THE EU PROJECT “WOMEN AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN UKRAINE –              COMMUNICATION COMPONENT”               FINAL SURVEY ...
Research team:Dr. Churilov N. - Independent Consultant, EU Project "Women and Children Rights in Ukraine -Communication co...
CONTENTSBASIC RESULTS OF THE SURVEY ....................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена...
4
BASIC RESULTS OF THE SURVEYCONCEPT OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES  • The ideas that the opposite gender has more advantages are ...
• Regarding the issue of maternity/paternity and sick leaves to take care of a child,    women are more open to share thes...
we may see that majority of them relate to the spheres of education and family,     while it would be labor relations for ...
usually better aware of the campaign. Those who were aware of the campaign   usually treated it as an idea.• 1% of Ukraini...
METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY      A public survey implemented on 5-18 November 2011 used the method of face-to-face interview...
CONCEPT OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES           IDEAS ON POSITION AND THE LEVEL OF GENDER RESPONSIBILITY     Women tend to thin...
Graph 1.2     Considering the society, in general, and without your personal experience, who’s got                        ...
CONCEPT OF CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONLevel of responsibilities and duties of mothers and fathers in raising a child     The sphe...
Graph 1.4     Who does have more responsibility for raising children: a mother or a father?                    (% of the r...
Table 1.5             Who must fulfill the following responsibilities related to raising a child?                         ...
Graph 1.6Parental behavioral strategies in case when a child prefers to make friends with children                        ...
Graph 1.7      What is a better behavior for a girl/boy, in case another child messes in a fight with                     ...
Graph 1.8   In your opinion, what types of punishment may be used against a child (a boy and a girl)?                     ...
Graph 1.9                           DATA COMPARISON FOR 2009 AND 2011            In your opinion, what types of punishment...
Graph 2.1                   In your opinion, what is the age for a child to acquire the right to …?                       ...
Graph 2.2                               Adoption procedure in Ukraine                 (% of the responding subgroup, N men...
reason is considered sufficient for raising a child at a boarding school for only 16% of therespondents.Sharing maternity/...
“this could be a father or a mother” option was chosen more often: this option waschosen by 26% respondents in 2009 and 35...
Graph 2.6                      Who should take a sick leave to take care of a child?                    (% of the respondi...
Graph 3.1                        Who is usually more skilled in education?                              (% of all responde...
Graph 3.3                                                   Why a man? / Why a woman?                                    (...
Graph 3.4                                          Why a man? / Why a woman?                           (% of the respondin...
Graph 4.1                                  Allocation of family responsibilities                       (% of the respondin...
significant difference between male and female respondents. At the same time, thisstereotype is equally frequent for both ...
Graph 4.3                            DATA COMPARISON OF 2009 AND OF 2011                              Tolerance towards do...
INCIDENCE OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION     In order to understand the incidence of the problem of gender discrimination inUkra...
Graph 5.1                              Experience in discrimination before 15 years old                           (% of th...
Graph 5.2      Have you ever faced violent from a member of your family in your childhood?                                ...
Results of the analysis of various types within the general structure prove that menand women become victims of discrimina...
men earn higher wages than women (as mentioned by 11% women) (Graph 5.5). Theopposite situations happened rather rarely wi...
GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION          Discrimination in the sphere of education plays a more important role in the  ...
work or study, which was stated by 4% of women, while the same situation happenedwith mere 0,2% of men.                   ...
There are much more countryside residents among those who think that we shouldnot apply to anybody in case of domestic vio...
SATISFACTION WITH LIFE      According to our survey, the status of men and women within a society is differentby not only ...
were more women among those who were rather satisfied with their relations (43%women vs. 34% men). In general, there were ...
Graph 6.6                          How much are you satisfied with your leisure?                     (% of the responding ...
Completely satisfied         Male         22.2               40.5               29.9    5.1                               ...
Final survey december_2011_eng
Final survey december_2011_eng
Final survey december_2011_eng
Final survey december_2011_eng
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Final survey december_2011_eng

  1. 1. THE EU PROJECT “WOMEN AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN UKRAINE – COMMUNICATION COMPONENT” FINAL SURVEY REPORT 5-18 November 2011, Kiev Prepared by Kiev International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) 1
  2. 2. Research team:Dr. Churilov N. - Independent Consultant, EU Project "Women and Children Rights in Ukraine -Communication component", Consultant on research methodologyE-mail: mykola.churulov @ tns-ua.comGoroshko A. - Research Coordinator, Kiev International Institute of SociologyE-mail: a.goroshko @ kiis.com.uaSkrypka K. – Coordinator, Kiev International Institute of SociologyE-mail: k.skrypka @ kiis.com.uaReport prepared by:Goroshko A. - Author of the ReportDyshlevy A. - Reviewer * Report promoted via www.vsirivni.com.ua by EU4UKR in assoc. with OBI (Lithuania) 2
  3. 3. CONTENTSBASIC RESULTS OF THE SURVEY ....................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY ...................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.CONCEPT OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES ........................................ Ошибка! Закладка не определена. IDEAS ON POSITION AND THE LEVEL OF GENDER RESPONSIBILITY............. Ошибка! Закладка не определена. CONCEPT OF CHILDREN’S EDUCATION .................. Ошибка! Закладка не определена. Level of responsibilities and duties of mothers and fathers in raising a childОшибка! Закладка не определена. Concepts of children’s behavior .................................................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. Punishments against children ....................................................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. Minimum age for decision-making .............................................................................. Ошибка! Закладка не определена. Adoption in Ukraine ........................................................................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. Sharing maternity/paternity and sick leaves for fathers and mothers ....... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. MALE AND FEMALE CAPACITIES IN EDUCATION AND CAREERОшибка! Закладка не определена. ALLOCATION OF FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES ...... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. FAMILY-RELATED GENDER STEREOTYPES .......... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.INCIDENCE OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION ..................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. INCIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATION IN CHILDHOODОшибка! Закладка не определена. INCIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATION FOR TEENAGERS ABOVE 15 ................................... 29 GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN LABOR RELATIONS ............................................ Ошибка! Закладка не определена. GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION ........................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. DOMESTIC GENDER DISCRIMINATION .................................................................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена. WAYS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.SATISFACTION WITH LIFE .................................................................. Ошибка! Закладка не определена.AWARENESS ON ACTIVITIES OF THE EU PROJECT “WOMEN AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS INUKRAINE – COMMUNICATION COMPONENT” ............................................................................................39 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. BASIC RESULTS OF THE SURVEYCONCEPT OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES • The ideas that the opposite gender has more advantages are more popular among women than men. The respondents tend to set more responsibilities for their own gender – a similar trend was observed in 2009 as well. • About a third of the whole population thinks that both spouses may demand a child from each other. At the same time, men tend to recognize this right for husbands. Comparing to 2009, significantly less men started thinking that any of spouses has the right to a demand like that. • Responsibilities on care about their children are most often to be given to a mother or both parents equally; none of the suggested responsibilities is perceived as a relatively male obligation. There are no significant differences in perceiving responsibilities between men and women, which may consider women taking the bulk of household responsibilities (cooking, laundering) themselves, while they prefer sharing social responsibilities (games, homework with their children, visits to a doctor) with their partners. • The respondents are more tolerant with situations when a girl plays boyish games than the one when a boy plays girlish toys. Comparing the data with the results of the survey in 2009, we may define statistically significant changes regarding response to girlish preferences in playing boyish games. In particular, the number of people thinking that we should normally react to such a choice of a girl has significantly increased (from 51% in 2009 to 55% in 2011). Apart from that, the number of people thinking that we should softly get a girl interested in toys for girls has significantly decreased (from 36% in 2009 to 32% in 2011). • Regarding punishment for children, bans on walks/TV watching, deprivation of material wealth and standing in the corner were considered acceptable among the respondents. About a third of the respondents could use the aforementioned forms of punishment, while another third of the respondents consider none of the aforementioned punishments acceptable for a child. While comparing the data of 2010 and of 2011, we may admit the decrease in the number of the respondents who use physical force against a child or limit his/her movements. Particularly, there was stated a significant decrease in the number of punishments like standing in the corner, slapping hands, spanking, standing on the nuts/buckwheat. Comparing to 2009, we should also mention a significant increase in the number of people thinking that none of the aforementioned punishments can be used against children. 24% respondents were of this opinion in 2009, while 31% respondents think so in 2011. 5
  6. 6. • Regarding the issue of maternity/paternity and sick leaves to take care of a child, women are more open to share these responsibilities between both parents or were taken by one of them regardless of the gender; men were more often to tell that this responsibility should be taken by women only. No matter the incidence of stereotypes related to paternity/maternity/sick leaves as a purely female responsibility, the society became more tolerant to other options comparing to the year 2009. At the same time, women are more often to support an opportunity for both mothers and fathers to take paternity/maternity/sick leaves. We should mention that youth (16 - 24 years old) and elderly people (65 years old and above) tend to perceive the aforementioned responsibilities as purely female. • Some gender stereotypes in the labor sphere became less spread. Particularly, there are much less of both men and women who consider women bad managers now. Apart from that, much more people don’t consider a situation when a woman is more successful than man abnormal now. • Regarding the decision-making process, the number of those who think that basic decisions should be made jointly has decreased, but the number of those who think that decisions should be made by those who make it better has increased respectfully. Regarding housework, the number of those considering housework a purely female responsibility has decreased and the number of those who consider it a joint responsibility has increased respectfully. • Regarding the family sphere, the stereotypes that a woman should be a man’s subordinate and that spouses may use physical and sexual violence against each other became less spread. As of the moment, sexual violence is acceptable for about 8% respondents and physical – for 4%-7% respondents.INCIDENCE OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION • About a half of the respondents told they faced gender discrimination in their childhood. Just like in 2009, the most spread forms of discrimination in childhood is the feeling that children of opposite gender have more advantages, while men told that girls had more advantages and women – boys. Moreover, fostering a setting for the girls to be men’s subordinates was the most spread form of discrimination comparing to the others. • Violent attitude in childhood was faced by about 11% respondents. At the same time, we should mention that there was no statistically significant difference between experiences in violence in childhood for the respondents of various age groups. For the half of the cases of violence against a child, it was committed by a father and mothers were mentioned a bit less frequently. • Victims of gender discrimination of 15 years old were 39% men and 54% women. Considering the total of all situations with discrimination against men as the basic, 6
  7. 7. we may see that majority of them relate to the spheres of education and family, while it would be labor relations for women. • The most popular situations of discrimination against women at the labor market were that it’s easier for men to build their career, they are usually preferred during employment process and they also earn higher wages. Situations with discrimination regarding delivering a child were mentioned rather rarely. • Discrimination in the sphere of education was more often relevant for men, as their parents and relatives had more impact on them during the choice of their profession. • Regarding family discrimination, women often mentioned that their partners made them do all or a part of housework or they used physical force against them. Men were more often victims of a situation when their wives/partners made important decisions regarding their children without consulting with them. • While solving the problem of domestic violence, the most of the respondents tend to think that they should look for help from the Police, friends/relatives or state social services. About a quarter of the population think they should solve this problem on their own.SATISFACTION WITH LIFE • Satisfaction with life, in general, and its specific aspects is higher for men. Approximately different level of satisfaction for men and women maybe observed only regarding their relations with children and the level of financial wealth.ACTIVITIES OF THE EU PROJECT “WOMEN AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN UKRAINE –COMMUNICATION COMPONENT” • About a half of Ukrainian population thinks that the level of coverage of women’s and children’s rights, as well as domestic violence has increased for the last 2 years. • About a third of the population heard the slogans “I am against violence” (37%) and “Stay Human” (30%). At the same time, many city residents were aware of them much earlier than those living in the countryside. There was defined a trend on the age of the respondents: the younger the respondent is, the more possible that he/she is aware the slogans. About a half of the respondents under their 24 years old were aware of the slogans of the Bracelet campaign. • About 15% Ukrainians were aware of the Bracelet campaign. At the same time, there were much more people like that among the youth. City residents were 7
