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Permaculture for Farmers 2009

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Ecological agriculture - by design! Learn more at http://www.regenerativedesigns.wordpress.com

Ecological agriculture - by design! Learn more at http://www.regenerativedesigns.wordpress.com

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  • 1. Permaculture for Farmers Ecological Production by Design Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture Regenerative Apios Design Group Institute
  • 2. Permaculture for Farmers
  • 3. Permaculture Design • Origins - Ethics - Principles
  • 4. The Permaculture Pie biochar/ bioremediation terra preta composting & aquaculture food forestry compost tea coppice perennial woodcrafts vegetables & biomass apiculture keyline mycoscaping management- alternative intensive grazing currencies edible forest earthworks gardening natural building green architecture
  • 5. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  • 6. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  • 7. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  • 8. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  • 9. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  • 10. Principles
  • 11. Design Tools
  • 12. Zones of Use
  • 13. Camp Epworth
  • 14. Zone 1
  • 15. Zone 1 Zone 2
  • 16. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
  • 17. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
  • 18. Sector Analysis
  • 19. Sector Thinking: Windbreaks
  • 20. Keyline Design
  • 21. Keyline: Catch+store Catch and Store Energy Source: Permaculture: A Designers Manual
  • 22. Yobarnie
  • 23. Yobarnie, 2007 Yobarnie, Layout, 1988 Source: Permaculture: A Designers Manual
  • 24. Keyline Plow
  • 25. Coulter, Tip, Shank
  • 26. seeding
  • 27. Yeomans Keyline Plow – Plowing for Rapid & Cheap Soil Development (Pasture) Soil conditioning Existing Condition: Shallow, Compacted, Drought-Prone Topsoil 1. Soil Test & Remineralise 2. Plow to 2” below hard pan 3. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 4. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” 1. Plow to 2” below new root depth 2. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 3. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” 1. Plow to 2” below new root depth: Max out at 12-15” 2. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 3. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” And Another Thing: 1% increase in Organic Matter = 63 ton/ac capture in Atmospheric CO2 ! (That’s twice your total annual emissions)
  • 28. Keyline Pattern
  • 29. [DD keyline design]
  • 30. LittleSeed CSA Chatham, NY
  • 31. 3-Shank Plow
  • 32. Shank & Weed-Knives
  • 33. Carbon Farmers of America
  • 34. Cimarron Farm Swanton,VT
  • 35. 5-Shank Plow
  • 36. Italian Ryegrass
  • 37. www.carbonfarmersofamerica.com
  • 38. Rodale Whitepaper • A 40% reduction of global carbon emissions is possible with a switch to regenerative organic agricultural practices on the world’s 3.5 billion tillable acres. • Agriculture contributes 20% of Carbon emissions in the US, and 12% worldwide
  • 39. Rodale Institute Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming • A 40% reduction of global carbon emissions is possible with a switch to regenerative organic agricultural practices on the world’s 3.5 billion tillable acres. • Agriculture contributes 20% of Carbon emissions in the US, and 12% worldwide • Soil holds twice as much carbon as terrestrial vegetation • Midwestern soils that in the 1950s were composed of up to 20 percent carbon are now between 1- and 2-percent carbon. • Forests and grasslands generally are 6 to 10 percent organic matter, well over the 1- to 3-percent levels typical of today’s agricultural field systems. • Because soil organic matter is primarily carbon, increases in these levels will be directly correlated with carbon sequestration. While prevailing farming practices using synthetic inputs typically deplete SOM, regenerative farming practices, including the integration of crop and animal production, build it.
