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MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
MDGs and the international development agenda
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MDGs and the international development agenda

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Presentation by Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (The New School) during the High Level Policy Forum - After 2015: Promoting Pro-poor Policy after the MDGs - Brussels, 23 June 2009 - http://www.bit.ly/after2015

Presentation by Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (The New School) during the High Level Policy Forum - After 2015: Promoting Pro-poor Policy after the MDGs - Brussels, 23 June 2009 - http://www.bit.ly/after2015

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  • 1. MDGs and the international development agenda Sakiko Fukuda-Parr The New School After 2015: Promoting Pro-poor policy after the MDGs Brussels 23 June 2009
  • 2. Impact of the MDG paradigm on poverty reduction “MDG paradigm” as paradigm of what?: • Policy & planning • Development • Partnership • Norms of global citizenship
  • 3. Origins of the MDGs • Millennium Declaration 2000 • We the Peoples 1999 • OECD DAC Shaping the 21st Century: the Contribution of Development Cooperation 1996 • Copenhagen Summitt 1994 • UN Conferences of the 1990s Driving ideas: ending poverty as a global norm; human condition as an ethical concern (basic needs, human development, human rights); 1990’s research on poverty as a lived experience and agenda of empowerment (WDR 2000) Driving policy motivation: reaction against the Washington Consensus (WC) – ‘inclusive globalization’ alternative
  • 4. UN conferences Policy Agenda • Core purpose: Inclusive globalization - Alternative to WC led globalisation • Over-riding principles: – Equity – Partnership – Human well being, dignity and rights
  • 5. Mainstream 1990s UN conference agenda Policy priorities WC/macroeconomic Inclusive globalisation; stability; social social investments; econ investments; econ governance; pro-poor governance growth; democratic governance Development paradigm Neoliberalism Basic needs, human (WC/globalization) development/capabilities; human rights; developmentalism Partnership paradigm Ownership & mutual Ownership & mutual accountability; MDGs; accountability; MDGs PRSPs; PRGF/HIPC International Norms Free market competition End poverty; level playing field; equitable globalization
  • 6. Policy priorities:MDGs in PRSPs Content analysis for MDGs as policy priorities in • 22 PRSPs (all 2 generation; 14 SSA, 2 LA, 2 CIS, 3Asia, 1 Arab nd States; 34% of low and middle income countries) • 21 bilateral donor policy frameworks Reference: Fukuda-Parr (2008) “Are MDGs PRSP Policy Priorities? Only a few are!” http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper48.pdf
  • 7. MDGs in PRSPs incled as priority objective, with action plan and targets: Income poverty, education, health, global diseases, water & sanitation, MDG Priority Action plan Targets defined (pillar) defined Income poverty (MDG1) 18 (15) 18 21 Hunger (MDG1) 17 (2) 14 1 Employment (MDG1) 21 (9) 14 7 -decent work 7 (0) 4 0 Education -primary schooling (MDG2) 22 (20) 21 21 Gender equality in schooling 17 (1) 6 18 Women’s empowerment (MDG3) 20 (4) 16 8 -political representation 10 (0) 2 7 -violence against women 12 (1) 0 2 Health general (MDG4-6) 21 (19) 20 20 -maternal health & reproductive rights 18 (1) 6 22 -child survival 17 (1) 9 21 -HIV/AIDS & other diseases 19 (7) 15 17 -HIV/AIDS orphans 8 (0) 2 2 -access to treatment 9 (10) 4 8 Natural resources protection & conservation (MDG7) 17 (4) 2 7 -water & sanitation 20 (6) 18 21