  8. 8. usually better aware of the campaign. Those who were aware of the campaign usually treated it as an idea.• 1% of Ukrainians took part in the campaign and about 10% saw other people wearing the bracelets.• A quarter of Ukrainian population (about 25%) is aware of the EU Project “Women and children’s rights in Ukraine – Communication component”. 8
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY A public survey implemented on 5-18 November 2011 used the method of face-to-face interviews at respondents’ homes. The size of the sampling constitutes 1 217 respondents with 550 men and 667women. The data are representative for the whole Ukrainian population under 16 yearsold and the worst possible error excluding the design effect constitutes 2,8%. A samplingtype is a random four-level stratified sampling with quota selection during the last phase. All the differences specified within the frames of this report are statisticallysignificant. A statistically significant difference between the answers of varioussubgroups of the sampling frame is marked with the asterisk (*). This survey was dedicated to the incidence level of gender stereotypes and genderdiscrimination cases, as well as activities of the EU Project “Women and children’s rightsin Ukraine – Communication component”. The report contains comparisons of acquired results with the survey implementedby GfK on 8 - 22 December 2009. 9
  10. 10. CONCEPT OF MALE AND FEMALE ROLES IDEAS ON POSITION AND THE LEVEL OF GENDER RESPONSIBILITY Women tend to think that the opposite gender has more advantages andopportunities than them more often. A rather insignificant number of both men andwomen think about it on a regular basis, but 41% women and 23% men think about itfrom time to time (Graph 1.1). Much more men (68%) than women (45%) never thinkthat the opposite gender has more advantages. Totally, the data of the survey signify thatwomen think more often about male advantages and opportunities. Graph 1.1Have you ever thought that the opposite gender has more advantages and opportunities? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women = 667) On a regular basis 7.4 3.8 Sometimes 40.9 23.2 Female Male Never 45.1 68.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 Comparison of the data with the results of the survey implemented in 20091 provessome worsening of the situation. The number of women who started thinking aboutadvantages of the opposite gender has significantly increased (from 28% to 41%), whilethe share of those who never thought about it decreased somewhat (from 52% to 45%). Evaluation of male and female positions in society is different for representatives ofopposite genders (Graph 1.2). Hence, position of the opposite gender is considered moreadvantageous more often. A similar trend could be observed in 2009. The fact thatgender has no impact on a person’s position in society was more popular for men (46%men vs. 36% women), while women tended to think that men have a better position(44% women vs. 31% men).1 The question in 2009 was as follows: “Have you ever thought that the opposite gender has a more advantageousposition than yours?” 10
  11. 11. Graph 1.2 Considering the society, in general, and without your personal experience, who’s got the better position: women or men? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) 44.4 Men 30.8 15.2 Women 18.2 Female Male 35.8 Gender is not important 45.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regarding the fact who is the one to have more responsibilities, the respondentstended to set more responsibilities for their own gender (Graph 1.3). For the half of thecases (52%), women think it’s them, while only 17% women think that society burdensmen more. Men were equally frequent to tell that either they have more responsibilitiesor that the level of responsibility depends more on a specific person and not the gender.A similar situation with responsibilities for their own gender was observed in 2009. Graph 1.3 Who does have more responsibilities in our society – women or men? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Men 16.8 37.4 Women 51.7 Female 19.2 Male Gender is not important 28.9 39.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 11
  12. 12. CONCEPT OF CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONLevel of responsibilities and duties of mothers and fathers in raising a child The sphere of giving birth and raising children is a rather conservative one. Theconcept that spouses have a right to demand a child from each other is rather popular.This particularly relates to the fact that about a third of population considers thispractice acceptable (Graph 1.3а). At the same time, men think they have this rightrelatively more often (33%); 26% women keep to the same opinion. 28% women feel thesame right related to them. Graph 1.3а The right of spouses to demand a child (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * A man has the right to demand children 33.1 from his woman 25.8 Men A woman has the right to demand children 28.5 Women from her man 27.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 While comparing the acquired data with the results of 2009, we may admit thatmuch less men started recognizing the right to this demand for both men and women. Generally, we may admit that about a third of the population think that spouses maydemand a child from each other. At the same time, men are more inclined to recognizethis right for husbands. Comparing to 2009, significantly less men consider any ofspouses has a right like that. Regarding the responsibility about children, men’s and women’s approach to thisissue differs. Hence, men tend to think that both parents are equally responsible forraising their children more often, while women are more often inclined to thinkthat mothers have greater responsibility about their children (Graph 1.4).Regardless the fact that rather many respondents thought that more responsibility istaken by fathers, this option was taken by men significantly more often. Considering thewhole population and without taking a respondent’s gender into account, we may saythat equal responsibility of both parents (49%) or mothers (47%) was equally popularamong the respondents, as the opinion on greater responsibility of fathers is ratherunpopular (2%). 12
  13. 13. Graph 1.4 Who does have more responsibility for raising children: a mother or a father? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Both parents on the equal 45.0 basis 54.7 54.3 Mom 40.3 Female Male 0.9 Dad 3.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 Responsibilities related to care about children are more often entrusted to either amother or both parents equally; none of the suggested responsibilities is consideredpurely male. The respondents’ opinions on the responsibilities related to care about childrendepend on the nature of responsibilities to some extent. We may nominally divide theresponsibilities into two groups: those they consider primarily female and those theyrather consider for both parents and not only mothers. Cooking, feeding and children’s laundry are most often considered mothers’responsibilities and they may be related to the first group. Putting to bed and bathing aremore often considered a responsibility of both parents, but the difference in frequency ofsetting this responsibility for mothers and both parents is rather small, so we also relatethose to the first group of responsibilities. The second group may include playing development games, walking in the open air,visiting a doctor, bringing children to a kindergarten and helping them with theirhomework. In our opinion, the general feature for these responsibilities is their socialcomponent and implementation of these responsibilities requires either intellectualengagement of parents or outdoor activities, while the responsibilities that are mostlyperceived as female ones usually relate to the household sphere and meeting a child’sbasic needs. 13
