Creative Classrooms 2020 (CCR)
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    Creative Classrooms 2020 (CCR) Creative Classrooms 2020 (CCR) Document Transcript

    • In-depth Innovating Teaching and Learning Practices: Key Elements for Developing Creative Classrooms in EuropeAuthors This paper looks at how to innovate teaching and learning practices at system level. It describes the vision for ‘Creative Classrooms’ and makes a consolidated proposal forStefania Bocconi, Research their implementation, clarifying their holistic and systemic nature, their intended learn-fellow at the EuropeanCommission, Joint Research ing outcomes, and their pedagogical, technological, and organisational dimensions forCentre, Institute for innovation. ‘Creative Classrooms’ (CCR) are conceptualized as innovative learning en-Prospective Technological vironments that fully embed the potential of ICT to innovate learning and teachingStudies practices in formal, non-formal and informal The proposed multi-dimensional concept for CCR consists of eight encompassing andPanagiotis Kampylis, interconnected key dimensions and a set of 28 reference parameters (‘building blocks’).Research fellow at the At the heart of the CCR concept lie innovative pedagogical practices that emerge whenEuropean Commission, Joint teachers use ICT in their efforts to organize newer and improved forms of open-ended,Research Centre, Institute collaborative, and meaningful learning activities, rather than simply to enhance tradi-for Prospective Technological tional pedagogies, such as expository lessons and task-based learning.Studiespanagiotis.kampylis@ A preliminary analysis of two existing cases of ICT-enabled innovation for learning presented in order to show (i) how the proposed key dimensions and reference param-Yves Punie, Senior eters are implemented in real-life settings to configure profoundly diverse types of CCRscientist at the European and (ii) to depict the systemic approach needed for the sustainable implementationCommission, Joint Research and progressive up-scaling of Creative Classrooms across Europe.Centre, Institute forProspective 1. Setting the scene Educational stakeholders recognise the role of ICT as a key enabler of innovation and creativ-Tags ity in E&T and for learning in general. Throughout Europe there are diverse national policies for ICT in education and many activities are undertaken to promote the use of ICT in educa-Creative classrooms, tion and training in Europe (Eurydice, 2011). Innovating in Education and Training (E&T) isinnovative pedagogical also a key priority in several flagships of the Europe 2020 Strategy: for example the Agendapractices, ICT-enabledinnovation for learning, for New Skills and Jobs, Youth on the Move, the Digital Agenda and the Innovation Agendasystemic approach, (European Commission, 2010a). The need for more innovative Education and Training alsoeducational change has been confirmed by the work of the ICT cluster consisting of representatives of Member States under the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) E&T 2010 (European Commission, 2010b). However, it was also highlighted that there is still an implementation gap in formal educa- tion settings. International surveys such as PISA (OECD, 2011), EURYDICE (2011) and STEPS project (Balanskat, 2009) describe the seriousness of this implementation gap, its nega- tive implication on learning outcomes and the need to take immediate action. The Digital Agenda Assembly session on “Mainstreaming e-Learning in education and training” in June ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 1
    • In-depth2011, confirmed that only a few innovative projects manage to ous and ongoing IPTS research works (e.g. Cachia, Ferrari, Ala-reach beyond the early adopters’ stage. The key issue is how to Mutka, & Punie, 2010; Redecker, Ala-Mutka, Bacigalupo, Ferrari,tackle large-scale implementation of ICT-enabled innovation for & Punie, 2009; Redecker et al., 2011), and also on approacheslearning: “We need to scale-up, learn from each other, be clear emerging from the wider international context (cf. for exam-about visions, goals and outcomes and we need to act now” are ple: European Schoolnet, 2009; Facer & Sandford, 2010; Fullan,amongst the main messages reported (European Commission, 2011; Hannon, 2009; IBM Global Education, 2009; Law, et al.,2011). 2011; Levin, 2008; OECD/CERI, 2012; Reflection Group on the Future of the EU 2030, 2010; Shapiro, Haahr, Bayer, & Boekholt,Putting ICT-enabled innovation for learning into practice on a 2007).large scale, involving large and diverse groups of learners and/or teachers/instructors at system level, has different enablersand barriers to small-scale projects and initiatives (Kampylis, 2. What are Creative Classrooms?Bocconi, & Punie, 2012). Thus, there is a need to clearly articu- ‘Creative Classrooms’1 (CCR) are conceptualized here as innova-late the essential components of innovative learning environ- tive learning environments that fully embed the potential of ICTments associated with a systemic innovation of Education and to innovate learning and teaching practices (Bocconi, KampylisTraining. & Punie, 2012). The term ‘creative’ refers to the innovation ofIn general, the more innovative an initiative is, the more chal- learning and teaching processes through technologies (e.g. col-lenging it is to scale up (Law, Yuen, & Fox, 2011). As a result, a laboration, personalization, entrepreneurship, etc.). Likewise,huge individual and collective effort from all the practitioners the term ‘classrooms’ is used in its widest sense to include allinvolved is required, as well as adequate support and recogni- types of learning environments: formal, non-formal and infor-tion at system level of key factors such as teachers’ professional mal.development in the pedagogical use of ICT or changing assess- At the heart of CRR lie innovative pedagogical practices; insidement strategies and curricula (OECD/CERI, 2010a; Ottestad, CCR, open education principles (e.g.Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008) are2010). fully implemented, as learners are provided with concrete op-This contribution is based on the initial results of a study on “Up- portunities for developing 21st century skills, such as problem-scaling Creative Classrooms in Europe” (SCALE CCR) launched by solving, inquiry, and collaboration. Learning practices are flex-the Information Society Unit at European Commission Joint Re- ible and engaging, designed to meet learners’ individual needssearch Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies and expectations.(IPTS) in December 2011 on behalf of the Directorate-General In order to capture the complexity and richness of these learn-Education and Culture (DG EAC), to be completed in June 2013. ing eco-systems (Law, et al., 2011), a multi-dimensional conceptThe study will identify and analyse existing initiatives of ICT- for CCR is proposed (Bocconi, et al., 2012). It consists of eightenabled innovation for learning (i.e. Creative Classrooms) and encompassing and interconnected dimensions, which captureclarify the nature of their innovative activities (cf. concept de- the essential nature of CCR. These are: Content and Curricula,velopment), their aims (e.g. pedagogical, technological, organi- Assessment, Learning Practices, Teaching Practices, Organiza-sational innovation), outcomes, impacts, and implementation tion, Leadership and Values, Connectedness, and Infrastructure.and dissemination strategies. A set of policy recommendationsfor educational policymakers, stakeholders, and practitioners A set of 28 reference parameters (building blocks) unravel thefor the progressively up-taking of ICT-enabled innovation for most innovative elements of the multi-dimensional CCR con-learning across Europe will also be developed. cept, by clarifying and exemplifying the key enablers of CCR. The aim of the reference parameters is also to depict the systemicThe conceptualization of Creative Classrooms requires not onlythat the key characteristics of innovative pedagogical practicesbe detailed at organizational, curricular, and assessment lev- 1 ‘Creative Classrooms’ concept originates from European Commission – DG EAC policies with the aim to support the mains-els, but also an articulation of the systemic capability (at mi- treaming of ICT-enabled innovation for learning. Currently, an EUcro, meso and macro level) which involves the whole schools funding call is open for policy experimentations on the implemen- tation of innovative learning environments using ICT ( practices. This conceptualization is based on previ- ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 2
    • In-depthFigure 1: Creative Classrooms key dimensions and building blocksapproach needed for the sustainable implementation and pro- at system level of all CCR encompassing elements (OECD/CERI,gressive up-scaling of CCR across Europe. 2010b).Figure 1 shows the interconnectedness between the eight key These proposed eight dimensions and the related set of 28 ref-dimensions and the 28 reference parameters of CCR. Numbered erence parameters build on previous IPTS studies (Cachia, et al.,bullets located in the centre of the figure represent the main 2010; Ferrari, Cachia, & Punie, 2009; Redecker, Ala-Mutka, &connection of reference parameters with corresponding key di- Punie, 2009; Redecker, et al., 2011) and other relevant works onmensions; the smaller bullets depict a second level of intercon- creative learning and innovative pedagogies using ICT (ACOT2,nections with other CCR dimensions. For instance, the reference 2008; Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine, & Haywood, 2011; Kennis-parameter “(12) Rearranging physical space” is mainly connect- net, 2011; Law, et al., 2011; Microsoft, 2011; OECD/CERI, 2010a;ed with the dimension “Infrastructure” (light blue numbered OECD/CERI, 2010b; Shapiro, et al., 2007). Furthermore, consul-bullet), but it also impacts on “Leadership and values” and on tations with educational policymakers, stakeholders and practi-“Learning practices” as depicted by the smaller light blue bul- tioners (e.g. DG EAC Thematic Working Group on ICT in Educa-lets. tion consisting of representative of Member States Ministries of Education, eTwinning teachers) contributed to the further de-Innovation goes hand in hand with all eight dimensions, all velopment and validation of the multidimensional CCR concept.of which are equally necessary for CCR, and significant effortshould be made to address them all. To this end, CCR innova- The main characteristic of each CCR dimension, described intive learning environments need to be inspired and supported details in Bocconi, et al. (2012), are briefly summarised below:by innovative policies, ensuring the progressive implementation ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 3
    • In-depth • Content & curricula: in order to leave enough room for • Organization: CCR organisational practices for learning experimentation and creativity and provide learners with should be co-owned and shared among all community concrete opportunities for developing 21st century skills members, implying progressive breadth and depth of (e.g. problem-solving, inquiry and communication), CCR action to meet local circumstances and needs (Levin, content and curricula should be open, flexible, linked 2008). Monitoring mechanisms should evaluate progress to real-life contexts and regularly updated, drawing on and effectively refocus organizational practices (Seidel, evidence-based research (Kampylis, 2010; Law, Pelgrum, & Tishman, Winner, Hetland, & Palmer, 2009). Plomp, 2008; Law, et al., 2011). • Leadership and Values: school leadership inside CCR should • Assessment: shifting from traditional assessment be open and participatory and should play a crucial role in of knowledge acquisition to innovative ICT-enabled orchestrating innovations by applying in practice values like approaches, CCR (e)Assessment strategies should transcend equity and inclusion (Hannon, 2008; OECD, 2012b) and by the standardize testing paradigm and develop integrated, supporting staff professional development. authentic and holistic assessment formats that replicate • Connectedness: focusing on the social and emotional factors real life contexts (Redecker, Punie, & Ferrari, 2012; Villalba, that impact on engagement and motivation (ACOT2, 2008; 2009). Law, et al., 2011), CCR should empower both teachers and • Learning practices: focusing on the experience of learning learners to connect with