  • 40. Carbon Farming • August 25 - September 16th. • The Farm, Summertown, TN
  • 41. Carbon Farming • August 25 - September 16th. • The Farm, Summertown, TN • Next one in Hudson Valley?
  • 42. Design Patterns
  • 43. Animals & Aquaculture
  • 44. HM Grazing Deseret Ranch, AZ
  • 45. Deseret Ranch, AZ 8 years later
  • 46. Tractors
  • 47. Polyface Farm
  • 48. Aquaculture & Aquaponics CH_CS_fish1 Cascade Systems Wadenswil Agriculture Research Station, Switzerland Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 49. Tilapia 50
  • 50. CH_CS_view01 Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 51. CH_CS_waterflow Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 52. CH_CS_parsley Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 53. 54
  • 54. 55
  • 55. CH_CS_papaya Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 56. CH_CS_waterflow Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 57. CH_CS_banana Photo: Ethan Roland
  • 58. Ecosystem Mimicry • Land Institute
  • 59. Ecosystem Mimicry • Kazakh Food Forests
  • 60. Ecosystem Mimicry • Kazakh Food Forests
  • 61. Perennial Vegetables
  • 62. Perennial Vegetables • Permaculture Principle: Least effort for large effect • Plants w/ a 3-3000+ year lifespan • Not destroyed by harvesting • More Common: – Asparagus, Rhubarb, Horseradish
  • 63. Perennial Vegetables • Human Uses: 7 F’s • Ecosystem Functions: – Beneficial Insect Attractant & Habitat – Aromatic Pest Confusion – Dynamic Accumulator & Soil Builder – Carbon Sequestration & Water Conservation
  • 64. Perennial Vegetables LOW MAINTENANCE • Only plant once • Years of harvests • No digging or tilling • Resist pests, weeds, drought • Extend harvest season • Excellent yield/time Slide: Eric Toensmeier
  • 65. Some (More) Common Perennial Vegetables Nettle Asparagus Rhubarb French sorrel Urtica dioica Asparagus Rheum x cultorum Rumex acetosa officinalis Slide: Eric Toensmeier
  • 66. Top Ten Perennial Vegetables
  • 67. Climbing Spinach (Hablitzia tamnoides) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  • 68. Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus- Photos: Ethan Roland & Eric Toensmeier henricus)
  • 69. Skirret (Sium sisarum) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  • 70. Multiplier Onion (Allium cepa-aggregatum) • Shallot, walking onion, chive, garlic chives Photo: Eric Toensmeier
  • 71. Sea Kale (Crambe maritima) Photos: Ethan Roland
  • 72. Sea Kale (Crambe maritima) Photos: Ethan Roland
  • 73. Sunchokes (Helianthus tuberosus) Photo: Eric Toensmeier Photo: Kathryn Conway
  • 74. Turkish Rocket (Bunias orientalis) Photos: Kathryn Conway & Eric Toensmeier
  • 75. Water Celery (Oenanthe javanica) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  • 76. Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum) Photo: Kathryn Conway
  • 77. Salad Hedge
  • 78. Salad Hedge
  • 79. Small Fruits & Nuts
  • 80. Currants (Ribes spp.)
  • 81. Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia arguta)
  • 82. Seaberry (Hippophae rhamnoides)
  • 83. Hazelnuts (Corylus spp.)
  • 84. Sandraberry (Schisandra chinensis)
  • 85. Agroforestry & Forest Gardening
  • 86. Agroforestry & Forest Gardening Tree Crops & Agroforestry: 2:15-4:15 Resource Center
  • 87. Design Patterns
  • 88. Summary Example: Threshold Farm
  • 89. Keyline
  • 90. Keyline
  • 91. Perennial Vegetables
  • 92. Forest Gardening
  • 93. Chive, sorrel, anise hyssop, and chicory starts
  • 94. TBD understory 1 season later
  • 95. Harvest bins
  • 96. Apples, Pears, Peaches
  • 97. Animal Integration
  • 98. Permaculture for Farmers
  • 99. Business Design • Mosaic Farm • Econ Ag Tool
  • 100. Mosaic Farm Benneth Phelps Northampton, Massachusetts bphelps2@gmail.com All
photos:
Benneth
Phelps,
2008

  • 101. