strategies to improve their instruction. School Administrators will use the results of this study asbaseline data to improve the Mathematics programs for schooladvancement. Sta. Lucia School District Authorities will be given anunderstanding of the real picture of Mathematics performance of thestudents, so that remedial measures will be adopted to ensure effectiveMathematics instruction.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Curriculum Planners will help the school administrators andteachers to appraise the existing programs in terms of the students‟needs and abilities and make changes as required. Parents will be informed on the factors associated to Mathematicslearning of their children. They are also provided a strong basis that theirrole is very significant in enhancing the Mathematical abilities of theirchildren. The study served as a challenge for the Researcher to widen hisperspective on the significance of developing the students‟ performancein Mathematics and for him to become an effective and efficient channelof knowledge to his students. Future Researchers are also provided some guides and referencesin their thesis writing studies on teaching learning activities and studentMathematical performance and to have a deeper study on thedeterminants of the Mathematics performance of the students. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study was limited to the determinants of the Mathematicsperformance of the fourth year high school students in both public andprivate schools of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur for the schoolyear 2011-2012.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur The focus of the study was to determine the profile of therespondents. The students profile included personal, socio–economic,attitudes toward Mathematics, Mathematics beliefs and impressions toMathematics teachers. The Mathematics teachers profile included sex,civil status, educational attainment, length of service, plantilla positionand number of relevant trainings and seminars. The school profileincluded class size, location and type of school and adequacy of schoolfacilities and equipments. The respondents of the study included the five (5) high schoolsthree (3) public high schools, Teodoro Hernaez National High School(THNHS), Palali National High School (PNHS) and Nagtablaan NationalHigh School (NNHS) and two (2) private high schools, Sta. Lucia Academy(SLA) and Sta. Lucia Catholic School (SLCS). The Mathematicsperformance of the students was taken from their first grading grade. The difference between the public and private high schools alongthe areas considered was determined including the relationships betweenand among the three (3) profiles and Mathematics IV performance wereestablished. The data on the three profiles served as the independentvariables while the Mathematics IV performance served as the criterionvariable. Definition of Terms
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur For better clarification and understanding of the terms related tothis study, the following terms are defined conceptually andoperationally. Profile in this study pertains to the students‟ characteristics,Mathematics teachers‟ characteristics and school characteristics. Students’ profile refer to the personal, socio-economic, attitudestoward Mathematics, Mathematics beliefs, and impressions toMathematics IV teachers. Personal profile refers to the students‟ age, sex and GPA in 3rdYear Mathematics. Age refers to the number of years a student-respondent hasexisted, from birth to the date of data collection. GPA in Mathematics is the grade point average of the fourthyear students when they were in third year. Type of elementary graduated from is the institution wherethe students finished their elementary education categorized as public orprivate. Type of high school enrolled in pertains to the institutionwhere the students are presently taking their secondary educationcategorized as public or private.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Sex refers to the maleness or femaleness of the student-respondent. Socio Economic Profile is the parents‟ educational attainment,parents‟ occupation, parents‟ monthly income and place of residence. Parents Educational Attainment refers to the highest levelof education attained by parents of the students. Parents’ monthly income is the monthly amount received bythe students‟ parents from occupation, acquired and included properties.The categories used were based from the income description as per theNational Economic and Development Authority. Parents’ occupation pertains to the present job of thestudents‟ parents. In this study, parents‟ occupation is categorized asunskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and professional (white collar job). Place of residence is the area where the students stay orreside. In this study it is categorized as urban or rural. The place isurban if it is near or within the town and rural if it is away from thetown. Type of dwelling refers to a house where a student and his orher family stay. It may be makeshift, semi-permanent or permanent. Attitudes toward Mathematics pertains to the behavior, feelingand reactions of the students toward learning Mathematics.