eTransform Africa: Financial Services Sector

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Overview of challenges to financial sector development in Africa and role for ICT, with notable attention to objective of financial inclusion

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eTransform Africa: Financial Services Sector

  1. 1. Vital Wave Consulting Field Teams eTransform Africa:Latin America Argentina Brazil Financial Services Sector Chile Costa Rica Dominican Republic Mexico The World Bank | African Development Bank | African Union PeruAsia India PEER REVIEW WORKSHOP China Cambodia UzbekistanEastern Europe Estonia Johannesburg, South Africa UkraineAfrica June 28, 2011 Egypt South Africa Nigeria Kenya Brooke Partridge CEOMiddle East United Arab Emirates Brendan Smith Director of Consulting ServicesUnited States Scott Stefanski California (Headquarters) Consultant
  2. 2. Chapter 2: Landscape Analysis Summary © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 1 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  3. 3. Contents • Purpose and focus of assignment • Approach of assignment • Overarching trends in ICT development relevant to Africa’s financial sector • Challenges to financial sector development in Africa. • Opportunities for ICT developments to address financial sector challenges • Progress of African nations in ICT (Network Readiness Index- NRI) • State of financial sector development in Africa assessed by financial inclusion indices © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 2 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  4. 4. Landscape Purpose & Focus Purpose:. Overview of challenges to financial sector development in Africa and role for ICT, with notable attention to objective of financial inclusion Approach: 1. Compile primary ICT developments relevant to Africa’s financial sector development 2. Examine and assemble challenges to Africa’s financial sector. development 3. Analyze where ICT developments meet identified financial sector development challenges 4. Analyze state of financial inclusion & ICT in Africa and opportunities for investment © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 3 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  5. 5. Financial Inclusion in African Nations Branches per hundred Branches per hundred Branches per thousand Branches per thousand Deposit accounts per Deposit accounts per thousand adults thousand adults Km2 Km2 thousand adults thousand adults Country Combined (Commercial, Combined (Commercial, Combined (Commercial, Rank Rank Rank Coops, SSFIs, MFIs) Coops, SSFIs, MFIs) Coops, SSFIs, MFIs)Mauritius 20.11 4 96.55 1 2109.04 1Tunisia 31.87 1 16.16 4 1143.36 2Cape Verde 28.94 2 22.58 3 1137.83 3Botswana 10.29 8 0.23 31 912.50 4South Africa 8.00 11 2.22 14 839.13 5Namibia 7.25 14 0.12 32 757.61 6Algeria 5.30 17 0.55 26 736.56 7Nigeria 9.54 9 9.09 6 495.21 8Gambia 24.50 3 23.40 2 487.04 9Morocco 15.91 6 7.93 7 412.14 10Kenya 4.41 20 1.71 17 389.62 11Swaziland 4.14 21 1.69 18 383.49 12Ghana 8.29 10 5.21 9 332.61 13Lesotho 3.10 24 1.25 19 319.37 14Togo 7.72 12 5.48 8 290.99 15Benin 7.44 13 3.31 12 273.92 16Rwanda 1.87 31 4.26 11 226.15 17Mali 18.24 5 1.06 22 223.13 18Senegal 12.80 7 4.57 10 206.07 19Uganda 2.73 25 2.23 13 195.73 20Zimbabwe 2.13 29 0.41 30 178.60 21Malawi 2.16 28 1.75 16 175.57 22Cote dIvoire 2.12 30 0.81 24 170.56 23Burkina Faso 6.57 15 1.97 15 167.96 24Ethiopia 2.42 27 1.10 20 144.03 25Mozambique 3.89 23 0.60 25 140.50 26Burundi 5.11 18 9.81 5 113.14 27Liberia 1.85 32 0.42 29 102.08 28Sierra Leone 2.44 26 1.08 21 98.62 29Niger 1.64 34 0.10 33 51.91 30Zambia 5.62 16 0.51 27 44.35 31Madagascar 4.47 19 0.83 23 33.29 32Guinee Bissau 0.00 36 0.00 36 5.81 33Mauritania 3.89 22 0.07 34 No data No dataSudan 0.04 35 0.00 35 No data No dataTanzania 1.84 33 0.49 28 No data No data Prepared by Bazaar Strategies LLC using CGAP Financial Access 2010 © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 4 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  6. 6. Financial Sector Development Issues in Africa (1) Financial Sector Definition/Description Development IssuesFinancial Inclusion – Consumer/End User Issues Transient populations People who move frequently are difficult to serve with current products, methodologies and delivery channels Remote populations People too costly to serve through conventional financial sector practicesUnderstanding of consumer needs There is too little market research about the financial elements of clients lifestyles—such as cash flow and asset accumulation—to (behavior and demographics) promote the design of valuable services General literacy Ability to utilize financial products, even when made available through advanced channels such as mobile phone Financial literacy Limited understanding of the relevance and ramifications of utilizing financial services if available Trust of banking institutions Perceptions among unbanked that these institutions are ‘not for them’ or challenges of previous experiences with fraud or (exposure and history) hyperinflation Capital access (SME/MSME) Availability and diversity of capital access channels and productsFinancial Inclusion – Governing/Regulatory Issues Lag of regulation to keep up with Regulation and supervision that does not keep pace with (and therefore slows the spread of) new technologies technological pace Rigidity of identification requirements for opening formal accounts that do not accommodate either proportional flexibility or Documentation requirements embrace options made possible through ICT (e.g., biometrics) Prioritization of financial Prudential regulation that prioritizes stability over access may tilt service providers away from pursuing inclusion inclusionLimited regulatory framework for Weak regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions and other institutions dedicated to serving the poor, such as policies MFIs preventing them from taking deposits Politicians advocate harmful policies for political gain; no repayment movements or debt protests hinder operations of financial Political interference service providers Non-business friendly Corrupt officials, stifling bureaucracies and political instability prevent institutions from forming and growing environment Client protections ensuring that services are transparent, fair and appropriate for their customers are not well-developed among Inadequate client protection providers or regulators Weak courts and poorly defined and/or enforced property rights and contractual agreements make it risky or costly for providers to Weak legal infrastructure serve low income clients Source: Bazaar Strategies LLC; Special thanks to the Center for Financial Inclusion who has compiled and vetted majority of financial inclusion constraints described for soon to be released survey © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 5 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  7. 7. Financial Sector Development Issues in Africa (2) Financial Sector Definition/Description Development IssuesFinancial Inclusion – Market Maturity Issues Providers may not try to reach low income clients because they do not believe that the poor can be viable clients. Policy makers may not promote Provider interest inclusion if they do not value it Weak industry voice The providers of financial inclusion are not organized to advocate effectively for their interests with policymakers or to set standards for themselves Cost of established or High fixed and running costs make branches an expensive delivery channel for poor neighborhoods and sparsely populated areas conventional practices MFI single product approach Microfinance is overwhelmingly microcredit; many microfinance institutions have been unable to significantly broaden their product range Interoperability, network Delivery channels like mobile banking and correspondent banking need a critical level of participation (by agents, telecoms, clients, etc.) or cooperation interoperability to generate value Cost of established or Conventional products are designed to be supported by higher cost infrastructure or available supporting systems (e.g. traditional credit bureaus); conventional products this results in high prices or impractical solutions for the poorest and most remote market segments Insufficient infrastructure Underdeveloped transportation, communication and power grid structures limit delivery of financial services in rural and remote areas Poor/abusive business Financial institutions that poach staff and clients, use abusive collections practices, pursue excessive profits and over-indebt clients hurt the whole practices industry Exposure to poor/unbanked Mainstream financial services providers lack sufficient understanding of how to design, price and market financial services to low-income people markets/customersUnderpinning Financial Systems IssuesBackend operations at smaller MFIs with greater reach to unbanked consumers and SMEs have limited or no backend systems that afford the ability to support modern advances such banks and MFIs as mobile payments Insufficient information about borrowers’ debt and repayment history limits providers’ ability to assess repayment capacity, discouraging them from Availability of credit bureaus serving new, poorer clients Collateral registry Unclear ownership and lien obligations lead to higher risk and interest rates as well as over indebtedness due to over subscribed assetsReal-time payment processing Inability of retail clearing and settlement systems to handle true real-time processing and settlement creates major challenge for electronic payment and settlement (T+ seconds) systems in competing with the fungibility of cashBroader international banking Greater inter-bank and international banking integration has been shown to spread systemic risk and financial shocks integration Source: Bazaar Strategies LLC; Special thanks to the Center for Financial Inclusion who has compiled and vetted majority of financial inclusion constraints described for soon to be released survey © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 6 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  8. 8. Progress of African Nations – ICT (NRI) While almost all African nations fall in the lower ranks of ICT availability and usage, inspection reveals those more ready to utilize further ICT investments and those with underutilized ICT assets. NRI Overall NRI Infrastructure Country Country ICT Opportunity Rank Readiness Sub- RankBotswana 91 106Cape Verde 84 117Ethiopia 123 137Gambia 76 110Ghana 99 118Kenya 81 102 ICT Investment Impact OpportunityMali 120 134 For these countries, there is a notable difference in overall NRI rank and the supporting rank for infrastructure readiness (aMauritius 47 78 difference of greater than 10 places), suggesting these markets may be in greatest demand for ICT infrastructure than currently isMozambique 106 133 available.Namibia 82 108Senegal 80 91South Africa 61 73Tunisia 35 57Lesotho 121 130 Some ICT Investment ImpactNigeria 104 112 For these countries, there is some noted difference (greater than 5, less than 10 places) between overall NRI rank and infrastructureUganda 107 116Zambia 102 111 readiness rank, suggesting these markets may be in greater demand for ICT infrastructure than currently is available.Benin 114 113Cameroon 125 122Chad 138 135Mauritania 130 129Angola 133 136 Readiness and Infrastructure on ParBurkina Faso 122 123 For these countries, overall NRI ranking and infrastructure readiness ranking are comparable, suggesting a more balanced strategy ofEgypt 74 75 ICT investments, awareness, and usage are in order.Madagascar 