  14. 14. Table 1.5 Who must fulfill the following responsibilities related to raising a child? (% of all respondents, N=1217) Mother, % Father, % Both parents, % Cooking for a child 64.7 0.7 34.4 Feeding a child 57.3 0.8 41.4 Responsibilities of a mother Laundering and ironing 60.1 1.6 37.9 Bathing a child 47.3 1.6 50.5 Putting a child to bed 41.1 2.5 55.9 Playing developing games 15.9 9.0 74.8 Walking in the open air 14.1 5.9 79.6 Responsibilities of Visiting a doctor 36.0 1.2 62.3 both parents Bringing and getting a child from the 14.5 4.0 81.1 kindergarten/school Checking/helping with homework 16.2 3.6 79.5 We must admit that there were no significant differences in perceivingresponsibilities between men and women, which may prove the fact that women take thebulk of household responsibilities, while preferring to share social responsibilities withtheir parents. The only exception is the responsibility of outdoor walks and homework— women are more often to consider this as a mother’s responsibility, while men aremore often to take this responsibility for them or consider it common for both parents.Concepts of children’s behavior The concepts on what games should be played by boys and girls still exist inUkrainian society. This particularly relates to dividing games into boyish and girlish ones.The respondents are much more tolerant with accepting a situation when a girl playsboyish games than the one when a boy plays the games for girls (Graph 1.6). This girls’behavior is normally accepted by 55% respondents, while 47% would accept similarbehavior of a boy (the percentage difference is statistically significant). A more tolerantattitude to a girlish wish to play boyish games is tracked while choosing the option“trying to get them interested in more “appropriate” things” — such a model of parentalbehavior was more often chosen regarding boys (38%) than girls (32%). A similar trendmay be observed while choosing the option “banning to do that”, which was more oftenchosen regarding boys. 14
  15. 15. Graph 1.6Parental behavioral strategies in case when a child prefers to make friends with children of opposite gender and play their games (% of all respondents, N=1217) Encourage a child’s choice 5.7 3.8 Normally treat this choice and do 54.7 nothing about it 47.2 Girls Trying to get them interested in 32.3 Boys more “appropriate” things” 38.4 3.5 Banning to do that 5.7 0 20 40 60 80 100 Comparing the data with the results of 2009, we may define some specificstatistically significant changes, which particularly relate to response on girls’preferences to play boyish games. Specifically, the number of people thinking aboutnormal reaction to this kind of a girl’s choice significantly increased (from 51% in 2009to 55% in 2011). Moreover, the number of people thinking they should get a girlinterested in the games for girls has significantly decreased (from 36% in 2009 to 32% in2011). In case of conflict situations among children, the concept of behavioral models forboys and girls are different (Graph 1.7). For instance, if a child messes in a fight withanother child, they choose an opportunity to fight back for a boy much more often (37%respondents think so), while this option is less popular for girls (21%). They choose“peaceful” solutions for girls more often: so, 20% “advise” them to go get some adults tohelp and this value constitutes 11% for boys; girls are also more often advised to solve aconflict peacefully comparing to boys. In general, we may state that boys are more oftenaimed at aggressive behavioral models in conflict situations and girls are more oftenaimed at more constructive ones. At the same time, there was no difference defined inmale and female points of view. 15
  16. 16. Graph 1.7 What is a better behavior for a girl/boy, in case another child messes in a fight with her/him? (% of all respondents, N=1217) 20.7 Fight back 37.3 19.5 Call for adults 11.5 Girls Try solving a conflict peacefully and 55.5 Boys convince another child 47.7 1.6 Do nothing 1.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 Comparing the data with the results of 2009, we may define a relative shift in boys’behavior: the number of people who think that boys should also call for adults (i.e., use apeaceful solution for a conflict) is somewhat higher.Punishments against children Regarding punishments against children, the respondents were most often to callthe following as the most acceptable punishments: forbid to play in the street/watch TV,deprivation of material benefits and standing in the corner. These methods ofpunishments could be favorable for about a third of the respondents, while another thirdthinks that none of the aforementioned punishments may be used against a child. Aboutone tenth of the respondents consider spanking and slapping acceptable punishment fora child; there is also a type of punishment called “belting” that is rather unpopular andwas called by about 3% of the respondents. 16
  17. 17. Graph 1.8 In your opinion, what types of punishment may be used against a child (a boy and a girl)? (% of all respondents, N=1217)* Ban to play in the street, to talk to friends, 30.2 to watch TV, etc. 33.9 To deprive - a material benefit of 35.4 (sweets, toys or presents) 33.2 *Standing in the corner 24.9 29.7 * Slapping, spanking 10.0 14.2 Don’t talk to a child, ignore it 5.7 5.7 Girl * Belting 1.0 3.5 Boy * To lock in a dark room 0.2 1.2 0.7 Standing on buckwheat, nuts, etc. 1.1 0.3 To lock in a room 1.1 Nothing of the above 33.9 31.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 While answering this question, we asked the respondents to define the methods of punishment to be used against boys and girls. Statistically significant differences were defined for both non-corporal and corporal punishments2. Generally speaking, all the differences related to boys and girls lied in the fact that the respondents often supported various punishments for boys. While comparing the data of 2009 and 20113, we may specify decreased level of acceptance for the punishments limiting a child’s movements or considering physical force against a child. Particularly, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of choice in favor of the following punishments: standing in the corner, slapping/spanking, belting, standing on buckwheat/nuts (Graph 1.9). We should also mention that comparing to the results of 2009, the number of people thinking that none of the punishments can be used against a child significantly increased. 24% respondents were of this opinion in 2009, while 31% support this idea in 2011. 2 Types of punishments with defined differences for boys and girls are marked with the asterisk in the Graph 1.8 (*). 3 In order to compare the data for 2011, the answers concerning boys were taken into account. 17
  18. 18. Graph 1.9 DATA COMPARISON FOR 2009 AND 2011 In your opinion, what types of punishments may be used against a child? (% of all respondents, N 2009 = 1607, N 2011 = 1217) Standing in the corner 36.7 29.7 Ban to play in the street, to talk to friends,, 34.4 to watch TV, etc. 33.9 To deprive of a material benefit - 31.4 (sweets, toys or presents) 33.2 Slapping, spanking 17.2 14.2 Don’t talk to a child and ignore it 6.2 5.7 2009 5.6 Belting 3.5 2011 Standing on the buckwheat/nuts, etc. 2.6 1.1 To lock in a room 0.9 1.1 To lock in a dark room 0.7 1.2 24.3 Nothing of the above 31.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Hence, we may conclude that adult Ukrainian population has become moreintolerant to the punishments used against children involving the use of force andlimiting a child’s movements for the last 3 years.Minimum age for decision-making We asked the respondents a question considering the age of children when theyacquire their basic rights – the right to expression, the right to confidentiality and theright to communication and leisure. The most of the respondents were in the age rangefrom 6 to 10 years old or from 11 to 15 years old (Graph 2.1). 18