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Impressions to Mathematics teachers are the students‟ reactionsand strong feelings the way their Mathematics teachers act, talk andgroom. Mathematics beliefs refer to the disposition of students inMathematics which includes self, confidence in learning Mathematics,success orientation and defense orientation. Teachers’ Profile pertains to teacher‟s sex, civil status, educationalattainment, teaching experiences, and position, number of relevanttrainings and seminars. Age is the number of years the teacher-respondent hasexisted, from birth to the date of data collection. Civil Service Eligibility refers to a qualification of a teacher tobecome a permanent employee. Civil Status pertains to being single or married. Educational Attainment is the accomplishment of anindividual in the field of education categorized as bachelor‟s degreemaster‟s degree and doctorate degree. Plantilla Position refers to the present position of the teacher –respondents whether they are Teacher 1, Teacher 2, Teacher 3, MasterTeacher 1, and Master Teacher 2.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Relevant Training and seminars are the activities attended bythe Mathematics teachers for professional advancement. In this study, itrefers to the trainings, conferences, seminar workshops in Mathematicseducation categorized as “greater” or “less” training attended. Greaterrefers to the teachers with training programs, less refers to the teacherswith few or no training programs. Sex refers to the maleness or femaleness of the teacher-respondents. Teaching Experiences is the sum or total of the knowledge,skills, and techniques or conscious events that have been enjoyed orundergone by an individual in the field of teaching. School Profile refers to the number of students per class room,location and type of school and adequacy of instructional materials. Adequacy of school facilities and equipments pertains tothe availability of study room, Mathematics bulletin board and corner,Mathematics measuring tools and devices, such as meter stick/ruler,weighing scale, compass, protractor, graphing board, right triangles, andScience Laboratory, TEEPS and SCOPE materials like ProblemFlashcards. Class Size is the number of pupils in a particular sectionhandled by the teacher. It is described as “small” when the total number
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surof students is 30 or less, and “big” when the total number of students ismore than 30. Location of School refers to the place where the school islocated. In this study it is categorized as barrio or poblacion. Type of School is the institution where the students areenrolled in, categorized as private or public. Determinants are the independent variables which may have asignificant effect on the Mathematics IV performance of the students inboth public and private high schools of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia,Ilocos Sur. In this study, it includes the personal and socio-economicprofile of the students, their attitudes toward Mathematics, theirMathematics beliefs, their impressions to Mathematics teachers, theMathematics teachers‟ profile, and the school profile. Mathematics IV pertains to the subject currently taken by fourthyear high school students of both public and private institutions of Sta.Lucia District. Mathematics Performance is the grade of the students in thesubject as reflected in their official records filed at the registrar‟s officeduring the first grading period taken from their Form 137 – A. Moderator Variable refers to the intervening conditions/terms thatmay affect and may emerge as factors and determinants of the
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos SurMathematics IV performance of the fourth year high school students ofboth public and private schools of Sta. Lucia District.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Chapter II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Studies and literature relevant to the present study are hereinpresented in this section. These studies and literature give light in thepreparation of this investigation.Mathematics Performance In many developing countries, the secondary level of formaleducation is the target of criticism – low performance in the academics,poor human values, enormous class size, poor quality of teachersdilapidated classrooms, etc… Mathematics education is not an exceptionto this interminable cliché that dishes out challenges and irritants toeducators in the area of discipline. Student performance in Mathematics was higher than that inscience at Grade 4, while at Second Year High School, performance inthe two subject areas was almost the same. The scores (Grade 4:Mathematics – 358, science – 332, Second Year High School:Mathematics – 378, science – 377) are very low, considering benchmarksin earlier TIMSS. http://depedteacher.blogspot.com/2007/12/filipino-performance-inmath-and-science.htm/ October 13, 2011 All of the research reviews support the hypothesis that studentperformance depends on different socio-economic, psychological,
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surenvironmental factors. The findings of research studies focused thatstudent performance is affected by different factors such as learningabilities because new paradigm about learning assumes that all studentscan and should learn at higher levels but it should not be considered asconstraint because there are other factors like race, age, sex that canaffect student‟s performance as mentioned by Hansen (2000).http://faculty.apec.umn.edu/pglewwe/documents/SLed_ha5.pdf/September 18, 2011.On Students Personal Profile Students are part of the human resources of according toManzano, as cited by Del Castillo (2010). It is for the students that theschool and all its programs are organized and maintained. Cajindos (2009) say that every person must have correspondinggrowth in desirable degrees and types of mathematical concept in orderto orient himself satisfactorily during the changing times. Subjectdifficulties exist because of its complexity in using symbols and incomputations. Hence student finds it as a difficult subject if not properlytaught. It exists too because they forget previously learned concepts andskills that are needed for the new skills to be learned. So, a studentcannot comprehend higher level of Mathematics if one did notunderstand yesterday‟s principles and skills learned.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Petero as cited by Villanueva (2009) disclosed in his study that asto sex and age, boys and girls performance are equally well, establishingthe fact that learning Mathematics does not depend on sex. Chansarkar and Mishaeloudis (2001) explained the effects of age,qualification distance from learning place etc. on student performance.The performance of students on the module is not affected by suchfactors as age, sex and place of residence but is associated withqualification in quantitative subjects. It is also found that those who livenear the university perform better than other students.http://bangladeshsociology.org/BEJS%203.1%20Naqvi.pdf/ August 7,2011 In terms of socio-economic profile, the number of distinct schooltypes and educational programs is positively correlated with thesignificance of socio-economic background for student performance. Inother words, the data from PISA suggests that the more and the earlierstudents are divided into separate groups according to their academicperformance, the more the students‟ socio-economic background mattersfor their academic performance.http://ec.europa.eu/education/pdf/doc282 en.pdf/ August 7, 2011 According to the findings of Lubina (2004) school personal factorssuch as sex, age, birth order, size of family, occupation of mother, family
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surmonthly income and type of high school graduated were not correlated tothe performance of the students in College Algebra. High SchoolMathematics grade and occupation of father were inversely correlatedwith correlation coefficient of -0.360 and -0.123 respectively. In terms of Parents Educational Attainment, Dela Cruz et.al, ascited by Villanueva (2009) conducted a study to determine the criticalpath of some selected variables in influencing the Mathematicsperformance of high school and college students of the Tarlac College ofAgriculture. They discovered that educational attainment of parents andMathematics performances seem to be significantly related. However,there was substantial reduction on the path when average yearly familyincome has been partialled out. Another study pursued by Aleta as cited by Del Castillo (2010) onParents Occupation revealed that the achievement of pupils inMathematics is positively revealed to their parent‟s occupation. Thismeans that parent‟s occupation does affect the students‟ performance inMathematics. As to Place of Residence, Aleta, as cited by Del Castillo (2010)revealed that there is a relationship between the Mathematicsachievement of the students and their place of residence. Bello, as citedby Del Castillo (2010) used family residence as one variable. In her
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surinvestigation, she found that the place of residence of the studentssignificantly influences the academic achievement of pupils. Moreover, Alcausin as cited by Del Castillo (2010) found out thatstudents from urban areas have higher achievement in Mathematicsthan those from rural areas.Attitudes and Beliefs toward Mathematics Students self-beliefs and attitudes play an important role in theteaching and learning process of Mathematics. Those factors can affectstudents progress and interest within the subject and as result studentsachievements and learning. According to Elles as cited by Salazar (2001), it is a commonknowledge that Mathematics is a dull, difficult and disliked subject. Thisperennial impression posses hard work in exploring possibilities andalternative on how to teach Mathematics effectively and profitable. A keyissue in achieving quality in teaching is the selection of methods that willmost effectively enhance the learning of the students, taking into accountthe entry characteristics of the student concerned. According to Schereiber as cited by Balbalosa (2010) those whohave positive attitudes toward Mathematics have a better performance inthis subject.