ideas, (their) interests and people and how learners engage with it (Bocconi & Trentin, 2012; (e.g. peers and parents), thus opening up and broadening Craft, 2011), learning practices established in CCR should the learning experience (OECD, 2012a). be flexible, playful and engaging, meeting students’ • Infrastructure: CCR should sustain a dynamic (technological individual needs and expectations, enabling self-regulation and physical) infrastructure to facilitate, communicate (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011) as well as peer-learning. and disseminate innovative practices and to extend the • Teaching practices: the role of the teacher in CCR should boundaries of the learning space (Burke, 2007). Effective be that of a mentor, orchestrator and facilitator of learning support structures are also needed to implement smoothly (Cachia, et al., 2010; Hannon, 2009), acting as a role- all necessary technologies. model of creativity and innovation and applying expertise In Table 1, the current set of 28 reference parameters of CCR are in pedagogy developed through adequate training briefly described, including some concrete examples. opportunities and participation in professional networks (Kampylis, 2010).Table 1: Creative Classrooms reference parameters Reference Description Example Parameter Fostering In CCR, emotional intelligence should be recognised as PATHS is an example of successful Emotional a key factor for creative learning. A variety of activities promotion of socio-emotional Intelligence help learners to manage emotions and form positive competences. This is realized with practical relationships. ICT enable the use of learning resources tools for teachers to implement goal- that foster learners’ emotional knowledge skills (e.g. self- oriented cultural education. awareness, empathy for others) (Domitrovich, Cortes, & Source: Greenberg, 2007). ceri/49750409.pdf Fostering In CCR, teachers should encourage learners to develop The Media Lab at MIT engages learners multiple modes their talents and creative potential to the fullest extent in all in cross-disciplinary projects in a wide of thinking possible areas (notion of polymathy) (Kaufman, Beghetto, range of domains (e.g. nanotechnology and Baer, & Ivcevic, 2010). ICT applications (e.g. audio editing) music). offer unprecedented opportunities for exploratory learning Source: and creativity. mission-history Building on CCR teachers should build on learners’ strengths, The Enrichment Programme implemented individual potentials and preferences (i.e. understanding their in a Slovenian school aims to increase strengths and backgrounds, interests, skills) as crucial resources and learners’ inner motivation for learning by preferences drivers for motivation to learning. ICT offer multiple ways to respecting their “interests and ideas” . express learners’ interests (e.g. through social networks) and can facilitate the development of their creative Source: potential. ceri/49768501.pdf ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 4
    • In-depthReference Description ExampleParameterFostering soft In CCR, a great variety of activities should address Projects being developed in Fab labsskills transversal soft skills such as problem solving, collaboration at MIT’s Center for Bits & Atoms and cultural awareness, in order to facilitate the learning provide authentic learning and soft skills of the hard, subject-specific skills. ICT provide means for development. fostering soft skills, as the ability to communicate and work in team. Source: CCR should provide learners with more opportunities In Cyprus, the ‘simulation sample(social) to initiate, design and implement real-life projects with enterprises’ programme foster students toentrepreneurship emphasis on innovative products/services for the school work on a specific area of entrepreneurship. community in order to create a culture that values sensible Source: Eurydice p. 26: risk taking, entrepreneurship, and innovation (Eurydice, 2012). ICT offer opportunities for both real and/or virtual eurydice/documents/thematic_ entrepreneurship. reports/135EN.pdfApplying in In CCR, all learners (gifted students, migrants, drop-outs, The CONNECT Project includedpractice social etc.) should be provided with equal opportunities and interventions in Irish North & Southinclusion and appropriate means for quality learning, in order to mitigate schools that target the causes of anti-socialequity social disadvantage and reduce schools failures. Evidence behaviour and community disengagement shows that ICT-enabled approaches offer tailored learning by means of an innovative ICT-enabled opportunities (and contents) inside and outside of E&T approach. Source: institutions (OECD, 2012a, 2012b). docs/2010-mvet.pdfRecognizing Informal and non-formal and learning that takes place Flipped classrooms follow a reversedinformal and outside formal settings should be recognized. Recognition teaching and learning model: learnersnon-formal of (both students and teachers) achievements constitutes watch lectures and at home and use thelearning a core factor inside CCR. The potential of ICT is exploited classroom time to interact with peers to facilitate ubiquitous learning through open educational and teachers. Source: http://www. resources (e.g. online videos, podcasting). CCR should develop and communicate a clear framework In the Qualities of Quality project, achievingquality for quality, transparent to all members of the wider school quality in K-12 arts programs is an ongoing community, in order to monitor and enhance quality in examination of programmatic, personal teaching, learning and assessment. ICT offers a broad purposes, values, and “in the room” variety of versatile tools to support incremental approaches action. Source: and systematic review of implementation strategies. research/Quality.htmInnovating Innovative, flexible (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996), and tailored- A primary school in Seville, Spain hastimetables made timetables should be used for providing teachers adopted an innovative timetable, dividing and learners with more opportunities to engage in creative lessons in 15-20 minutes with subgroups learning in CCR. ICT offer new tools (e.g. online shared coordinated by various actors. calendars) for sharing timetables and facilitate time Source OECD: management. dataoecd/0/61/49930737 .pdfLevelling-up and ICT infrastructure should reach adequate performance and Numerous large-scale 1-to-1 computingfunctioning ICT interoperability in order to provide learners and staff with initiatives currently undertaken in Europeinfrastructure access to multimedia-rich contents and online services for represent a qualitative move toward innovative pedagogies in CCR. Research (e.g. Redecker & ubiquitous access to online resources Punie, 2010) shows that ICT-based infrastructures such as through a personal device (netbooks) for all broadband networks, cloud computing, web applications, the learners. and tablets offer great opportunities for innovating learning Source: and teaching practices. Netbooks_on_the_rise.pdf ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 5
