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Digestive System


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  • 1. Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System
  • 2. Gastrointestinal System (GI)
    • 30 ft of muscular tube called gut or alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract( stretches between the mouth and anus)
    • Sections Include: Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon
    • The accessory organs are: Liver, gallbladder, Pancreas, Salivary Gland
  • 3. Three Main Functions
    • Digesting Foods
    • Absorbing Nutrients
    • Eliminating Waste
  • 4. Oral Cavity
    • Food enters the mouth, where it is broken down by the teeth.
    • The tongue mixes the food with saliva, to make it easier to swallow.
    • Saliva contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates and contains a slippery lubricant that makes food traveling down the esophagus easier.
    • The tongue has taste buds that help distinguish: Bitter, sweet, sour, or salty foods
    • Palate is the roof of the mouth
  • 5. Oral Cavity (Continue)
    • Uvula hangs from the flexible posterior portion, serves two functions: Speech production and gag reflex
    • Swallowing cause the epiglottis to cover the larynx to prevent food from entering the lungs
    • The cheeks and lips are the anterior opening.
  • 6. Oral cavity (Teeth)
    • First stage of digestion
    • Front Teeth: bite, tear, cut food into smaller pieces
    • Cutting teeth: Incisors, Cuspids, Canines
    • Grinding teeth: Bicuspids, premolars, molars; these teeth crush and grind food into finer pieces
    • The tooth has two parts
    • The Crown (visible to the teeth) covered by enamel; under the enamel is the dentin
    • The root ( below the gums); constructed of cementum ( bony socket) and tiny periodontal ligaments
    • Humans have two sets of teeth: Deciduous teeth( baby teeth) and Permanent teeth
  • 7. Pharynx
    • When swallowing food, food enters the oropharynx, then through the laryngopharynx
    • Epiglottis flap close to cover the larynx and trachea, so food do not enter the respiratory tract
    • Food continues down the esophagus by peristalsis ( wavelike muscular contractions) push food through the gastrointestinal tract
  • 8. Stomach
    • J-Shape muscular organ
    • Acts as a sac that collect and churn food with digestive juices
    • Three Regions :Fundus ( upper region), Body ( main region), Antrum ( lower region)
    • Hydrochloric Acid secretions that come out of the mucus membranes of the rugae ( lining of the stomach). Food mixes with this to form a liquid mixture called Chyme.
    • Sphincters controls the entry and exit of food, to ensure the food moves forward.
    • Lower esophageal sphincter keeps food from flowing backwards
    • Pyloric sphincter regulates the passage of food into the small intestine
  • 9. Small Intestine
    • Small Bowel
    • Absorbs nutrients from food
    • Major site of digestion
    • 20 ft in length
    • Three Sections: Duodenum(10-12in long), Jejunum( 8 ft long), Ileum (12 ft Long)
  • 10. Colon
    • Fluid left over after digestion, enters the colon
    • Feces exits through the colon during bowel movements
    • 5 ft long
    • The cecum is the first three inches of the colon
    • The sections to the colon: Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
    • Rectum, where feces is stored, leads to the anus
    • Anal Sphincter controls the evacuation of feces; defecation
  • 11. Accessories of the Digestive system
    • Salivary glands: which is located in the oral cavity.
    • Liver: process nutrients absorbed by the small intestine and detoxifies harmful substances in the body
    • Gallbladder: Bile produced by the liver is stored here.
    • Pancreas: Produces secretions for digestion, Buffers and Pancreatic enzymes. Produces hormones insulin and glucagon; regulates the levels of glucose in the blood
  • 12. Pathology
    • Aphthous ulcers
    • Herpes Labialis
    • Esophageal Varices
    • Gastric Carcinoma
    • Peptic ulcer Disease
    • Anal Fistula
    • Crohn’s Disease
    • Polyposis
    • Volvulus
    • Inguinal Hernia
  • 13. Diagnostic Therapeutic and Procedures
    • Intravenous Cholecystography
    • Bite-wing x-ray
    • Upper gastrointestinal series
    • Lower gastrointestinal series
    • Bariatric Surgery
    • Colostomy
  • 14. Conclusion
    • The Digestive system helps the human body absorb nutrients, and rid the body of waste.
    • With the use of the digestive system, our food we ingest can be use to help growth development, healthy eye site and skin complexion