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Doctolero as cited by Villanueva (2010) said that significantcorrelation between students‟ attitude and Mathematics achievementswas based on the computed r values of 0.796 and 0.863 for the controland experimental groups respectively. The significant correlation mayhave been caused by the favorable attitude of the respondents towardsthe subject. Likewise, Lubina (2004) pointed out in his study that there was asignificant relationship between the level of interest in Mathematics andperformance in College Algebra as attested by the correlation coefficientof – 0.162. However, as to the level of attitude towards and performancein College Algebra the correlation coefficient was 0.084, described as “notsignificant”. Whilst, the focus on changing perceptions was initially targeted atlearners it became apparent that teachers needed to consider themessages they convey through the way they behave in the classroom,and their expectations of learners. This is dependent on their attitudestowards and beliefs about Mathematics and learning Mathematics.http://nrich.maths.org/6671/ September 22, 2011 The reasons why Mathematics subject are difficult to learn is thatthe concepts in Mathematics are abstract and difficult to understand,and also the students have alternative meaning of certain mathematical
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surwords before any Mathematics teaching takes place. According to Ihejieto(1995), there are factors other than academic standing on the students‟side which could explain the performance trend. These factors are: (1)Students‟ dislike for Mathematics that may stem from psychologicalincidences such as fear, endurance, perseverance and associated factors;(2) the Mathematics curriculum may have not much relevance to real lifesituation; (3) Mathematics teachers were not interested in the subjectand did not help their students by way of catering for individualdifferences; and (4) other resources material such as text books seemedlacking in both in school and at home.http://eprints.utm.my/1507/1/KERTASINT.pdf/ September 22, 2011 Tomlinson (1999) stated that teachers can differentiate content,process, and/or product for students. Differentiation of content refers toa change in the material being learned by a student. For example, if theclassroom objective is for all students to subtract using renaming, someof the students may learn to subtract two-digit numbers, while othersmay learn to subtract larger numbers in the context of word problems.Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accessesmaterial. One student may explore a learning center, while anotherstudent collects information from the web. Differentiation of productrefers to the way in which a student shows what he or she has learned.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos SurFor example, to demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept, onestudent may solve a problem set, while another builds a model.http://www.slideshare.net/jennilynbalbalosa/final-na-final-thesis/August7, 2011Impressions to Mathematics Teachers According to Sypnier, a 20-year veteran of the classroom, making agood first impression on teachers is key. "It is important because, generally speaking, if you make a bad impression, it takes a long time to get past that.” Teachers are on the lookout for trouble-makers from day one, and they quickly form an idea of who needs a close watch. But dont fret about your childs every move at school – the key is simply to make a successful entrance. http://www.education.com./magazine/article/First_impressi on_Matter/ September 26, 2011 The effects of impressions to teachers in the teaching activity arecrucial. If these impressions turn out to be positive in reality and favorthe teacher, they may prove far reaching productive. On the other handunfavorable reality of such impressions will only cause a decreased ofinterest and eventually deterioration in the teaching activity. That is whyteachers must be trained and made familiar with the environment wherethey are required to work and let free to make a decision of continuing it.In addition to educational subjects such as Mathematics, the training ofteachers must also include practical exercises and work management so
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surthat they may prove more efficient and effective in the noble profession.On Teacher’s Profile Other studies have shown that contextual, variables such asstudent body composition and organisational policies play an importantrole in Mathematics achievement. Teacher background attributes suchas gender, number of years in teaching and educational qualificationshave been shown to be important factors in student achievement(Anderson, Ryan, & Shapiro 1989) However, Balbalosa (2010) found out that there is no significantrelationship between teacher-related factors such as personality traits,teaching skills and instructional materials and the performance of thestudents in Mathematics. Their computed z-values are -0.10, 0.98 and -1.04 which are less than the tabular z-value of -2.10, 2.10 and -2.10respectively. Thus, teacher-related actors do not affect the performanceof the students in Mathematics. In the 1994 Annual Convention of the Mathematical Society of thePhilippines both Aquino (2003) and Ngayaan (2010) posited that theprincipal method of instruction is made interesting in Mathematics if: (1)the teacher does not lecture during the whole period; he should lecturefor only one half of the period and devote the rest of the time for otherclass activities; (2) the teacher introduces new ways of presenting the