  19. 19. Graph 2.1 In your opinion, what is the age for a child to acquire the right to …? (% of all respondents, N = 1217) 16.7 9.5 under 5 15.5 11.8 24.2 19.9 6 -10 32.5 45.2 right to expression 18.7 11 -15 30.6 right to confidentiality 20.5 23.3 right to communication 12.9 16 -17 17.2 right to leisure 11.2 8.7 10.8 8.7above 18 5.3 4.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Comparing the acquired data with the results of the survey in 2009, we may specify a general trend of decreasing a child’s age for basic decision-making. Particularly, the age for the right to leisure in 2009 for 35% respondents was 6-10 years old, while there were 45% of the respondents like that in 2011; the same trend may be observed for the age when a child acquires the right to communication with his/her friends. We may generally mark the trend to decrease the minimum age for children to acquire their rights to some decision-making. Adoption in Ukraine About a half of the respondents think that the adoption procedure in Ukraine is complicated. At the same time, women are more inclined to this opinion than men. 40% women and 34% men are in favor of simplifying this procedure. 19
  20. 20. Graph 2.2 Adoption procedure in Ukraine (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Is it difficult to adopt a child in 52.2 Ukraine? 43.2 Female Do we need a simplified adoption 39.7 Male procedure? 33.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regarding the fact whether we should leave children for education at an orphanagewith its parents being alive, about 13% of the population are ultimately against this andthink that children should be passed to a boarding school or an orphanage under nocircumstances (Graph 2.3). Graph 2.3 What do you think, is it acceptable to leave a child for care at a boarding school with his/her parents alive? (% of all respondents, N = 1217) Yes, if parents suffer from addiction / 76.7 to drugs Yes, if parents use physical force 46.3 against him/her Yes, if a child suffers from neglect 29.0 Yes, if parents are not able to ensure 16.3 a child’s financial wealth No, a child should not be placed at a boarding school under any circumstances 13.1 with his/her parents alive 0 20 40 60 80 100 Alcoholic/drug addiction was called among the reasons to leave children atboarding schools – about 77% of the respondents consider this reason sufficient to take achild away from the family. About a half of the respondents consider the use of physicalforce against a child a sufficient reason to pass a child to a boarding school; 29% thinkthat parental neglect could be another sufficient reason as well. The least of supportamong the respondents was acquired by lack of financial wealth for children – this 20
  21. 21. reason is considered sufficient for raising a child at a boarding school for only 16% of therespondents.Sharing maternity/paternity and sick leaves for fathers and mothers The questions on a paternity/maternity or a sick leave to take care of a child forwomen, in general, state that they tend to share these responsibilities between bothparents or a parent should implement them regardless of the gender. 50% women and 61% men, in particular, tend to choose a woman and a maternityleave. Hence, this option is more often supported by men (Graph 2.4). Women were moreoften to choose a candidate for a leave regardless of the gender (40% women and 30%men) and sharing of this responsibility between both parents (8.3% women and 5,5%women). Graph 2.4 What do you think, which one of the parents should take a maternity/paternity leave? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) 49.6 * A mother only 61.3* This could be a father or a mother regardless of the 39.4 gender 30.5 Female Paternity/maternity leaves should be shared by both 8.3 Male parents 5.5 0.3 A father only 0.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regarding the views on a paternity/maternity leave, statistically significantdifferences were registered for the respondents of various age groups. So, therespondents of 16-24 years old and those above 65 years old were more conservativeand named the maternity leave only, while those in the age group of 25-55 years old areless often to name only maternity leaves and tend to say that the gender of a parentshould not influence this decision. It’s worth mentioning that the “mother only” option was chosen in 72% of cases in20094, which is much higher than the number registered in 2011. At the same time, the4The opportunities to compare are rather limited as the question in 2009 was a bit different from the one used in2011: “Who should take a maternity/paternity leave and take care of a child during the first months of his/her life?”The options were a bit adjusted as well. 21
  22. 22. “this could be a father or a mother” option was chosen more often: this option waschosen by 26% respondents in 2009 and 35% respondents in 2011. This can be anindirect sign of positive changes that Ukrainian population became more tolerant toother options of a leave to take care of a child. The respondents who chose the “mother only” option were asked why a man shouldnot take this responsibility. The most popular answer was that a man should not betterstop working (Graph 2.5). Graph 2.5 In your opinion, why should not men take a paternity leave? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * A man should not stop working 28.3 38.9 A mother should raise a child and 12.4 not a father 15.6 Female Men are bad with caring about 12.6 Male their children 12.7 It will be difficult for a man to find a job 5.8 after a paternity leave 8.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 There is a significant difference in choosing this option between men and women —this opinion is supported by 28% women and 39% men. At the same time, the optionrelated to difficulties with finding a job for a man after a paternity leave was chosen by6% women and 8% men. The stereotypes that raising children belongs to mothers’responsibilities were chosen by 12% women and 16% men. The option stating that menare bad with caring about children was chosen by about 13% respondents of bothgenders. Ukrainian views on who should take a sick leave, if a child is ill are closer to equalallocation of responsibilities related to children’s care — regarding this particular issue,much less people consider this responsibility female only (40% women and 45% men);much more people think that either a father or a mother can take care of a sick child.Many people also think that this responsibility can be shared by fathers and mothers onequal basis (Graph 2.6). 22
  23. 23. Graph 2.6 Who should take a sick leave to take care of a child? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) 40.0 Mother only 45.3 * This could be a father or a 47.4 father regardless of the gender 40.7 Female This responsibility can be shared 11.1 Male 10.4 by both parents 0.1 *Father only 1.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 Concerning the differences in the answers to this question between women andmen, we should mention a big difference only in the “this could be a father or a motherregardless of the gender” option — women tend to keep to this opinion more often. We can draw a general conclusion that despite the fact that stereotypes related tothe paternity/maternity and sick leaves as a specific female responsibility are still verystrong, the society became more tolerant towards other options in 2009. At the sametime, women tend to support the option for a father or a mother to be on apaternity/maternity or a sick leave more often. We should mention that youth (16-24years old) and elderly people (from 65 years and above) are more inclined to accept theaforementioned responsibilities as purely female. MALE AND FEMALE CAPACITIES IN EDUCATION AND CAREER The most of the respondents are convinced (61%) that a child’s gender doesn’t playany big difference in his/her success in education (Graph 3.1). About 16% think thatsuccess of boys and girls depends on the subject. Among those who still define somedifferences in academic progress for boys and girls, there are more of those who considergirls more talented (15%) than boys (6%). There were no related significant differencesin this issue comparing to the data of 2009. 23
