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Digestive System

Digestive System






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    Digestive System Digestive System Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System
    • Gastrointestinal System (GI)
      • 30 ft of muscular tube called gut or alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract( stretches between the mouth and anus)
      • Sections Include: Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon
      • The accessory organs are: Liver, gallbladder, Pancreas, Salivary Gland
    • Three Main Functions
      • Digesting Foods
      • Absorbing Nutrients
      • Eliminating Waste
    • Oral Cavity
      • Food enters the mouth, where it is broken down by the teeth.
      • The tongue mixes the food with saliva, to make it easier to swallow.
      • Saliva contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates and contains a slippery lubricant that makes food traveling down the esophagus easier.
      • The tongue has taste buds that help distinguish: Bitter, sweet, sour, or salty foods
      • Palate is the roof of the mouth
    • Oral Cavity (Continue)
      • Uvula hangs from the flexible posterior portion, serves two functions: Speech production and gag reflex
      • Swallowing cause the epiglottis to cover the larynx to prevent food from entering the lungs
      • The cheeks and lips are the anterior opening.
    • Oral cavity (Teeth)
      • First stage of digestion
      • Front Teeth: bite, tear, cut food into smaller pieces
      • Cutting teeth: Incisors, Cuspids, Canines
      • Grinding teeth: Bicuspids, premolars, molars; these teeth crush and grind food into finer pieces
      • The tooth has two parts
      • The Crown (visible to the teeth) covered by enamel; under the enamel is the dentin
      • The root ( below the gums); constructed of cementum ( bony socket) and tiny periodontal ligaments
      • Humans have two sets of teeth: Deciduous teeth( baby teeth) and Permanent teeth
    • Pharynx
      • When swallowing food, food enters the oropharynx, then through the laryngopharynx
      • Epiglottis flap close to cover the larynx and trachea, so food do not enter the respiratory tract
      • Food continues down the esophagus by peristalsis ( wavelike muscular contractions) push food through the gastrointestinal tract
    • Stomach
      • J-Shape muscular organ
      • Acts as a sac that collect and churn food with digestive juices
      • Three Regions :Fundus ( upper region), Body ( main region), Antrum ( lower region)
      • Hydrochloric Acid secretions that come out of the mucus membranes of the rugae ( lining of the stomach). Food mixes with this to form a liquid mixture called Chyme.
      • Sphincters controls the entry and exit of food, to ensure the food moves forward.
      • Lower esophageal sphincter keeps food from flowing backwards
      • Pyloric sphincter regulates the passage of food into the small intestine
    • Small Intestine
      • Small Bowel
      • Absorbs nutrients from food
      • Major site of digestion
      • 20 ft in length
      • Three Sections: Duodenum(10-12in long), Jejunum( 8 ft long), Ileum (12 ft Long)
    • Colon
      • Fluid left over after digestion, enters the colon
      • Feces exits through the colon during bowel movements
      • 5 ft long
      • The cecum is the first three inches of the colon
      • The sections to the colon: Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
      • Rectum, where feces is stored, leads to the anus
      • Anal Sphincter controls the evacuation of feces; defecation
    • Accessories of the Digestive system
      • Salivary glands: which is located in the oral cavity.
      • Liver: process nutrients absorbed by the small intestine and detoxifies harmful substances in the body
      • Gallbladder: Bile produced by the liver is stored here.
      • Pancreas: Produces secretions for digestion, Buffers and Pancreatic enzymes. Produces hormones insulin and glucagon; regulates the levels of glucose in the blood
    • Pathology
      • Aphthous ulcers
      • Herpes Labialis
      • Esophageal Varices
      • Gastric Carcinoma
      • Peptic ulcer Disease
      • Anal Fistula
      • Crohn’s Disease
      • Polyposis
      • Volvulus
      • Inguinal Hernia
    • Diagnostic Therapeutic and Procedures
      • Intravenous Cholecystography
      • Bite-wing x-ray
      • Upper gastrointestinal series
      • Lower gastrointestinal series
      • Bariatric Surgery
      • Colostomy
    • Conclusion
      • The Digestive system helps the human body absorb nutrients, and rid the body of waste.
      • With the use of the digestive system, our food we ingest can be use to help growth development, healthy eye site and skin complexion