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surlesson for other than lecturing; (3) the teacher presents the lesson insuch a manner that the students get involved; (4) the students are madeto participate in board work or group activities; (5) students are givenpractice while still inside the classroom on what have been taught; and(6) the presentation of the lesson is not monotonous and not done inroutine manner. On sex, a study conducted by Weis as mentioned by Del Castillo(2010) on gender differences pointed out that men and women oftenbehave in ways in which are consistent with societal stereotypes aboutgender. Wide ranges of behaviors are functions of the group and itsenvironment and are simply reflections of the individual characteristicsof its members. Groups face different issues in their operation anddevelopment; provide different benefits and outcomes for their members,and present different challenges for their leaders. Women belonging togroups are outnumbered, leading to heighten gender stereotype, and aretreated as outsiders. Groups composed of roughly equal number ofwomen and men, tend to limit women to more circumscribed behaviors.For both members and leaders, that group chooses to have man –leadersespecially for male group members because they can lead to a disruptionin member gender-related expectations and behaviors. They also havegreat potential for promoting learning and change about gender – related
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surstereotypes, and “traditional” modes of male and female behavior ingroup organization. Length of Service. Recent studies carried out to determine therelationship between teacher experience and students‟ performance inMathematics found that teacher experience and competence were theprime predictors of students‟ performance in all subject in secondaryschools in Ondo State Nigeria (Adeyemi, 2008). Jones (1997) observedthat teachers are the key input and a force to reckon with in school.Sweeney (1998) made similar observation about schools in Mississippi,USA that scored better in Mathematics when taught by teacher withmore years of teaching, considering the common saying that experienceis the best teacher. www.ccsenet.org/ass/ September 18, 2011 Educational Attainment. According to Dela Cruz as cited by DelCastillo (2010), more educationally qualified teachers are morecompetent teachers. On the other hand, Rivera et. al. (2010) found outthat the educational attainment of faculty does not significantly affecttheir teaching performance as shown in their findings that all of theteachers rated “outstanding” had a mean of 4.73 and 4.26 for “verysatisfactory”. The computed value of 11.89 is lower than the tabulatedvalue of 15.51 at 0.05 level of significance. Plantilla Position. Positions may be determined from the highest
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surdegree or educational qualifications they have acquired which includesTeacher 1,2,3, Master‟s units or degree, and Doctorate units or degree. In the study of Eslava as cited by Del Castillo (2010) stated thatprofessional development of teachers in Mathematics is a process oflearning: learning Mathematics and about Mathematics, learning aboutstudents and about the students in how they learn, individually and inthe social setting of school, and learning the craft of teaching. In the lightof this, professional development must also include learning new ways todevelopment Mathematical power in all students. Moreover, Hanushek (1992) and Rivkin et al. (2005) argued thatcharacteristics that are not easily observable in administrative data aredriving much of the dispersion in teacher quality. Traditional humancapital measures have few robust associations with teacher quality andexplain a very small fraction of its wide dispersion. That our teacherquality measure persists over time implies that principals may eventuallybe able to identify quality; however, they are unlikely to have informationon teacher quality when recruiting or for recent hires for whom little orno information is available on the teacher‟s effect on students‟ test scoreachievement. More generally, teacher quality rankings can be quitesensitive in a value-added framework when across-school differences areignored. Without such controls, naive application of value added may