  24. 24. Graph 3.1 Who is usually more skilled in education? (% of all respondents, N=1217) The gender doesn’t matter 60.8 It depends on the subject 15.9 Girls 15.4 Boys 5.8 0 20 40 60 80 100 According to the respondents, comparing to the education sphere where the viewson the lack of relations between the gender and skills, the situation with career success ismore determined by gender affinities. Particularly, the opinion on the lack of relationsbetween the gender and career development was supported by 44% respondents (Graph3.2). Almost the same number of the respondents (42%) thinks that it’s much easier for aman to build his career in our career. 8% of the respondents think that careerdevelopment is easier for women. Graph 3.2 Who is easier to build a career in our society – a man or a woman? (% of all respondents, N=1217) Gender doesn’t matter 44.1 Man 41.7 Woman 8.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 The fact that men have more time for work as household responsibilities and careabout children is usually done by women was called as one of the reasons why it’s easierfor them to develop their career (Graph 3.3). At the same time, women were rather oftento keep to this opinion. Regarding the differences between the respondents of bothgenders, men are more often inclined to think they have more opportunities for careerdevelopment, while women connect their difficulties in career development withhousehold responsibilities. 24
  25. 25. Graph 3.3 Why a man? / Why a woman? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * Women have less time for career due to their 22.8 household responsibilities 18.0 Society encourages men in their career development 12.7 9.8 * Men have more career skills than women 6.3 11.6 А почему му жчине? Female Women have fewer opportunities due to their maternity issues - 20.1 Male 17.5 Society encourages women in their career development 2.2 3.5 Women have more career skills than men 3.3 5.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 А почему женщине ? We also asked the respondents about their opinion on the verity of some genderstereotypes in the world of work5. Regarding each of the suggested stereotypes, therewas a statistically significant difference between the answers of men and women. Menwere more often to agree with the stereotypes, in particular. The most popular gender stereotype regarding women is that a woman cannot beequally successive in her family and at work — this opinion belongs to 33% men and23% women (Graph 3.4). About 30% men and 20% women consider a situation when awoman is more successful than a man not normal. About 20% of men admit their right toforbid a woman to work and study, while only 11% of women support this idea. The leastpopular stereotype is the statement that women make bad managers — this opinion isrelevant for 18% men and 10% women.5 The shares of allocation are presented only for the phrases reflecting stereotypes. A quiz for the respondentssuggested them to agree with a stereotype or with an opposite statement. 25
  26. 26. Graph 3.4 Why a man? / Why a woman? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * A woman cannot be successive in her 33.3 family and career life 23.5 * This is not normal when a woman is more successive and earns more 29.3 than a man 19.9 Male * A man can forbid a woman to work and study 19.6 Female 11.1 * Women make bad managers 17.6 10.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 While comparing the situation with the data of 2009, we may admit some decreasein popularity of certain stereotypes. As of the moment, much less men consider womenbad managers, in particular6. Moreover, a significantly lesser number of people think thatthe situation with a more successive woman is not normal — about a half of the totalnumber of both men and women were of this opinion in 20097. DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES Regarding the allocation of family responsibilities, men keep to traditional views,while women are more inclined to share them between both spouses. Regarding the fact who should make the most important decisions in a family,about a half of the respondents thinks that the most important decisions must be madeon the equal basis — this is the opinion for 50% of men and 56% women, while thedifference between men and women is statistically significant. About a third of men thinkthey should be the ones to make the basic decisions in a family, while only 15% womenwere of the same opinion. The number of those who think that gender doesn’t make anydifference in a decision-making process is about 20%.6 28% men and 16% women were of the same opinion in 2009.7 52% men and 43% women were of the same opinion in 2009. 26
  27. 27. Graph 4.1 Allocation of family responsibilities (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Who should make the basic decisions? * Man 29.1 14.7 * Woman 1.5 5.2 * This responsibility should be shared by both 50.2 spouses 56.2 Gender doesn’t matter as this could be both a 18.5 a man and a woman 22.8 Male Who should do the bulk of household responsibilities? Female * Man 5.5 3.0 * Woman 29.1 21.1 * This responsibility should be shared by both 51.1 spouses 57.6 Gender doesn’t matter as this could be both a 13.5 man and a woman 16.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 Household activities are considered a joint responsibility by a half of therespondents, while women are more often to support this opinion (58% women vs. 51%women). Generally, men are more inclined to think that household activities belong tofemale responsibilities (29% men vs. 21% women). It’s worth mentioning the changes that have happened within the publicconsciousness since 2009. Regarding the basic decision-making process, the number ofthose who think that basic decisions should be made on a joint basis has decreased, whilethe number of those who think that this responsibility should be taken by the one whodoes it better has increased. Regarding household activities, the number of those whothink that household activities are for women only has decreased and the number ofthose who think that these activities should be done on a joint basis has increased. FAMILY-RELATED GENDER STEREOTYPES The most popular stereotype in family relations is the opinion that a person cannothave a full-fledged life without a family. We should mention that there is no statistically 27
  28. 28. significant difference between male and female respondents. At the same time, thisstereotype is equally frequent for both women and men (Graph 4.2). There is also a relatively popular stereotype that a woman should comply with aman’s rules — this opinion is relevant for 29% men and 18% women. The stereotypes onacceptance of physical or sexual violence in a family are rare for the respondents. Regarding the difference in the views of men and women, the concepts withstatistically significant difference for the respondents are stereotypes related to a man’sdomination over a woman. Particularly, men are more often to think that women aretheir subordinates and that a man can use physical force against a woman and make hertake part in a sexual intercourse against her own will. Graph 4.2 Susceptibility to gender stereotypes in family relations (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) A man can have no full-fledged life 38.9 without marriage 43.2 A woman can have no full-fledged life 39.6 without marriage 34.9 * A woman should obey a man 28.9 18.1 * A man can use physical force against 5.6 2.8 Male a woman Female A woman may use physical force against 8.7 a man 5.8A woman may demand a sexual intercourse 9.6 from a man even against his will 7.6* A man may demand a sexual intercourse 10.5 from a woman even against his will 5.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 Comparing to the results of the survey in 2009, we may admit a statisticallysignificant decrease in the incidence of gender stereotypes related to the use of force ofone of the partners against another one, as well as the concept that a woman should obeya man (Graph 4.3). 28
  29. 29. Graph 4.3 DATA COMPARISON OF 2009 AND OF 2011 Tolerance towards domestic violence (% of all respondents, N 2009 = 1607, N 2011 = 1217) * A woman should always obey a man 29.5 23.0 * A man has the right to demand a sexual 14.3 intercourse from a woman even against her will 7.7 * A woman has the right to demand a sexual 14.0 intercourse from a man even against his will 2009 8.5 2011 * A man can use physical force against a woman 12.2 4.1* A woman can use physical force against a man 13.0 7.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 29
