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MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning
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MDGs and Global Environmental Change - Governance, Innovation and Learning

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Presentation by Andreas Rechkemmer (IHDP) during the High Level Policy Forum - After 2015: Promoting Pro-poor Policy after the MDGs - Brussels, 23 June 2009 - http://www.bit.ly/after2015

Presentation by Andreas Rechkemmer (IHDP) during the High Level Policy Forum - After 2015: Promoting Pro-poor Policy after the MDGs - Brussels, 23 June 2009 - http://www.bit.ly/after2015

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  • Congratulations on your slideshow very interesting ! Great work... beautifully presented ! ! Thank you for sharing. I allowed myself to add it to 'GREAT CAUSES and JUST CAUSES' group . Feel free to join us. Thank you in advance for your participation and sharing your 'favorites'. . Good weekend! With friendship, Bernard (France)
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Transcript

  • 1. MDGs
and
Global
Environmental
 Change:
 Governance,
Innova:on
and
 Learning
 Andreas
Rechkemmer
 Brussels,
June
2009

  • 2. The
Anthropocene
 •  The Anthropocene is a term invented by Paul Crutzen to signify the fact that human beings for the first time have taken hold not only of the economy and of population dynamics, but of the planet's physical systems. •  The geologists call our time the holocene but Crutzen noted that the last two hundred years are really a unique era, not only in human history but in the Earth's physical history as well.
  • 3. More
reasons
for
concern
since
2001
 (IPCC
TAR)
 IPCC TAR Redrawn with data from IPCC AR4 Schneider, S. et al., 2008 PNAS in press ESSP
is
a
joint
ini:a:ve
of

  • 4. Lenton, T.M., Held, H., Kriegler, E., Hall, J.W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S., Schellnhuber, H.J., 2008. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system. PNAS 105, 1786-1793. ESSP
is
a
joint
ini:a:ve
of
 Switch
and
choke
points

  • 5. Cartogram: Greenhouse gases Emissions

 Countries scaled according to cumulative emissions in billion tonnes carbon equivalent in 2002. (Patz, Gibbs, et al, 2007) ESSP
is
a
joint
ini:a:ve
of

  • 6. Cartogram: Health impacts of climate change Deaths from malaria & dengue fever, diarrhoea, malnutrition, flooding and (OECD countries) heatwaves WHO regions scaled according to estimated mortality (per million people) in the year 2000, attributable to the climate change that occurred from 1970s to 2000 (Patz, Gibbs, et al, 2007) ESSP
is
a
joint
ini:a:ve
of

  • 7. Current
Health
Burden
(deaths)
due
to
Climate
 Change
 ESSP
is
a
joint
ini:a:ve
of

  • 8. Ecosystem
Services
 Ecosystem
‘services’
are
‘the
benefits
people
obtain
from
ecosystems’
 Four
categories:

 ‐
Provisioning
services:
provide
goods
 ‐
Regula0ng
services
:
maintain
a
world
in
which
it
is
biophysically
possible
for
people
to
live

 ‐ 
Cultural
services
:
make
the
world
a
place
in
which
people
like
to
live

 ‐
Suppor0ng
services
:
are
the
underlying
ecosystem
processes
that
produce
the

























































 direct
services
described
above

 (Source:
Brauman
et
al.
2007)

  • 9. Ecosystems
and
Human
Well‐Being
 

All
humans
completely
depend
on
 Earth‘s
ecosystems
and
the
services
 they
provide
 

As
human
popula:ons
grow,
so
do
 the
resource
demands
imposed
on
 ecosystems
and
the
impacts
of
our
 global
footprint
 

A
complex
array
of
feedbacks
and
 tradeoffs
exist
 

Processes
sustaining
these
services
 are
vulnerable
and
each
have
 different

thresholds,
adap:ve
 capaci:es
and
limits.
The
magnitude
 of
a
par:cular
type
of
disturbance
 that
can
be
absorbed
by
an
 ecosystem
is
referred
to
as
 ecosystem
resilience

  • 10. Ecosystem
Services
–
Why
Worry?
 Three major problems are associated with the management of the worlds ecosystems: 1.  Approx. 60% (15/24) of the ecosystem services examined during the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are being degraded or used unsustainably. 2.  Established but incomplete evidence that changes being made in ecosystems are increasing the likelihood of nonlinear changes in ecosystems which have important consequences for human well-being. 3. The harmful effects of the degradation of ecosystem services are being borne disproportionately by the poor, women and indigenous peoples, are contributing to growing inequalities, and are sometimes the principle factor for causing poverty and social conflict.
  • 11. Protec:ng
Ecosystem
Services
 Institutions and governance: •  hanges in institutional and environmental governance frameworks for effective C management of ecosystems. Economics and incentives: •  conomic and financial interventions as instruments to regulate the use of ecosystem E goods and services. Social and behavioural responses: •  Public education, civil society action and empowerment of communities can be instrumental in responding to ecosystem degradation. Technological responses: •  evelopment of technologies designed to increase the efficiency of resource use and D reduce impacts of drivers of environmental change. Knowledge responses: •  ffective management of ecosystems is constrained by a lack of knowledge and E information.
  • 12. What
is
Resilience?

 Capacity
of
a
social
and
ecological
system
to
accommodate
 change
without
loosing
its
characteris:cs,
structure
and
 func:ons
 Capacity to buffer disturbances Capacity to renewal and re-organization Capacity to learning and adaptation • To absorb stress or destructive forces through resistance or adaptation. • To manage, or maintain certain basic functions and structures, during disastrous events. • To recover or ‘bounce back’ after an event.
  • 13. Why
to
focus
nowadays
on
resilience?
 •  Resilience
put
emphasis
on
what
communi:es
can
 do
for
themselves
and
how
to
strengthen
their
 capaci:es

  • 14. Global
Environmental
Change
and
the
Millennium
 Development
Goals
 Global
Environmental
Change
 Large
costs
for
 wealth
and
 development
 Growing
Vulnerabili8es
 Undermining
the
 possibili8es
to
 aAain
the
MDGs
 Degrada8on
of
Ecoysstem
 Services

  • 15. The
evolu:on
of
GEC
and
Development

 strands
of
thinking 
 Global Environmental Systems Science Development Research Change Inter-disciplinary research Research Trans-disciplinary Processes of the Earth System Research Processes of social development - Poverty Vulnerability Alleviation Adaptability Environment AND Resilience Development Human Dimensions – Impacts of GEC and Sustainability Impacts of Globalisation on the Environment FOR Development Environment FEEDBACKS SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS ABRUPT CHANGE OF ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS
  • 16. Social‐Ecological
Systems
 from
Chapin
et
al.
2006

  • 17. Geels´
mul:‐level
model
 (Source:
Geels
2002)

  • 18. Smith`s
Transi:on
contexts

  • 19. Rotmans´
four
transi:on
stages

  • 20. Human-driven erosion of resilience •  impacting on ecosystem via emissions of waste, pollutants and climate change •  removing biological diversity, whole functional groups of species or whole trophic levels •  altering the magnitude, frequency and duration of disturbance regimes •  The combined effects of those pressures makes ecological systems more vulnerable to changes that previously could be absorbed 
 Source:
IGBP
2007
  • 21. •  Innova8on.‐
through
imagina:on
and
novelty,
 socie:es
are
able
to
develop
diverse
trajectories
of
 development
and
adapta:on
within
changeable
 condi:ons,
which
in
turn
move
the
focus
on
the
 heterogeneity
of
opportuni:es
and
poten:ali:es
 that
people
have.
 •  Learning.‐
keeping
the
‘memory’
of
previous
 adap:ve
responses
through
local
ins:tu:ons,
norms,
 and
tradi:ons.
In
par:cular,
the
modifica:ons
that
 social
groups
introduce
to
resource
use
and
 ecosystems
dynamics
can
create
awareness
of
the
 global
environment
and
linking
global
and
local
 ins:tu:ons.

  • 22. Four
closely
linked
core
elements
of
are:
 +
Knowledge
in
its
forms,
origins,
production,
 movement,
control,
and
access
to
it
across
cultures
 and
geographical
scales.
 +Mechanisms
and
dynamics
of
learning
by
 individuals,
communities,
and
institutions
in
the
 context
of
the
challenges
of
global
change.

  • 23. +Positive
and
negative
determinants
and
 mechanisms
of
changes
in
attitudes,
thinking,
 and
behavior
in
moving
from
knowledge
to
 sustainable
societal
practices
on
individual
and
 aggregated
scales. +The
relationship
and
interactions
between
 policy‐making
and
knowledge,
learning,
and
 changes
in
societal
behavior
in
the
process
of
 moving
toward
a
sustainable
future.



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