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surundermine teacher performance incentives. http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco7321/papers/aaronson%20et%20al.pdf / August30, 2011Number of Relevant Trainings and Seminars Attended Trainings and seminars are important tools for teachers to upliftthemselves professionally and for them to cope up with the innovationsin the different fields of learning. It is for this reason that Aquino as citedby Del Castillo (2010) stated in his study that training is a never-endingtask because of new technology. Training and development of personnelshould be given special importance to increase organizationalproductivity and improve employee‟s morale. According to Pollard (2007), the advantages of investing in trainingcould be considered as self-evident. The benefits are twofold: to membersof staff and to the school or organization. Benefits to the organizationinclude: (1) better trained teachers enhance the quality of productoffered to clients. Teachers should have, at the very least, training inbasic techniques and methods; (2) training allows staff to keep up withdevelopments in the Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) field(i.e. going further than basic training). New knowledge is acquired andapplied in the classroom. This in turn helps the school stay ahead ofcompetitors by offering courses or services that clients might not find
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surelsewhere; (3) when teachers have new goals to work towards, they haveincreased motivation which is obviously a bonus for the organisation; (4)staff seems to like being trained. Regular training and developmentsessions can attract the type of teacher who wants to develop. If trainingis good quality and ongoing, it can be a reason for motivated staff to staywhich always a good point for a school; (5) is training helps avoid“routinisation”. Some teachers can get into a rut and treat all classes asthe same, however different their needs may be. Training can helpchange this; and (6) if teachers are performing below standard, trainingcan address or even help to solve these performance problems. Trainingcan be part of your system for dealing with poor performance. Thebenefits to individuals include: (1) they have new goals to work towardsand increased motivation; (2) training can help teachers have moreconfidence. They can feel better equipped to tackle a wider range of levelsor groups and to try out new ideas (3) they acquire new skills whichhelps improve their status within the school. They can have theiropinions on the subject they trained in respected; and (4) pay rise. Insome situations, training can lead to progressive levels of responsibilityand salary. http://www.tefl.net/administration/teacher-development.htm/ September 10, 2011
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos SurOn School Profile Schools are social organizations with defined rules and proceduresthat determine the degree of activities and behavior of each member(Mbithi, 1974). Schools are in a sense factories in which raw children areto shaped and finished to meet the various demands of life. Thespecifications for manufacturing come from the policies laid down by thegovernment. www.ccsenet.org/ass Asian Social Science Vol. 7, No. 2;February 2011/ September 18, 2011 The close to 400 studies of student achievement demonstrate thatthere is not a strong or consistent relationship between studentperformance and school resources, at least after variations in familyinputs are taken into account. These results are also reconciled withmeta-analytic approaches and with other investigations on how schoolresources affect labor market outcomes. Simple resource policies holdlittle hope for improving student outcomes.http://epa.sagepub.com/content/19/2/141.short August 7, 2011 As to class size, a study in secondary schools in Bangladesh wasconducted however, (Asadullah, 2002) found an insignificant positivesign on the class size variable in determining student achievementsusing both ordinary least squares (OLS) and IV regressions. The authorconcluded by suggesting that a reduction in class size is not useful in a
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surdeveloping country like Bangladesh. Moreover, other studies on classsizes found that small class sizes are either not significant or evendetrimental to student performance (Urquiola, 2001; and Hoxby, 2000).In addition, a review of 277 econometric studies further emphasized theinconsistency of the effect of class size on achievement when it statedthat 28% of the studies report statistically significant estimates but 13%of those report a statistically significant negative sign (Jones, 2001).(SMERU Research Institute, 2004) According to Del Castillo (2010), the number of pupils and locationof school had a mild correlation with the pupils‟ performance. With regards to the location and type of the school, schoolcategory was found to be significant and can be used to predict students‟performance in Mathematics. This result was in accordance with that ofOdhiambo (2006) and Yeya (2002) who observed that urban schools arenot badly hit by teacher shortages as many prefer teaching in urbanareas and also noted that students with impressive marks avoid dayschools in favor of boarding schools. They further observed that studentsin boarding schools perform better in national examinations. Theimplication of this result is that the government should endeavour tobuild more schools in the rural areas with adequate facilities andqualified teachers. This will improve the students‟ performance in