    • In-depthReference Description ExampleParameterInnovating and CCR should make use of technological means in order The project “World of stars” offers toolsrenovating to modernize existing services and/or offer totally new (e.g. chat, videoconference) to children whoservices services both for formal and informal learning. ICT offer have a long stay in hospital to communicate powerful tools for updating existing services (e.g. school with school, peers and family. library offering e-books) or introducing innovative services Source: (e.g. online courses for ill students) for learning 24/7. opencms/index.htmlRearranging The CCR physical space should take advantage of colours, Vittra schools have adopted a newphysical space sounds, materials etc. in order to provide a flexible, pedagogical approach, without any aesthetically-appealing and inspiring environment for traditional classrooms. The challenging learning (Burke, 2007). Moreover, the physical CCR space design and pedagogical zones offer a space should cover as far as possible learners’ special needs. ICT for innovative pedagogical practices. tools (e.g. video projectors) can be used for creating an Source: easily adaptable physical space. aspxLearning across In CCR, a variety of learning materials should be organized The International Primary Curriculumdisciplines / thematically to foster “horizontal connectedness” (OECD, (IPC) is a privately developed curriculumsubjects 2012a) and enable learners to analyse and understand (adopted by over 1000 schools in 65 things by multiple perspectives (Cachia, et al., 2010). ICT countries) providing a cross-curricular, offer innovative ways to retrieve information from different thematic structure. Source: http://www. domains and to create rich multimodal content. internationalprimarycurriculum.comLearning-by- CCR should enable learners to explore complex concepts Online laboratories allow learners andexploring and manipulate ideas in order to enhance their critical teachers to carry out experiments with thinking and ability to make connections about seemingly advanced equipment. unrelated concepts. ICT offer new means such as online Source: access to remote laboratories for exploratory learning. display/ILAB2/iLabsLearning-by- CCR should actively engage learners in producing and Stop-motion animation techniques are usedcreating generating their own contents (artefacts) in order to nurture in many schools worldwide for learning-by- creative imagination, innovation attitude and authentic creating. For instance, Daylesford Primary learning. ICT offer the means for designing, (re-) creating, School students’ create their own clay and communicating learner-generated content worldwide, animations working in small groups. in new and cost-effective ways, from blogs, to wikis, to Source: video making and sharing. pages/View.aspx?pin=7C8E6ELearning-by- CCR should extensively embed (both physical and mental) Lego Mindstorms engages studentsplaying playfulness in order to fully engage students in the learning in learning-by-playing e.g. Winterfest process. ICT offer great opportunities for playful learning Source: through a great variety of digital games and simulations. EAP/eInclusion/games/documents/ Buchem_CASE_Wintertest_short.pdfAddressing CCR should give value and provide the means (i.e. plurality Within the framework of the Comeniusmultiple of tasks, contents, etc.) for addressing multiple learning project EduComics the creation of onlineintelligences and styles (e.g. Dunn & Dunn, 2008) and intelligences of comics is used to facilitate multiple learninglearning styles learners (Gardner, 1999). Evidence shows that ICT have styles, engage and motivate students, and great potential to foster multiple intelligences (e.g. blogs/ utilize technology in a practical and effective intrapersonal intelligence; motion-controlled videogames/ way. body-kinesthetic intelligence). Source: ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 6
    • In-depthReference Description ExampleParameterEmpowering CCR should empower learners with self-regulation skills in Crescent Girls School in Singaporeself-regulated order to help them take control of their learning process, distinguishes itself in its exemplarylearning promoting self-directed learning skills and supporting educational practices that empower reflection and meta-cognition (Zimmerman & Schunk, students to be self-directed learners 2011). ICT provide attractive, encouraging and engaging equipped with important skills required for environments that foster self-directed learning, helping the 21st century. learners to cope with lifelong learning. Source: In CCR, learners should be at the centre of any At E-Classrooms at Škofja Loka-Mestolearning learning process. Accordingly, curricula and methods Elementary School, a virtual learning are continuously sensitively adjusted to respond to environment is used in order to personalize individual learners’ needs, fostering their motivation and student learning, foster creativity and self-expression (Redecker, et al., 2011). ICT increases innovation, and improve students’ digital opportunities for personalized learning, e.g. maintaining literacy. Source: detailed data on learners’ academic progress and using dataoecd/1/38/49930715.pdf OER for tailor-made learning activities.Meaningful CCR activities should be carried out in an authentic context, Fiskars elementary school providesactivities encouraging learners to apply their prior knowledge, inquiry students with active learning in authentic and independent thinking to enhance both soft and hard “real life” contexts through an innovative skills. ICT offer unprecedented opportunities for engaging partnership with local artists. learners in meaningful activities (e.g. museums virtual Source: tours, geotagging, etc.). dataoecd/32/28/49750430.pdfFacilitating As learning is a social process, CCR should constantly eTwinning projects offer teachers frompeer-to-peer encourage peer collaboration. This fosters learners’ ability around Europe the opportunity tocollaboration to think both independently and with others, enabling collaborate with their counterparts in them to consider a plurality of perspectives. Synchronous/ designing and implementing innovative asynchronous online peer collaboration in networks and pedagogies. communities of practice transcend space /time limitations and are likely to increase creative learning. Source: news/press_corner/statistics.cfmUsing/ CCR should make consistent use/reuse and remix of Several initiatives across Europe supportreusing and existing OER to broaden and update the curriculum and teachers in using platforms to exchange andcreating Open achieve the desired/expected learning outcomes. ICT reuse learning resources.Educational increase opportunities for sharing/reusing/exchanging ofResources (OER) resources, fostering learning communities around OER Source: which contribute to raising stakeholders’ motivation to use OER.Engaging In CCR, assessment should incorporate creative tasks in The Danish Pedagogical Platform utilizesassessment order to engage and motivate learners while assessing three different portfolios (working,formats complex skills (e.g. collaboration) developed inside and selection, and presentational) portfolios outside school, which cannot be measured by conventional to foster learners’ competences of assessment. ICT have the potential to keep track of, ‘knowledge’, ‘self-assessment’, ‘conduct’, process and communicate the learning progress of each and ‘being’. Source: student in totally new ways (e.g. e-portfolios). dataoecd/32/55/49749695.pdfEmbedding CCR should embed a plurality of methods and tools The University of Manchester (UK) isformative for formative self- and peer-assessment, by assessing investigating peer-assessment in twoassessment learners’ competences (rather than factual knowledge) for contrasting scenarios. monitoring and feedback purposes. ICT tools (e.g. online forms, flash cards, study games creators) can provide Source: immediate feedback to students. issue4/langanwheater.shtml ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 7
    • In-depth Reference Description Example Parameter Learning events The CCR community should actively and systematically The eTwinning Group Creative Classroom participate in learning events and also organise them uses ICT for delivering online open learning (f2f, online and blended). ICT have the potential to deliver events on topics related to creativity in educational courses worldwide and offer innovative ways formal education context. for online lifelong learning e.g. Massive Open Online Source: Courses (Conole, 2010). creative-classroom/welcome) Engaging In CCR, social networks should be used to increase Absolutely Intercultural uses podcast to through social interaction in the school community, opening up and facilitate intercultural dialogue in formal networks modernising internal processes (Ala-Mutka, 2010). Evidence and informal learning settings, engaging shows that social computing (blogs, Twitter, etc.) enable students and teachers on intercultural learners and teachers to collaborate across cultures, simulations. language barriers, and institutional walls. Source: http://www.absolutely-intercultural. com Implementing CCR should implement a systemic approach to learning, The Ontario case shows how effective innovation defining and adopting a strategic and feasible development leadership should be fostered throughout management plan. Fostering a collective culture and engagement favours the learning system, by putting in place a sustainable innovation and makes effective use of human set of fundamental whole-system-reform resources. Social computing helps learning organisations strategies. become more dynamic, flexible and open, and also Source: intensifies their collaboration with other organisations. Ontario_CaseStudy2010.pdf Networking CCR effectively interact and cooperate with a plurality of In the Finnish Model Vihti, schools interact with real-word actors (e.g. industries, agencies, museums, etc.), on a and cooperate with local municipalities, context and regular basis in order to engage and experiment with social parents, NGOs, local farms and experts to actors values and multiple cultures, and to support and foster learn by doing and to create sustainable learners’ motivation. ICT offer innovative, powerful and learning environments outdoors. cost-effective ways of online networking, interaction, and Source: collaboration across the boundaries of time and space. dataoecd/32/21/49750537 .pdfIn the following section, CCR key dimensions and building blocks academy. The Monkseaton High School has new purpose-builtare applied to two existing cases of ICT-enabled innovation for premises completed in the summer of 2010 that have won re-learning in Europe. gional and national awards for their revolutionary design3. As shown in Figure 2, Monkseaton High School adopts innova-3. Two cases of Creative Classrooms in tive practices that cover 7 out of 8 CCR key dimensions and 21 out of 28 building blocks. Europe The majority of building blocks are related to teaching and learn-Case 1: Monkseaton High School (UK) ing practices. Monkseaton High School facilitates active and en- gaging ways of learning such as playing by exploring, learningMonkseaton High School ( by creating, and learning by playing. Moreover, school’s inspir-Pages/Home.aspx) is a British Trust School2 with 700+ students ing learning spaces (rearranging physical space) allow the self-aged 13 to 18 (Year 9 to Year 13). The school holds specialist sta- regulated learning, peer-to-peer collaboration and personalizedtus in mathematics, computing and science and hosts a football learning through playful, meaningful and cross-disciplinary ac- tivities (mainly ICT-based).2 Monkseaton became England’s first Trust School in August2007. The partners are the Monkseaton High School, Microsoft,Tribal Education, North Tyneside Council and the Chair, Professor 3 The design, beyond the formal teaching spaces, incorporates aDavid Reynolds. The focus of the Trust is applying technology and number of learning areas for students to study independent of teachers.neuroscience to education at the school and creating, testing and The light, airy feeling created throughout the school encourages ‘open’sharing solutions for better ways of learning ( learning and is a move away from traditional, ‘institutional’ schoolwiki/Monkseaton_High_School). design. ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 8
    • In-depthFigure 2: CCR key dimensions and building blocks covered by Monkseaton High School (UK)Moreover, the school networks extensively with the real world students- between three intensive sessions of 15-20 minutescontext and actors. For instance, technology is widely used to teaching.inform and engage parents in their child’s learning (throughoutthe school portal). The school also benefits from a close and Thus, according to a preliminary analysis, based on literaturemultidimensional collaboration with the Open University, which research and online sources, Monkseaton High School adopts agives students the opportunity to enrol in 50 specially designed wide-ranging innovative model that impacts not only on teach-courses through the Young applicants in Schools Scheme (inno- ing and learning practices but also on leadership and values,vating services), and industry (Microsoft). connectedness, content and curricula, organization and infra- structure. Following the CCR multidimensional concept, a futureThe school’s state-of-the-art ICT infrastructure allows the de- progressive up-taking of Monkseaton High School should focusvelopment of students’ soft skills, such as problem solving and on the shift from traditional assessment paradigms to innova-communication with the real-world context and actors, and the tive ICT-enabled assessment approaches that capture not onlyfostering of multiple modes of thinking through multimodal factual knowledge but also 21st century skills.teaching and learning materials. Most of the school’s innova-tions were initiated mainly by the ex-headteacher, Dr Paul Kel-ley, who sought to develop, test and share innovative solutions Case 2: Hellerup School (Denmark)for education based on cutting-edge science and technology Hellerup Skole ( is a primary and(innovation management). Among other innovations he intro- lower secondary school near Copenhagen. This public school isduced an innovative timetable. This is based on research on one of three pilot schools in Denmark (operating since 2002)the biological mechanisms behind teenagers’ need to sleep in and has up to 750 students and over 60 teachers.longer in the morning. The timetable also takes into accountneuroscience research on long-term memory, and includes the As shown in Figure 3, Hellerup school adopts innovative prac-‘spaced learning’ (namely 10-minute breaks, during which dis- tices across all CCR key dimensions, implementing and buildingtractor activities such as physical activities are performed by the upon a significant number of CCR building blocks (24 out of 28). ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 9
    • In-depthFigure 3: CCR key dimensions and building blocks covered by Hellerup Skole (Denmark)Though the school follows the national curriculum, several aware of their progress and future goals, as well as of how theycross-disciplinary projects4 are also carried out each year, ena- learn (embedding formative assessment). ICT-based nationalbling students to form positive relationship (fostering emotional tests are also part of the evaluation.intelligence), while carrying out activities in authentic context(meaningful activities) and developing transversal soft skills The teachers also work in small (5 to 6) and autonomous teams,(e.g. problem-solving, collaboration, etc.). This also contributes designing activities that address individual students’ intereststo keeping the curriculum creative and dynamic. and learning styles. In order to develop their professional prac- tices, school staff participate in university-based training pro-Focus is on the individual learner (personalized learning), facili- grammes on a regular base. The autonomy of teachers’ teamstating active and engaging ways of learning such as learning by reflects the distributed leadership approach adopted by thecreating and learning by playing. More than in other schools, school.students learn for themselves individually (learning by explor-ing) and with their peers (facilitating peer-to-peer collabora- The children work in constantly changing environments and col-tion). Students are also constantly challenged to take respon- laborate with others. For two weeks of every year, children of allsibility for their learning (empowering self-regulated learning). ages work together on a special creative art project, providingInnovating timetables are also applied: students start together opportunities for mixed age learning and reinforcing the schoolfor about 10 to 15 minutes and then they can choose to work community.alone or with their peers according to their needs. Spaces are shaped to accommodate children and the way theyA broad spectrum of evaluation methods is used, including log- learn: there are plenty of different corners, private/collective,books, individual (digital) portfolios and student plans (engag- quiet/playful which allow children to seek their own preferreding assessment formats). The aim is to help students become space that best fit their learning styles5. 5 The unique school design is the result of collaboration between4 For example see the architects, school staff, parents and even students. The goal was toschool ensure that the physical design of the school could support the school’s ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 10
    • In-depthThus, according to a preliminary analysis, based on literatureresearch and online sources, Hellerup school implements a sys- Referencestemic approach to educational innovation that involves and im- ACOT2. (2008). Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow-Today: Learningpacts on the whole school community. in the 21st Century. Retrieved 16 July 2012 from http://images. Conclusions Ala-Mutka, K. (2010). Learning in Informal Online Networks and Communities (JRC Scientific and Technical Reports No. EURThe multi-dimensional conceptualization of ‘Creative Class- 24149 EN). Seville: European Commission - Joint Research Centreroom’ proposed here, suggests that a systemic approach is - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.needed in order to innovate teaching and learning practices.Based on the current research literature and existing best prac- Balanskat, A. (2009). Study of the impact of technology in primarytices of ICT-enabled innovation for learning, eight key dimen- schools. Synthesis Report.: Empirica and European Schoolnet.sions and a set of reference parameters (CCR building blocks) Bocconi, S., Kampylis, P., & Punie, Y. (2012). Innovatingare identified as essential factors underpinning most innovative Learning: Key Elements for Developing Creative Classrooms in Europe.pedagogical practices, which lie at the core of Creative Class- Seville: European Commission - Joint Research Center - Instituterooms. for Prospective Technological Studies. EUR 25446 EN. ISBN 978- 92-79-25744-5 (pdf). Retrieved 27 August 2012, from http://ipts.Two cases, the Monkseaton High School (UK) and the Hellerup (Denmark) illustrate how the systemic approach, cap-tured by the proposed CCR conceptualization, can be success- Bocconi, S., & Trentin, G. (Eds.). (2012). Wikis supporting formalfully applied in practice, encouraging innovation and actively and informal learning. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.implementing a collective paradigm shift in pedagogical think- Burke, C. (2007). Inspiring spaces: creating creative and practices. Curriculum Briefing, 5(2), 35-39.In the framework of the SCALE CCR study, an in-depth analysis Cachia, R., Ferrari, A., Ala-Mutka, K., & Punie, Y. (2010).of a number of existing cases of significant scale and/or impact Creative Learning and Innovative Teaching: Final Report on the Study onat system level (e.g. eTwinning) will be carried out in order to Creativity and Innovation in Education in EU Member States. Seville:identify the enablers and bottlenecks for further take up of ICT- European Commission - Joint Research Center -Institute forenabled innovation for learning in Europe. Through this in-depth Prospective Technological Studies. EUR 24675 EN.analysis and an ongoing wide-ranging consultation process with Conole, G. (2010). Learning design - Making practice explicitkey stakeholders, policy makers and practitioners in the field of ConnectEd 2010: 2nd International conference on Design Education, 28Education and Training (E&T) in Europe, concrete recommenda- June - 1 July 2010, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 16 July 2012, fromtions for the further development and mainstreaming of CCR in will also be developed. Craft, A. (2011). Creativity and education futures: learning in a digital age. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: flow and the psychologyThe views expressed in this article are purely those of the au- of discovery and invention (1st ed.). New York: Harper Collinsthors and they should not be regarded as the official position of Publishers.the European Commission. Domitrovich, C. E., Cortes, R. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Improving young children’s social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool ‘PATHS’ curriculum. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67-91. Dunn, K. J., & Dunn, R. (2008). Teaching to At-Risk Students’ Learning Styles: Solutions Based on International Research. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 5(1), 89-101. European Commission. (2010a). Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM (2010) 2020. European Commission. (2010b). Learning, Innovation and ICT - Lessons learned by the ICT cluster Education & Training 2010 (No. SEC(2008) 2629 final): SEC(2008) 2629 final.learning philosophy, which is rooted in Howard Gardner’s theory ofmultiple intelligences (see ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • eL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012 Pap 11
    • In-depthEuropean Commission. (2011). Report from the workshop Kampylis, P., Bocconi, S., & Punie, Y. (2012). Towards a08 “Mainstreaming e-Learning in education and training” DAE mapping framework of ICT-enabled innovation for learning. Seville:action 68. Retrieved 16 July 2012, from European Commission - Joint Research Center - Institute forinformation_society/events/cf/daa11/item-display.cfm?id=5989 Prospective Technological Studies. EUR25445 EN. ISBN 978-92- 79-25743-8 (pdf). Retrieved 4 September 2012, from http://ipts.European Schoolnet. (2009). iTEC - Designing the Future Retrieved 16 July 2012, from;jsessionid=0FF93D89CB4156771FDD1E2E822FE2E4 Kaufman, J. C., Beghetto, R. A., Baer, J., & Ivcevic, Z. (2010). Creativity polymathy: What Benjamin Franklin can teachEurydice. (2011). Key Data on Learning and Innovation through your kindergartener. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(4), 380-ICT at School in Europe 2011: Education, Audiovisual and Culture 387.Executive Agency. Kennisnet. (2011). Four in Balance Monitor 2011 - ICT inEurydice. (2012). Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe Dutch primary, secondary and vocational education. Zoetermeer, The- National Strategies, Curricula and Learning Outcomes. Brussels: Netherlands: Kennisnet Foundation.Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency. Law, N., Pelgrum, W. J., & Plomp, T. (Eds.). (2008). PedagogyFacer, K., & Sandford, R. (2010). The next 25 years?: Future and ICT use in Schools Around the World. Findings from the IEAscenarios and future directions for education and technology. SITES 2006 study. Hong Kong: Comparative Education ResearchJournal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(1), 74-93. Centre. The University of Hong Kong.Ferrari, A., Cachia, R., & Punie, Y. (2009). ICT as a driver Law, N., Yuen, A., & Fox, R. (2011). Educational innovationsfor creative learning and innovative teaching. In E.Villalba (Ed.), beyond technology - Nurturing leadership and establishing learningMeasure Creativity: Proceedings fro the conference, “Can creativity be organizations. New York: Springermeasured?” Brussels, May 28-29, 2009 (pp. 345-368). Luxembourg:Publications Office of the European Union. Levin, B. (2008). How to Change 5000 Schools: A Practical and Positive Approach for Leading Change at Every Level. Cambridge, MA:Fullan, M. (2011). Whole system reform for innovative teaching Harvard Education Press.and learning. In Microsoft - ITL Research (Ed.), Innovative Teachingand Learning Research: 2011 findings and implications (pp. 30-39): Microsoft. (2011). Innovative Teaching and Learning research:Microsoft - Partners in Learning. 2011 Findings and Implications. Retrieved 07 May 2012, from ITL research and Microsoft:, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: multiple intelligences for the stories/reports/ITL%20Research%202011%20Findings%20and%2021st century. New York: BasicBooks. Implications%20-%20Final.pdfHannon, V. (2008). Should educational leadership focus on ‘best OECD. (2011). PISA 2009 Results: Students On Line. Digitalpractice’ or ‘next practice’? Journal of Educational Change(9), 77-81. Technologies and Performance (Volume IV). DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264112995-en.Hannon, V. (2009). ‘Only Connect!’: A new paradigm for learninginnovation in the 21st century. Retrieved 16 July 2012, from OECD. (2012a). Connected Minds:Technology and Today’s Learners, Educational Research and Innovation OECD Publishing. DOI:connect%20-%20a%20new%20paradigm%20for%20learning%20 10.1787/9789264111011-en.innovation%20in%20the%2021st%20century.pdf OECD. (2012b). Equity and Quality in Education: SupportingIBM Global Education. (2009). Education for a Smarter Planet: Disadvantaged Students and Schools: OECD Publishing.The Future of Learning. Executive Insights. OECD/CERI. (2010a). Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy:Iiyoshi, T., & Kumar, M. S. V (2008). Opening up education: the . A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations,collective advancement of education through open technology, open content, Educational Research and Innovation. OECD Publishing. DOI:and open knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.1787/9789264094437-en.Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, OECD/CERI. (2010b). OECD/CERI Innovative LearningK. (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Environments. Retrieved 20 July 2012, from document/19/0,3746,en_2649_35845581_40787603_1_1_1_1,00. htmlKampylis, P. (2010). Fostering creative thinking: the role of primaryteachers (Jyväskylä Studies in Computing No. 115, S. Puuronen, Ed.). OECD/CERI. (2012). The next strand of the InnovativeJyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 16 July 2012, Learning Environments (ILE) project. Implementation andfrom change. Retrieved 20 June 2012, from dataoecd/27/3/49800333.pdf ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 12
    • In-depthOttestad, G. (2010). Innovative pedagogical practice with ICT in Reflection Group on the Future of the EU 2030. (2010).three Nordic countries – differences and similarities. JCAL-Journal Project Europe 2030: Challenges and Opportunities. A report to theof Computer Assisted Learning, 26, 478-491. European Council by the Reflection Group on the Future of the EU 2030.Redecker, C., Ala-Mutka, K., Bacigalupo, M., Ferrari, A., &Punie, Y. (2009). Learning 2.0:The Impact of Web 2.0 Innovations on Seidel, S., Tishman, S., Winner, E., Hetland, L., & Palmer,Education and Training in Europe. Final Report (No. EUR 24103 EN). P. (2009). The Qualities of Quality - Understanding Excellence inSeville: European Commission - Joint Research Center - Institute Arts Education. Retrieved 16 July 2012, from http://www.for Porspective Technological Studies. classroom-instruction/Pages/Understanding-Excellence-in-Arts-Redecker, C., Ala-Mutka, K., & Punie, Y. (2009). Learning 2.0 Education.aspx- The Impact of Social Media on Learning in Europe. Policy Brief (No.Technical Note JRC56958). Seville: European Commission - Joint Shapiro, H., Haahr, J. H., Bayer, I., & Boekholt, P. (2007).Research Center -Institute for Porspective Technological Studies. Background Paper on Innovation and Education: Danish Technological Institute and Technopolis for the European Commission, DGRedecker, C., Leis, M., Leendertse, M., Punie, Y., Gijsbers, Education & Culture in the context of a planned Green Paper onG., Kirschner, P., et al. (2011). The Future of Learning: Preparing innovation.for Change. Seville: European Commission - Joint Research Center-Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. EUR 24960 EN Villalba, E. (Ed.). (2009). Measuring Creativity - Proceedings for the conference, “Can creativity be measured?” Brussels, May 28-29, 2009.Redecker, C., & Punie, Y. (2012). Learning 2.0 Promoting Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, EURInnovation in Formal Education and Training in Europe. 24033 EN.Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010, pp.308-323. Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook ofRedecker, C., Punie, Y., & Ferrari, A. (2012). eAssessment for Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance. New York: Routledge.21st Century Learning and Skills. In Ravenscroft, A.; Lindstaedt,S.; Kloos, C.D.; Hernández-Leo, D. (Eds.), 21st Century Learning for21st Century Skills - Lecture Notes in Computer Science,Vol. 7563 (pp.292-306). New York: Springer. Edition and production Name of the publication: eLearning Papers Copyrights ISSN: 1887-1542 The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject Publisher: to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L. 3.0 Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast pro- Postal address: c/Muntaner 262, 3r, 08021 Barcelona (Spain) vided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Phone: +34 933 670 400 Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. Email: The full licence can be consulted on Internet: es/by-nc-nd/3.0/ ing earn eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.elearningpapers.eueL ers 30 u ers.e gpap www .elea rnin n.º 30 • September 2012Pap 13