What Is Active Citizenship

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What Is Active Citizenship

  1. 1. WHAT IS ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP? Ekrem TUFAN, 2009 [email_address]
  2. 2. Democracy <ul><li>The most known democracy types in the modern time: </li></ul><ul><li>Representative democracy : Describes indirect democracy where sovereignty is held by the people's representatives . </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory ( direct ) democracy : Participatory democracy strives to create opportunities for all members of a political group to make meaningful contributions to decision-making, and seeks to broaden the range of people who have access to such opportunities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Representative democracy is in crisis <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation has changed the relationship between time, place and human , </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens do not want to be passive citizens and ordinary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Resource: Tekeli İlhan, Participatory Democracy, Speech in Canakkale Local Agenda 21 meeting, 10.10.2009 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where is going democracy? <ul><li>In a country, participatory democracy covers small groups while representative democracy covers whole country and guaranteed to sustain the system. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, we should have both democracy types in our life and they must progress together. This improves quality of democracy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quality of Democracy <ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> NGO’s </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> S TATE </li></ul><ul><li> Time </li></ul><ul><li>Resource: Tekeli (2009). </li></ul>Demand of democracy
  6. 6. Active citizenship ? <ul><li>Balance between rights and responsibilities… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Description of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Participation in civil society, community and/or political life, characterised by mutual respect and non-violence and in accordance with human rights and democracy (Hoskins 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Hoskins, B. (2006). Draft framework on indicators for Active Citizenship. Ispra: CRELL, (from Bryony L. Hoskins Æ Massimiliano Mascherini 2009). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Description of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Active citizenship acknowledges that in a democratic society all individuals and groups have the right to engage in the creation and re-creation of that democratic society ; </li></ul><ul><li>Having the right to participate in all of the democratic practices and institutions within that society; </li></ul><ul><li>Having the responsibility to ensure that no groups or individuals are excluded from these practices and institutions; </li></ul><ul><li>Having the responsibility to ensure a broad definition of the political includes all relationships and structures throughout the social arrangement. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Measuring Active Citizenship through the Development of a Composite Indicator <ul><li>An article has been published by Bryony L. Hoskins Æ Massimiliano Mascherini in 2009. The researchers searched Active Citizenship within a European context as a broad range of value based participation. </li></ul><ul><li>The data set covered 19 European Countries and in total 61 indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>They have divided active citizenship into four dimensions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Dimension s of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Protest and social change </li></ul><ul><li>Community life </li></ul><ul><li>Representative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic values </li></ul>
  11. 11. Four Dimension s of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Protest and social change </li></ul><ul><li>Protest activities: Signing a petition, taking part in a lawful demonstration, boycotting products, ethical consumption and contacting a politician </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights organisations : Membership, </li></ul><ul><li>participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions: Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental organisations : Membership, </li></ul><ul><li>participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Four Dimension s of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Community life </li></ul><ul><li>Religious: Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Business: Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural: Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Social: Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Sport : Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Parent-teacher organisations : Membership, participation activities, donating money and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Unorganized help </li></ul>
  13. 13. Four Dimension s of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Representative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement in political parties : Membership, </li></ul><ul><li>participation, donating money or voluntary work for political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Voter turnout : Voting on the national and on the European elections </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of women in political life : Percentage of women in national parliaments </li></ul>
  14. 14. Four Dimension s of Active Citizenship <ul><li>Democratic values </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy: Values in relationship to citizenship activities </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural understanding : Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights : L aw and rights of migrants </li></ul>
  15. 16. Some Conclusions from the article <ul><li>The results showed that the Nordic countries, and in particular Sweden, have the highest rate of Active Citizenship, followed by Central Europe and Anglo-Saxon countries. Mediterranean countries are next followed by Eastern European countries that close the ranking. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Some Conclusions from the article <ul><li>Why the Nordic countries get higher ranks than others ? </li></ul><ul><li>T he key explanatory factor i s the length of time of democracy has been present in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Economic resources </li></ul>
  17. 20. Youth Participation in EU White Paper s <ul><li>What is the White Paper s ? </li></ul><ul><li>White papers published by the European Commission are documents containing proposals for European Union action in a specific area . </li></ul>
  18. 21. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>There are a number of subjects — such as participation or autonomy for young people — which are not directly a Community concern, but which merit in-depth analysis because of their close links with youth policy and their political impact, the idea being to provide Member States with a practical resource for coordinating their action in the sectors concerned. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>All of specific youth-related activities have received the unswerving support of the European Parliament , both when programmes were being adopted and in the form of resolutions and hearings for young people. The Council of Youth Ministers has adopted a series of resolutions on youth participation, the educational potential of sport, social integration, initiative and entrepreneurship among young people. The Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions regularly deliver positive and encouraging opinions on various issues related to youth. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>Many EU institutions have been working for us but why we do not feel it enough? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of things have changed in your life? Almost nothing? </li></ul><ul><li>The fact is that the resolutions or declarations on specifically youth-related issues have often gone no further than good intentions and the E uropean institutions and the Member States lack an overview of the policies and hence of the various types of action which can be taken to support young people. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>European public action is supported by five fundamental principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul>
  22. 25. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>Openness: Providing information and active communication for young people, in their language, so that they understand the workings of Europe and of the policies which concern them. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation: Ensuring young people are consulted and more involved in the decisions which concern them and, in general, the life of their communities. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>Accountability: Developing a new and structured form of cooperation between the Member States and the European institutions, in order to find ways, at the appropriate level of accountability, of meeting the aspirations of young people. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Youth Participation in EU White Paper <ul><li>Effectiveness: Making the most of what young people have to offer so that they can respond to the challenges of society, contribute to the success of the various policies which concern them and build the Europe of the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence: Developing an overview of the various policies which concern young people and the different levels at which intervention is useful. </li></ul>
  25. 28. What do we need to be an active citizen? <ul><li>Do we need to be informed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to be trained? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to know how to participate? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need to know where to participate? </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>What can you do for participation as a young group members? </li></ul><ul><li>Where should you start? </li></ul>
  27. 30. References <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>http://education.qld.gov.au/corporate/newbasics/html/pedagogies/differ/dif5a.html#explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Bryony L. Hoskins Æ Massimiliano Mascherini, Measuring Active Citizenship through the Development of a Composite Indicator , Social Indicators Resources (2009) 90:459–488 </li></ul><ul><li>http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2001/com2001_0681en01.pdf </li></ul>
  28. 31. References <ul><li>Tekeli İlhan, Participatory Democracy, Speech in Canakkale Local Agenda 21 meeting, 10.10.2009 . </li></ul>
  29. 32. Reading List <ul><li>The Concept of Active Citizenship, http://www.activecitizen.ie/UPLOADEDFILES/Mar07/Concept%20of%20Active%20Citizenship%20paper%20(Mar%2007).pdf </li></ul>

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