  • 8. Neglected MDGs: decent work, women’s political empowerment, gender violence, natural resource protection and conservation Neglected Millennium Declaration objectives: democracy, human rights, MDG/IADG Priority Action plan Targets defined (pillar) defined Income poverty (MDG1) 18 (15) 18 21 Hunger (MDG1) 17 (2) 14 1 Employment (MDG1) 21 (9) 14 7 -decent work 7 (0) 4 0 Education -primary schooling (MDG2) 22 (20) 21 21 Gender equality in schooling 17 (1) 6 18 Women’s empowerment (MDG3) 20 (4) 16 8 -political representation 10 (0) 2 7 -violence against women 12 (1) 0 2 Health general (MDG4-6) 21 (19) 20 20 -maternal health & reproductive rights 18 (1) 6 22 -child survival 17 (1) 9 21 -HIV/AIDS & other diseases 19 (7) 15 17 -HIV/AIDS orphans 8 (0) 2 2 -access to treatment 9 (10) 4 8 Natural resources protection & conservation (MDG7) 17 (4) 2 7 -water & sanitation 20 (6) 18 21
  • 9. Neglected Millennium Declaration Objectives: Democratic governance Democracy, good governance & human rights (MD chapter 5) -governance (rule of law, corruption) 21 (11) 18 3 -democracy 15 (0) 7 0 -free media 6 (0) 7 1 -human rights protection & promotion, UDHR 15 (0) 6 5 -minority rights 4 (0) 2 0 social integration & vulnerable groups (MD chapter 6) 19 (6) 13 0 -cultural diversity 6 (2) 3 3 -migrants 5 (0) 1 0 Science and Technology (MDG8) 17 (2) 9 9 -access to medicines 9 (0) 1 4
  • 10. 21 bilateral donor policy frameworks: Most commonly selected priorities (number of donor programmes) Core Important but prioritity not core priority Environment-general 19 Human rights 17 Education –general 15 Governance 15 1 Peace and Security 15 4 Health-general 14 Democracy 14 Income poverty 13 1 HIV/AIDS & global diseases 12 1 Water & sanitation 10 1
  • 11. ODA shifts towards social infrastructure (global)
  • 12. Shifts in policy priorities? • Priorities: growth and income poverty + social sector investments (education, health and water) + ‘governance ‘ (rule of law and corruption). • Weaker priority to: employment, hunger and nutrition, gender equality, environment • Neglected priorities: democratic governance, global technology, pro-poor growth policies • Absent details: primary education with gender equality, employment for decent work, gender empowerment against gender violence, social integration including minority rights, cultural diversity…… Strategy: • WC + social investments + econ governance • Agenda undercuts core motivation of ‘inclusive globalization’ based on human rights/human development principles of equality, participation, accountability, social justice, democratic values • Agenda undercuts new strategies for poverty reduction based on empowerment • Agenda undercuts old developmentalist strategies
  • 13. Development paradigm: no change MDGs policy agenda undercut: • Developmentalism/growth approach – ‘Faustian Bargain (Charles Gore) • Human development/capabilities approach – Major Disracting Gimmick (Peggy Atrobus) • Human rights approach – ‘Lost in translation’ (Ashwani Saith) Back to: • Basic needs • Washington Consensus and neoliberalism
  • 14. MDGs as a Faustian Bargain To put it bluntly, the new international development consensus has been achieved through the elimination of the old idea of promoting national economic development. The MDGs are universally called Millennium Development goals. But there is nothing developmental about the MDGs apart from the fact that the poverty and human development outcomes should be achieved in ‘developing countries’. The concern for processes of evolution and transformation has been replaced with standards of evaluation and performance. (Charles Gore, 2008)
  • 15. Partnership paradigm: a deal between national governments and donors • ownership/mutual accountability as basic principles governing donor-recipient relationship • MDG as objectives (‘ends’) commanding consensus of govt and international community • PRSPs as instrument setting out purpose, ‘owned’ by government with broad participation and accepted by donors • PRGF/HIPC as leading financing mechanisms
  • 16. Norms: poverty norm a new international norm • MDGs embody global poverty eradication as an ethical, moral imperative • International norm emerged, ‘cascaded’ and became internalized • Norm internalized but not acted upon • What was the nature of normative shifts? • What and who drove them and how did they evolve? Ref: Fukuda-Parr and Hulme, “International Norm Dynamics and ‘the End of Poverty’: Understanding the MDGS” http://www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/Working-Papers/index.html
  • 17. The Life Cycle of an International Norm: Finnemore and Sikkink 1998. Stage 1: Norm Stage 2: Norm Stage 3: Norm emergence cascade Internalization Actors Norm States, Law, entrepreneurs international professions, with organizations, bureaucracy organizational networks platforms Motives Altruism, Legitimacy, Conformity empathy, reputation, ideational esteem commitment Dominant Persuasion Socialization, Habit, Mechanisms institutionaliza institutionaliza tion, tion demonstration
  • 18. MDGs reached stage 3 1. Emergence 1990s: Poverty norm propelled by ‘norm entrepreneurs’, motivated by ideational commitments 2. Cascade: Norm morphes into MDGs as message, propelled by ‘message entrepreneurs’ motivated by search for consensus over a fractious devt community 3. Internalized: Widespread adoption by bureaucracy, used by habit, institutionalized in development talk
  • 19. State 1 Norm emergency: norm entrepreneurs • 1970s – McNamara, Mahbub ul Haq, • 1980s – civil society (women’s movement, environment and sustainable development, anti-globalization movement) • 1990s – Mahbub ul Haq, Jim Grant, Nafis Sadiq, Clare Short, etc. • 2000’s – MDGs as poverty norm - Tony Blair (proMDG), Jeff Sachs, etc.
  • 20. State 2: message entrepreneurs • DAC aid agency reps • Uttstein Group ministers • John Ruggie • Michael Doyle • Mark Malloch Brown • DAC led indicators group
  • 21. Nature of normative shift • ‘Consensus on MDGs’ redefined ‘poverty’ in neoliberal paradigm • Consensus over ending poverty as purpose of development leaving disagreement about: – Development paradigm – Definition of poverty and development – Strategic means and policy priorities – Universal Values ‘Lost in Translation’
  • 22. Conclusions Mainstream 2009 UN conference/MD agenda Policy priorities WC/macroecon stability; Inclusive globalisation; social investments; econ social investments; econ governance; social governance; pro-poor investments growth; democratic governance Development paradigm Neoliberalism Basic needs, human (WC/globalization) development/capabilities; Basic needs human rights; developmentalism Partnership paradigm Ownership & mutual Ownership & mutual accountability; MDGs; accountability; MDGs PRSPs; PRGF/HIPC International Norms Free market competition End poverty; level playing End poverty field; equitable globalization
  • 23. After 2015: Recasting MDGs for human development agenda • MDGs internalized as international norms – reclaim and redefine: - Inclusion and equity - Human rights - Inclusive globalization ADD GOAL to REDUCE INEQUALITY within and between countries • Policy agenda: - pro-poor growth - Democratic governance - Systemic reforms in global governance and policies NEGOTIATE A POLICY AGENDA FOR PRO-POOR GROWTH & MACROECONOMIC POLICY FRAMEWORK • Mechanisms - Strengthen ownership - Strengthen mutual accountability LOCAL OWNERSHIP – ADAPT TARGETS AND PROCESSES
  • 24. Thank you
  • 25. Contestation • ‘The end of extreme poverty is at hand – within our generation…the Millennium Development Goals…are bold but achievable…[t]hey represent a crucial midstation on the path to ending extreme poverty by the year 2025’ (Sachs 2005) • ‘The setting of utopian goals means aid workers will focus efforts on infeasible tasks, instead of the feasible tasks that will do some good’ (Easterly 2006) • ‘I do not believe in the MDGs. I think of them as a Major Distracting Gimmick…’ (Antrobus 2003). • ‘The MDGs are European social policy. We [IMF] don’t do European social policy’ (Senior Economist, IMF, 2006)

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