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos SurMathematics as all benefits that urban teachers enjoy will be madeavailable to teachers in rural schools. www.ccsenet.org/ass Asian SocialScience Vol. 7, No. 2; February 2011/ September 18, 2011 A comparative study by Pinol as cited by Del Castillo (2010)revealed that the central schools performed better than schools in therural areas. As to the adequacy of school facilities and equipments, acommon problem to teachers is the resistant to innovations because thiswould mean time, talent and treasure for the effectiveness and efficiencyof instruction, specifically in the preparation of instructional materials.They are more comfortable in the traditional type of teaching such as thelecture and discussion, question and answer, and chalkboard activities. Siemens as cited by Balbalosa (2010) stated that instructionaldesign can be defined as “the systematic process of translating principlesof learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials andactivities”. However, there are many different definitions for instructionaldesign and all of them are an expression of underlying philosophies andviewpoints of what is involved in the learning process. Acantilado as cited by Del Castillo (2010) findings revealed thatprinted materials such as magazines, newspapers, periodicals, journals,textbooks references, teacher‟s manuals, courses of study and
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surworkbooks were regularly used by teachers in their Mathematics classes.Instructional sheets such as information‟s sheets, operational sheets, jobsheets and modules were also used. On the contrary, the audio – visualmaterials such as film strips, model projectors and slides as well asmedia materials as computer aided instructions: programmed materialsand television were sometimes used to reinforce teaching. In the 1950s and ‟60s, developments in communications theoryand systems concepts led to studies of the educational process, itselements, and their interrelationships. Among these elements are theteacher, the teaching methods, the information conveyed, the materialsused, the student, and the student‟s responses. As a result of thesestudies, the field of audiovisuals shifted its emphasis from devices andmaterials to the examination of the teaching-learning process. The field isnow known as audiovisual communications and educational technology,and audiovisual materials were viewed as an integral part of theeducational system. http://www.jpsimbulan.com/2007/11/03/importance – of – instructional – materials – in - education/ September28, 20011 Hence, if the instructional materials are well organized, wellconstructed and presented properly, a successful teaching–learning canbe achieved.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Moreover, Education Insight in Kenya (2005) revealed thatinadequate learning facilities are a common feature in many schools.Yeya (2002) agreed with the above studies that schools with adequatefacilities perform better in National Examination especially in coresubject such as Mathematics. He however asserted that facilities alonecannot count while other factors should be taken into consideration.www.ccsenet.org/ass Asian Social Science Vol. 7, No. 2; February 2011/September 18, 2011Differences Between Public And Private High School Students Two authors Carbonaro and Covay examined whether standardsbased accountability reforms of the past two decades have closed theachievement gap among public and private high school students. Theyanalyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examinesector differences in high school achievement in the era of standardsbased reforms. They found out that students in Catholic and privatesecular schools enjoy greater Mathematics gains from 10th to 12th gradethan comparable public school students. However, they found that theseadvantages are largely concentrated among more advanced Mathematicsskills. Moreover, private school students took more academicMathematics courses than public school students, even after controllingfor family background and prior achievement. These differences in course
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surtaking accounted for most of the public-private difference in achievementgains. http://soe.sagepub.com/content/83/2/160 September 28, 2011 On the other hand Villanueva (2009) found out that there were nosignificant differences between the public and private schools in the CityDivision of Candon, Ilocos Sur in terms of Mathematics II achievement,attitude toward Mathematics, Mathematics beliefs, confidence in usingcomputers, and their perceptions on the characteristics of their teachers.Determinants of the Mathematics Performance The study of Wanjohi, et. al. (2011) on Performance Determinantsof Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in Mathematics ofSecondary Schools in Nyamaiya Division, Kenya, found out determinantsof academic performance of students in Mathematics. There are fourvariables (teachers‟ experience, teachers‟ qualification, teachers‟ andstudents‟ attitude, school category) could be used to predict academicperformance in Mathematics. www.ccsenet.org/ass Asian Social ScienceVol. 7, No. 2; February 2011 September 18, 2011 According to Cajindos (2009), the level of performance inTrigonometry of the student is affected by course, place of residence,habits of concentration, distribution of social relationship and time instudy, study habits and attitude in preparing and taking examinations,attitude towards Mathematics and the school-related factors.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur In the study of Del Castillo (2010), she mentioned thatMathematics performance of the students could be improved when areaof concentration, rank, and civil status of teachers and adequacy ofschool materials are considered. Through the test of significance, Balbalosa (2010) came up withthe following conclusions; there is no significant correlation betweenstudent interest in Mathematics and their performance in Mathematics.Their computed z-value is 0.54 which is less than the tabular z-value of2.10 at α = .05. There is no significant correlation between study habitsand their performance in Mathematics. The computed z-value is -0.47which is less than the tabular z-value of -2.10 at α =0.05. This meansthat the performance of the students in Mathematics was not affected bythe student-related factors in terms of interest and study habits. Shementioned also that there is no significant relationship between teacher-related factors such as personality traits, teaching skills andinstructional materials and the performance of the students inMathematics. Their computed z-values are -0.10, 0.98 and -1.04 whichare less than the tabular z-value of -2.10, 2.10 and -2.10 respectively.Thus, teacher-related factors do not affect the performance of thestudents in Mathematics. Lubina (2004), stated that personal school related factors such as
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Surgrades in high school in Mathematics and occupation of the father arepredictors of the Mathematics performance in College Algebra as provenby r square of .130 and .015 respectively. All the aforecited literature provided direction to the researcher inconducting this study. The review on Mathematics performance,attitudes and beliefs including determinants of performance served asspringboard in identifying possible determinants of the Mathematicsperformance among the fourth year high school students, both publicand private of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter presents a discussion of the research design,population of the study, research instrument, and statistical treatmentused in the study. Research Design The descriptive–correlational method of investigation was used inthis study. The descriptive design identified the profile of the students,the profile of the Mathematics teachers and the profile of the schools ofSta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur. The correlation method wasused to determine the interrelationships between and among the profilesconsidered and the Mathematics performance of the students. Thecomparison between the public and private schools along the variablesconsidered was included also in the investigation. According to Peter (2010), descriptive research usually involvesthat the data collected are described by parameters like their centraltendency and their dispersion. Once there is more than one variable todescribe one can go a step further in the research process and calculatethe relationship between them. Usually, it is expressed in terms of aPearson correlation, which means that a relationship is expressed interms of numbers ranging between - 1 and +1, the latter is called a
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College GRADUATE SCHOOL Tagudin, Ilocos Sur positive relationship, the former means that the relationship is negative. Zero (0) would indicate no relationship between variables. It is rare for a correlation to be as strong as 1, most correlations range between 0.30 and 0.60. Population of the Study The population of this study were the fourth year high school students and all Mathematics teachers from the private and public high schools of Sta. Lucia District, Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur during the school year 2011 – 2012. The three (3) public high schools were Teodoro Hernaez National High School (THNHS), Palali National High School (PNHS), and Nagtablaan National High School (NNHS). The two (2) private high schools were Sta. Lucia Academy (SLA) and Sta. Lucia Catholic School (SLCS). There were 602 fourth year high school students and 14 secondary Mathematics teachers who participated in the study. Of the total students, 281 were taken from the private schools while 321 in the public schools respectively. The table on page 50 show the distribution of the students and Mathematics teacher –respondents. Data Gathering Instruments The questionnaires used in this study were adapted fromVillanueva (2009) and Lubina (2004) for the students‟ Profile and Del