  30. 30. INCIDENCE OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION In order to understand the incidence of the problem of gender discrimination inUkrainian society, we asked the respondents about their personal experience indiscrimination before and after they turned 15 years old. We compiled a general list formen and women with the situations that could happen before 15 years old; regarding thesituations that could happen after 15 years old, they were generally different in thesituations dealing with giving birth to a child. INCIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATION IN CHILDHOOD About 50% of the respondents faced gender discrimination and gender inequalitybefore they turned 15 years old. According to the results of the survey in 2009, the mostpopular form of discrimination was a feeling that children of the opposite gender havemore advantages than the others. Men stated that girls had more advantages than boysand women – vice verse. We should mention that this type of discrimination was equallycommon for the respondents in their families and at school. The majority of therespondents told they hadn’t suffered from a situation like this. Instilling a setting to obey men for girls was also a rather spread type ofdiscrimination (Graph 5.1). We should mention that this position was instilled for bothboys and girls with about the same frequency: 12% men and 15% women reported aboutthat. The respondents of both genders for the most cases told that similar views wereinstilled by members of their families; the most of men and women also told they hadnever suffered from a situation like this. Another popular type of discrimination against girls was that they were banned toplay with boyish toys —12% women told about that; an opposite situation (boysforbidden to play girlish toys) was rather rare — only 5% of the male respondents toldabout that. Similar signs of discrimination were rather popular among the respondents ina family and a bit less frequently – at a kindergarten. According to the respondents ofboth genders, they never suffered from situations like these. 30
  31. 31. Graph 5.1 Experience in discrimination before 15 years old (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * Adults provided girls with more advantages just because of 17.3 their gender 10.3 * Adults provided boys with more advantages just because of 10.4 - their gender 15.7 Everybody taught us that women should obey men 12.4 15.4 * Everybody taught us that men should obey only men 3.6 Male 0.9 Female You’ve been told that girls are more skilled than boys 8.7 8.5 You’ve been told that boys are more skilled than girls 8.4 6.0 * You were banned or convinced not to play girlish 4.9 games/toys 1.3 * You were banned or convinced not to play boyish 2.9 games/toys 12.3 You’ve faced sexual harassment committed by adults 0.4 1.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 11% respondents faced violent attitude towards them in their childhood (Graph5.2). At the same time, we should mention that there was no statistically significantdifference related to experience in violence during their childhood for the respondents ofvarious age groups. This may prove that regardless of general liberalization of the societyand weakening of gender stereotypes during a long period of time the number of peoplefacing violent attitude to them in their childhood stays stable. Alongside with that, thelack of differences in percentage may prove that the concept of “violent attitude” isinterpreted differently by different age groups of the respondents. 31
  32. 32. Graph 5.2 Have you ever faced violent from a member of your family in your childhood? (% of the age group) 100 80 60 40 20 13.4 8.9 10.6 11.2 11.3 0 under 24 25 - 44 45 - 64 65 and above everybody Regarding a person who expressed violent attitude towards the respondents, abouta half (55%) of those who faced it told that it was committed by a father or a mother —38%, by a brother —7% or by a sister – about 4%. Graph 5.3 Which one of your family members treated you in a violent way? (% of those who faced violent attitude in their childhood, N = 138) Father 55.1 Mother 38.4 Brother 7.2 Sister 3.6 Grandmother 2.9 Grandfather 2.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 INCIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATION FOR TEENAGERS ABOVE 15 Victims of gender discrimination at 15 years old and above were 39% of men and54% of women. As discrimination cases were divided into several types (education,career and family), we may consider differences between general situations whenwomen and men become victims of discrimination. 32
  33. 33. Results of the analysis of various types within the general structure prove that menand women become victims of discrimination in various spheres. Hence, men generallybecome victims in the sphere of education (42% of discriminations) and family relations(39% of discriminations) (Graph 5.4). The sphere of labor includes only 19% ofdiscriminations related to men. As for women, 43% of discrimination cases against thembelong to the sphere of career and another 9% related to the sphere of giving birth to achild. The total for those indicators proves that more than a half (52%) of alldiscriminating situations related to women cover the sphere of labor relations. The casesof family discrimination took about 26% of all discriminating situations while educationtook 21%. Graph 5.4 8 Hierarchy of all types of discrimination related to men and women (% of the total number of discriminating cases against men and women, N men = 250, N women= 467 ) MEN education 42.0 family 39.2 career 18.8 WOMEN career 43.3 career 9.0(related to a child’s delivery) family 26.3 education 21.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN LABOR RELATIONS As mentioned above, discrimination in the sphere of labor relations is the basic onein the hierarchy of discrimination against women, while the same type of discriminationagainst men was among the least spread. There were the following types of discrimination against women spread at the labormarket: men are easier to build their career (as mentioned by 15% women); men areusually preferred during the process of employment (as mentioned by 13% women);8 This graph enables to understand the spheres where men and women become victims of gender discrimination.The incidence level is described below. 33
  34. 34. men earn higher wages than women (as mentioned by 11% women) (Graph 5.5). Theopposite situations happened rather rarely with men. Graph 5.5 Discrimination experience in the sphere of labor relations (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * It was easier for the representatives of the opposite 2.9 gender to build their career 15.0 * The representatives of the opposite gender were preferred during the process of employment 3.1 13.5 * The representatives of the opposite gender earned higher wages and had other advantages at 2.4 work 11.2 You were rejected by certain circles you were striving 1.5 to get into just because of your gender 1.8 You faced sexual harassment from your management 0.2 Men in exchange for some working advantages 1.3 You wanted to return to your previous position after a Women maternity/paternity leave and you were rejected by 3.0 the organization you had worked at before An employer refused to provide you with longer vacations (for mothers with children under 15 years old) 2.5 The organization you worked at refused to pay you maternity payments 1.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regarding discrimination of women related to delivery of a child andcareer/maternity balance, this type of discrimination is not really popular — about 6%women were victims of similar discrimination in total. Particularly, about 3% womenmentioned they were refused to take their previous working position after a maternityleave, 2,5% women claimed that their employers refused to provide them with longervacations for mothers, 2% told their employers refused to pay them their maternitypayments. 34
