Chapter 5Water and Solution
Water is the most abundant substance onearth.Like any other substances, water has its ownunique characteristics.
A. Physical Characteristics of Water1. Water can exist in three states:a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas5.1 Physical Characteristi...
2. At room temperature, pure water is aa. colourless,b. odourless andc. tasteless.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
liquid solidFreezing point of water is the temperature atwhich water freezes into ice.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Wate...
2. The freezing point of pure water is 0 oC.3. The temperature remains constant at 0 oC until waterfreezes completely.5.1 ...
When the temperature drops, the waterparticles move slower.Therefore, the forces of attraction among theparticles grow str...
liquid gasesBoiling point of water is the temperature atwhich water boils and becomes steam.5.1 Physical Characteristics o...
2. The boiling point of pure water is 100 oC.3. The temperature remains constant at 100 oC untilwater boils completely.5.1...
When the temperature rises, the water particlesmove faster and further apart.Therefore, the forces of attraction among the...
5. Water conducts heat slowly. Water is a poorthermal conductor.6. Water is also a poor electrical conductor.7. The densit...
B. Effects of Impurities on the PhysicalCharacteristics of Water1. Impurities in water can change thephysical characterist...
PhysicalcharacteristicExampleTaste Purewateristastelessbutseawaterissalty.Odour Purewaterisodourless.Waterwithdecayedmatte...
Hydrogen Oxygen5.2 Composition of WaterComposition of Water1. Water is a compound. It is made of two differentelements.Water
2. Water can be broken down to its elementsthrough electrolysis.A method to break down a compound by passingan electric cu...
Hydrogen isreleased at thecathodeOxygen isreleased at theanode5.2 Composition of Water3. The volume of hydrogen released i...
Hydrogen atomsEach water molecule consists of one atom of oxygen andtwo atoms of hydrogen.5.2 Composition of WaterWater is...
5. Therefore, scientists represent water with thefollowing formula:H2OH – Represents the hydrogen atom2 – Shows that there...
Applying the principle of water evaporationIn our daily life.1. To drying clothes2. To drying hair3. To drying agricultura...
Solution and Solubility5.4 Solution and Solubility
1. What is a solution?• A solute is thesubstance that dissolves.• A solvent is thesubstance that the solutedissolves in.5....
Dilute solutionContains a littledissolved soluteCan dissolve a lotmore soluteConcentrated solutionContains a lot ofdissolv...
1. What is a suspension?A suspension is a mixture containing insolublesubstances.2. There are many suspensions around us.M...
1. What is ‘solubility’?The solubility of a solute is the maximum amount of solute ingrams that will dissolve in 100 g of ...
2. Factors Affecting the Solubility of a Solutea. The nature of the solventb. The nature of the solutec. The temperature o...
i. The nature of the solvent- The solubility of a solute differs indifferent solvents.Example:Only a little iodine can dis...
ii. The nature of the soluteDifferent solutes have different solubilityin the same solvent.Example:At the same temperature...
1. What are the factors affecting the rateof dissolving a solute?a. Temperatureb. Rate of stirringc. Size of solute partic...
i. TemperatureThe higher the temperature of the solvent, the higher therate of dissolving.:We use hot water to maketea. On...
ii. Rate of stirringThe higher the rate of stirring, the higher the rate ofdissolving.:The faster you stir thesoup, the fa...
iii. Size of solute particlesThe smaller the size of the solute particles, the higher therate of dissolving.Smaller pieces...
Water is a good solvent. Almost everything can dissolve in it toproduce solutions. Therefore, water is also known as theun...
Water dissolves various substances. This enables us touse water in cooking and making drinks.Water is used extensively in ...
• Alcohol • Turpentine • Acetone5.4 Solution and SolubilitySome substances cannot dissolve in water but they candissolve i...
1. We use many organic solvents in various products.To produce lacquers and varnishesAlcoholTurpentineAcetoneTo produce va...
2. Organic solvents are very useful to us.a. They are volatile. Therefore, products such aspaints, lacquers, varnishes and...
1.2.An acid is a substance that has a hydrogenatom, which can be replaced by a metalor ammonium.Acid can be divided into t...
ACIDOrganic acidExampleAcetic acidFormic acidLactic acidMalic acidCitric acidTannic acidTartaric acidInorganic acidExample...
3.An acid exist in three state which area. solid – tartaric acidb. liquid – ethanoic acidc. gas – hydrogen chloric4. The p...
f. React with active metals to release hydrogen and formsalt.g. React with alkalis to form salt and wateracid + metal salt...
1.2.An alkalis is hydroxide or metal oxide thatdissolves in water.Example: potassium hydroxide, sodiumhydroxide, calcium h...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14neutralAcidity increases Alkalinity increases
acid + alkali  salt water+Note:NeutralisationNeutralization is a process whereWhere acid reacts with alkali, salt and wat...
Natural Sources of WaterNatural Sources of WaterFrom Ocean• Salty• Not suitable forhuman consumptionFrom lakes, streams,ri...
a. Most pureb. Has very little dissolved substances and alittle dust
a. Not cleanb. Has a lot of dissolved substances and dirtsuch as microorganisms and silt
a. Has microorganisms and dissolvedsubstancesb. Cleaner than river
a. Has the most substances of saltb. Has the most of dirt.
Usage of WaterUsage of WaterDomestic Useof Water• Drinking• Washing• WateringPlantsAgricultural Useof Water• Irrigation• A...
Chlorine solutionMETHOD OF PURIFICATIONChlorination
FiltrationMuddy waterFine sandCoarse sandPebblesGravelfiltrate
filtrateBoiling
DistillationMuddyWaterWateroutWater inLiebigcondenserDistilledwater
1. Water from natural sources have variousimpurities such as microorganisms, dissolved gases,mineral salts and silt.2. Wat...
Waterpurificationmethod advantage disadvantagea. FiltrationOnlyremovesimpuritiesthatarecoarsesuchassuspendedsubstances.S...
b. Distillation Prepares pure ordistilled water Water is freefrom allsuspendedsubstances,microorganismsand dissolvedsubs...
c. Boiling andchlorinationOnly killsmicroorganisms inwater Water is free fromdangerousmicroorganisms Water still hasdis...
WATER TREATMENT PLANT1. Refer to your text book pg. 36 and draw figure 5.34PRESERVATION OF WATER QUALITY1. Find out the wa...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter5waterandsolution 121120021919-phpapp01

1,133 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • ety sue, nak minta izin nak print note awk, mcm mana ye ?
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,133
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter5waterandsolution 121120021919-phpapp01

  1. 1. Chapter 5Water and Solution
  2. 2. Water is the most abundant substance onearth.Like any other substances, water has its ownunique characteristics.
  3. 3. A. Physical Characteristics of Water1. Water can exist in three states:a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  4. 4. 2. At room temperature, pure water is aa. colourless,b. odourless andc. tasteless.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  5. 5. liquid solidFreezing point of water is the temperature atwhich water freezes into ice.5.1 Physical Characteristics of WaterFreezing Point of Water1.Water changes from liquid to solid at its freezingpoint.
  6. 6. 2. The freezing point of pure water is 0 oC.3. The temperature remains constant at 0 oC until waterfreezes completely.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  7. 7. When the temperature drops, the waterparticles move slower.Therefore, the forces of attraction among theparticles grow stronger.At 0 oC, the forces of attraction are so greatthat the water particles are held in fixedpositions.Waterfreezes into ice!5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  8. 8. liquid gasesBoiling point of water is the temperature atwhich water boils and becomes steam.5.1 Physical Characteristics of WaterBoiling Point of Water1. Water boils at its boiling point.
  9. 9. 2. The boiling point of pure water is 100 oC.3. The temperature remains constant at 100 oC untilwater boils completely.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  10. 10. When the temperature rises, the water particlesmove faster and further apart.Therefore, the forces of attraction among theparticles grow weaker.At 100 oC, water particles move so fast thatthey overcome the forces of attraction andleave the liquid’s surface.Waterbecomessteam!5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  11. 11. 5. Water conducts heat slowly. Water is a poorthermal conductor.6. Water is also a poor electrical conductor.7. The density of water varies with temperature.Pure water has the maximum density of 1 gper cm3 at 4 oC.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  12. 12. B. Effects of Impurities on the PhysicalCharacteristics of Water1. Impurities in water can change thephysical characteristics of water. Sometimesthe change is noticeable and sometimes it is not.5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  13. 13. PhysicalcharacteristicExampleTaste Purewateristastelessbutseawaterissalty.Odour Purewaterisodourless.Waterwithdecayedmatterhasanunpleasantsmell.Colour Purewateriscolourlessbutmuddywaterisbrownishincolour.Density Purewaterislessdensethanseawater.Electricalconductivity Purewaterwithafewdropsofsulphuricacidcanconductelectricity.Freezingpoint oPurewaterfreezesat0Cbutseawaterfreezesatalowertemperature.Boilingpoint oPurewaterboilsat100Cbutseawaterboilsatahighertemperature.2. Here are some examples:5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water
  14. 14. Hydrogen Oxygen5.2 Composition of WaterComposition of Water1. Water is a compound. It is made of two differentelements.Water
  15. 15. 2. Water can be broken down to its elementsthrough electrolysis.A method to break down a compound by passingan electric current through its liquid or solution5.2 Composition of Water
  16. 16. Hydrogen isreleased at thecathodeOxygen isreleased at theanode5.2 Composition of Water3. The volume of hydrogen released is alwaystwice the volume of oxygen released.
  17. 17. Hydrogen atomsEach water molecule consists of one atom of oxygen andtwo atoms of hydrogen.5.2 Composition of WaterWater is made up of one part of oxygen and two parts ofhydrogen.Oxygen atom4.
  18. 18. 5. Therefore, scientists represent water with thefollowing formula:H2OH – Represents the hydrogen atom2 – Shows that there are two atoms of hydrogenO – Represents the oxygen atom5.2 Composition of Water
  19. 19. Applying the principle of water evaporationIn our daily life.1. To drying clothes2. To drying hair3. To drying agricultural produce4. To drying fish and prawn5. To cooling the body6. To producing the common salt
  20. 20. Solution and Solubility5.4 Solution and Solubility
  21. 21. 1. What is a solution?• A solute is thesubstance that dissolves.• A solvent is thesubstance that the solutedissolves in.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  22. 22. Dilute solutionContains a littledissolved soluteCan dissolve a lotmore soluteConcentrated solutionContains a lot ofdissolved soluteCan dissolve a little bitmore soluteSaturated solutionContains the maximumamount of dissolved soluteCannot dissolve any moresoluteAll these solutions have a clear appearance5.4 Solution and Solubility2. Depending on the amount of solutes insolutions, there are three types of solutions.Solution
  23. 23. 1. What is a suspension?A suspension is a mixture containing insolublesubstances.2. There are many suspensions around us.Muddy water, fruit juices, chocolate drink, blood5.4 Solution and Solubility
  24. 24. 1. What is ‘solubility’?The solubility of a solute is the maximum amount of solute ingrams that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a giventemperature.For example, the solubility of sodium chloride is 38 g per 100g of water at 20 oC.This means that you can dissolve not more than 38 g of sodiumchloride in 100 g of water at 20 oC.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  25. 25. 2. Factors Affecting the Solubility of a Solutea. The nature of the solventb. The nature of the solutec. The temperature of the solvent5.4 Solution and Solubility
  26. 26. i. The nature of the solvent- The solubility of a solute differs indifferent solvents.Example:Only a little iodine can dissolve in water. Iodine candissolve very well in alcohol.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  27. 27. ii. The nature of the soluteDifferent solutes have different solubilityin the same solvent.Example:At the same temperature, sodium chloride has alower solubility in water compared to copper chloride.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  28. 28. 1. What are the factors affecting the rateof dissolving a solute?a. Temperatureb. Rate of stirringc. Size of solute particles5.4 Solution and Solubility
  29. 29. i. TemperatureThe higher the temperature of the solvent, the higher therate of dissolving.:We use hot water to maketea. One reason for this isthat hot water increasesthe rate of dissolving ofcertain substances in thetea leaves.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  30. 30. ii. Rate of stirringThe higher the rate of stirring, the higher the rate ofdissolving.:The faster you stir thesoup, the faster the saltdissolves in it.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  31. 31. iii. Size of solute particlesThe smaller the size of the solute particles, the higher therate of dissolving.Smaller pieces of palmsugar can dissolve in waterfaster than a big piece ofit.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  32. 32. Water is a good solvent. Almost everything can dissolve in it toproduce solutions. Therefore, water is also known as theuniversal solvent.Water acts as a medium in many chemical reactions inour body.Water dissolves and transports many substances in ourbody such as digested food and waste products.Water dissolves cleaning agents such as soap powder,dishwasher liquid and toilet cleaner.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  33. 33. Water dissolves various substances. This enables us touse water in cooking and making drinks.Water is used extensively in food industry as a solvent.Water is used to prepare traditional and modern liquidmedicines.Farmers use water to dissolve pesticides.Water is needed in plants to transport food anddissolved minerals.5.4 Solution and Solubility
  34. 34. • Alcohol • Turpentine • Acetone5.4 Solution and SolubilitySome substances cannot dissolve in water but they candissolve in organic solvents.What are organic solvents?Organic solvents are carbon compounds that are usedas solvents.Examples:
  35. 35. 1. We use many organic solvents in various products.To produce lacquers and varnishesAlcoholTurpentineAcetoneTo produce various types of inkTo prepare iodine solution (as an antiseptic)To produce perfumeTo produce paintsTo remove paint stainsTo produce nail polishTo remove nail polish5.4 Solution and Solubility
  36. 36. 2. Organic solvents are very useful to us.a. They are volatile. Therefore, products such aspaints, lacquers, varnishes and inks become dry in ashort period of time.b. They can dissolve many solutes that do not dissolvein water.3. However, products containing organic solventsshould be handled carefully.a. They are flammable and should be stored awayfrom heat.b. They are toxic and carcinogenic (likely to causecancer).5.4 Solution and Solubility
  37. 37. 1.2.An acid is a substance that has a hydrogenatom, which can be replaced by a metalor ammonium.Acid can be divided into two groups anddifferences are shown below
  38. 38. ACIDOrganic acidExampleAcetic acidFormic acidLactic acidMalic acidCitric acidTannic acidTartaric acidInorganic acidExampleSulphuric acidNitric acidHydrochloric acidCarbonic acid
  39. 39. 3.An acid exist in three state which area. solid – tartaric acidb. liquid – ethanoic acidc. gas – hydrogen chloric4. The properties of acidsa. Taste sourb. Are corrosivec. Change blue litmus paper to redd. Have pH values of less than 7e. React with carbonates to release carbon dioxideand form salt and wateracid + cabonates salt + water + carbon dioxide
  40. 40. f. React with active metals to release hydrogen and formsalt.g. React with alkalis to form salt and wateracid + metal salt + hydrogenacid + alkali salt + water
  41. 41. 1.2.An alkalis is hydroxide or metal oxide thatdissolves in water.Example: potassium hydroxide, sodiumhydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammoniumhydroxide solutions.
  42. 42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14neutralAcidity increases Alkalinity increases
  43. 43. acid + alkali  salt water+Note:NeutralisationNeutralization is a process whereWhere acid reacts with alkali, salt and water are formed.Different kinds of acids and alkalis will form different types of salt.5.5 Acid and Alkali
  44. 44. Natural Sources of WaterNatural Sources of WaterFrom Ocean• Salty• Not suitable forhuman consumptionFrom lakes, streams,rivers, ground water(well) and rain• Fresh Water• But not pure, need to be purified5.6 Water Purification
  45. 45. a. Most pureb. Has very little dissolved substances and alittle dust
  46. 46. a. Not cleanb. Has a lot of dissolved substances and dirtsuch as microorganisms and silt
  47. 47. a. Has microorganisms and dissolvedsubstancesb. Cleaner than river
  48. 48. a. Has the most substances of saltb. Has the most of dirt.
  49. 49. Usage of WaterUsage of WaterDomestic Useof Water• Drinking• Washing• WateringPlantsAgricultural Useof Water• Irrigation• Aquaculture •••Direct Use ofRivers andStreamsGenerateHydroelectricPowerRecreationTransportationIndustrial Useof Water• Cooling• Washing• Disposalof Waste5.7 Water Supply System
  50. 50. Chlorine solutionMETHOD OF PURIFICATIONChlorination
  51. 51. FiltrationMuddy waterFine sandCoarse sandPebblesGravelfiltrate
  52. 52. filtrateBoiling
  53. 53. DistillationMuddyWaterWateroutWater inLiebigcondenserDistilledwater
  54. 54. 1. Water from natural sources have variousimpurities such as microorganisms, dissolved gases,mineral salts and silt.2. Water from natural sources must be purified so that itsave to drink and use.3. Table shows the advantage and disadvantage ofwater purification.
  55. 55. Waterpurificationmethod advantage disadvantagea. FiltrationOnlyremovesimpuritiesthatarecoarsesuchassuspendedsubstances.SandfiltersarecommonlyusedWaterisclearandfreesuspendedparticlesonlyWaterstillhasmicroorganismsanddissolvedsubstances(suchasmineralsalts)
  56. 56. b. Distillation Prepares pure ordistilled water Water is freefrom allsuspendedsubstances,microorganismsand dissolvedsubstances.Water doesnot makegooddrinkingbecause itdoes notcontaindissolvedmineralwith ourbody need.
  57. 57. c. Boiling andchlorinationOnly killsmicroorganisms inwater Water is free fromdangerousmicroorganisms Water still hasdissolvedsubstances andsuspendedsubstances.
  58. 58. WATER TREATMENT PLANT1. Refer to your text book pg. 36 and draw figure 5.34PRESERVATION OF WATER QUALITY1. Find out the ways to control water pollution on page 41.

×