129 132Malawi 105 109Morocco 83 84Tanzania 118 120Burundi 137 131 Some Underutilization of ICT AssetsCôte dIvoire 113 103 For these countries, there is some noted difference between overall NRI rank and the supporting rank for infrastructure readinessSwaziland 134 127 (greater than 5, less than 10 places), suggesting these markets can do the more to improve the environmental conditions andZimbabwe 132 125 awareness to make better use of existing ICT assets. Greatest Underutilized ICT AssetsAlgeria 117 101 For these countries, there is a notable difference between overall NRI rank and the supporting rank for infrastructure readiness (aLibya 126 89 difference of greater than 10 places), suggesting these markets can do the most to improve the environmental conditions and awareness to make better use of existing ICT assets. Prepared by Bazaar Strategies LLC using the World Economic Forum, The Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011. © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 7 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  9. 9. Trends in ICT ICT Category Important Developments Benefits Increased local storage • Mobile phone as PC replacement • Reduction in costsData Storage Remote and shared storage – cloud • Alignment of limited IT skillsets to higher value application development computing • Group-based data input/sharingData Satellite (end point and Internet backhaul) • Affordable access to broadband data including rural regions (O3bnetworks.com)Transmission Terrestrial wireless – broadband/data • Ability to access Internet where fiber networks are absent • Voice recognition and touch-screen visual interfaces mitigating challenges of multilingual and Intuitive interfaces illiterate communities • Smartphones fast becoming affordable and contain processing power today comparable to PCs only a few years ago (e.g., Motorola ATRIX) Increased processing power • Mobile phones becoming “all-in-one” devices capable of serving communication, transaction and data management needs (e.g., can serve as “card”, “POS” and record keepingConsumer simultaneously)Device Advances • More effective targeting and tracking services to optimize operations and supplement Geolocation tracking capabilities governance structures • Off-grid recharge developments Improvements in power storage • Improved battery life • Mass production and operating system competition driving decline in entry points for smart Falling costs phones, now less than US$100 retail for unlocked versions (lower when carrier subsidized) • Fingerprint recognition on phones Biometrics • Mobile phone-based photo capture and facial recognitionSecurity One-time passwords • Smoother transaction processes • Improved data sharing and analysis for rapid identification of malicious behavior Fraud management • User-managed identification raising awareness of data usage Crowd-sourced data sharing and analytics • Increase in quantity of market dataData Processing • Exponential increase in unique identifiers to cover all users, devices, and even Shift from IPv4 to IPv6& Analytics collateral/assets Business intelligence and predictive • Ability to assemble incomplete data from disparate sources and derive increasingly targeted analytics insights such as new product needs and fraudulent patterns Source: Bazaar Strategies LLC © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 8 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  10. 10. Chapter 3: Challenges & Opportunities Summary © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 9 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  11. 11. Overview Challenge Area Key Initiatives Consumer/End User challenges  Transactional friction and retail payments  New Product Development (savings, lending, MIS options)  SME access to capital Governing/regulatory challenges  Identification  Collateral registry Market Maturity and Underpinning  SaaS for MFIs Infrastructure Challenges  Credit bureaus  © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 10 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  12. 12. Consumer/End User ChallengesModels and challenges• Identifies 3 business models for end-user ICT (mobile) payment operations  Bank-led systems  Mobile operator-led systems  Hybrid systems (bank/mobile; postal; bank is intermediary in all except postal)• Identifies the challenges to adoption and success  Liquidity management (rural agents running out of cash—rural users withdraw, not deposit)  Governance and consumer protection (depositor insurance, identification)  System interconnection agreements (product differentiation vs interoperability—rural/urban)  Fraud (as volumes increase; Isreali American; Billguard shared fraud detection system/geolocation)• Provides some solution examples  Movirtu: cloud-based SIM money access—use any mobile phone  Microensure—enables health/agriculture/general micro-insurance over mobile  Kiva: provides SME/small holder access to capital through online micro-loans  Now lending over US$ 2 million each week to nearly 5,000 MSMEs with a 98.79% repayment rate.  Has attracted nearly 600,000 individual lenders and transferred over US$ 220 million © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 11 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  13. 13. Government/Regulatory Challenges• Identifies SIM registration as a way to  Personalize mobile money transfers  Enable crime fighting with identification  Allow real-time tracking• Identifies collateral registry as a way forward for enabling credit• Identifies SaaS, MFIs as credit bureaus as potential as markets mature• Identifies continued infrastructure challenges as obstacles © 2011 Vital Wave ConsultingTM 12 Proprietary and Confidential: Do not copy or distribute.
  14. 14. Thank You

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