  35. 35. GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION Discrimination in the sphere of education plays a more important role in the hierarchy of discrimination related to men. This deals with the fact that men are more often impacted by their families while choosing a profession for the future, while trying to make them keen to a profession, which is considered male. 19% men told their relatives actually “forced” them to take a “male” profession, in particular (Graph 5.6). The same pressure in choosing a “female” profession was reported by 14% women. Graph 5.6 Discriminating experience in the sphere of education (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * Family members chose a specialty or a type of education for you, which is traditionally considered for your gender, 18.9 against your own will 13.8 MenYou faced sexual harassment from your teachers in exchange 0.2 Women for high marks 1.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 0,2% men and 1,5% women reported they were victims of sexual harassment committed by their teachers. The difference between these shares is not statistically significant. GENDER DISCRIMINATION AT HOME Despite that family discrimination takes different shares of general values for men and women, about the same number of both men and women faced it on their own9. Alongside with that, there is a statistically significant difference between the experiences in various situations for representatives of opposite genders. Women, in particular, told that their partners made them do the bulk or the whole of household work, as mentioned by 10% of female respondents. At the same time, a similar situation was rather rare for men — 6% of cases. About 7% of female respondents faced physical violence committed by their husbands or partners and men were victims of physical force in 2% of cases. Moreover, women were more frequent victims when their partners forbade them to 9 The same number of those who faced domestic discrimination with significant difference in the shares of a specific type of discrimination in the grand total may be explained by the fact that women are more frequent victims of discrimination. 35
  36. 36. work or study, which was stated by 4% of women, while the same situation happenedwith mere 0,2% of men. Graph 5.7 Experience in domestic discrimination (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) * You partner made you do the bulk/the whole 5.6 household work while both of you worked 9.7 * Your partner used physical force against you 1.8 7.2 * Your partner made important decisions regarding your child without consulting with you 10.7 4.5 Men Women 0.2 * Your partner forbade you to work/study 3.9 You partner converted the bigger part of your family budget 4.2 3.7 0 20 40 60 80 100 There is a general opinion in our society that women are the most common victimsof domestic discrimination or violence. At the same time, we defined a situation withinthe frames of this survey when men suffer from this type of discrimination more often —about 11% of them told that their wives/partners made important decisions regardingtheir children without consulting with them. 4% women faced the same situation onbehalf of their partners. WAYS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE We asked the respondents about whom they should apply to in case of a familyproblem. The respondents were most often to apply to the Police (41%),friends/relatives (31%) and state social services (25%). We should also mention thatabout a quarter of the respondents (26%) think that the problem of domestic violenceshould be solved within a family. Graph 5.7 In your opinion, whom should a victim apply to solve the problem of domestic violence? (% of all respondents, N = 1217) 36
  37. 37. There are much more countryside residents among those who think that we shouldnot apply to anybody in case of domestic violence (31% of village residents vs. 24% ofcity residents), as well as among the respondents above 25 years old, which may provethe fact that youth is more intolerant towards violence. About 10% of the respondents think they should apply to an NGO in case ofdomestic violence and about 4,5% think they should go to mass media or religiousorganizations. 37
  38. 38. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE According to our survey, the status of men and women within a society is differentby not only the concepts of their social roles and responsibilities but also by the level ofsatisfaction with specific aspects of their life for men and women. This section covers thelevel of satisfaction with life for men and women, as well as specific differences betweenthe genders. The level of satisfaction with financial wealth is rather low for both men and women— about 25% of men and 22% of women are more or less satisfied with this aspect oftheir life (Graph 6.1). There is no statistically significant difference between theseindicators. Graph 6.1 How much are you satisfied with the level of your financial wealth? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 7.7 17.2 38.2 20.5 16.5 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 6.3 15.6 37.5 21.3 19.3 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all Regarding their satisfaction with relations with their children, there was nostatistically significant difference between women and men — about 80% of bothgenders were completely or partly satisfied with relations with their children (Graph6.2). Graph 6.2 How much are you satisfied with relations with your children? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 42.2 39.4 15.1 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 41.2 40.3 14.7 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all There is a statistically significant difference in satisfaction with their relations withspouses/partners. Men were more often to tell they were completely satisfied with theaforementioned relations, in particular (49% men vs. 33% women) (Graph 6.3). There 38
  39. 39. were more women among those who were rather satisfied with their relations (43%women vs. 34% men). In general, there were much more men among those who weresatisfied with these relations and there were much more women among those who wererather not satisfied with them. Graph 6.3 How much are you satisfied with relations with your wife/husband/partner? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 49.0 34.0 12.8 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 32.6 42.9 15.4 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all The emotional atmosphere at the place where a respondent resides was evaluateddifferently by representatives of opposite genders. Men were completely satisfied withthis aspect of their life much more often, in particular (38% men vs. 32% women) (Graph6.5). There were much more women who were not satisfied with the emotionalatmosphere at home (7% women vs. 4% men). Graph 6.5 How much are you satisfied with the general emotional atmosphere at home? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 38.4 41.2 16.8 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 31.7 42.4 18.7 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all There are much more men among those who are satisfied with their leisure (57%men vs. 50% women), while women are more often not satisfied with their leisure (22%women vs. 16% men) (Graph 6.6). 39
  40. 40. Graph 6.6 How much are you satisfied with your leisure? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 22.7 34.6 28.1 10.8 3.9 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 18.8 30.9 28.3 15.6 6.3 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all The total number of those who are satisfied with their relations with the others isequal for both men and women. At the same time, men are more often completelysatisfied with this sphere of relations, while women chose the “rather satisfied” option(Graph 6.7). Graph 6.7 How much are you satisfied with your relations with the others (friends, acquaintances, colleagues, neighbors, etc.)? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) Completely satisfied Male 36.6 41.7 19.4 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 31.1 46.8 18.2 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all There is a statistically significant difference between the general satisfaction formen and women. Similarly to the previous cases, men were more often to tell about theirsatisfaction with life (both partial and complete) — this was stated by 63% men and 55%women (Graph 6.8). Graph 6.8 How much are you satisfied with your life, in general? (% of the responding subgroup, N men = 550, N women= 667) 40
  41. 41. Completely satisfied Male 22.2 40.5 29.9 5.1 Rather satisfied Partly satisfied Female 18.7 36.3 34.2 7.5 Rather NOT satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not satisfied at all We can make a general conclusion that the general satisfaction with life and itsspecific aspects is higher for men. About the same number of satisfaction for both menand women can be observed regarding the relations with their children and the level offinancial wealth. 41

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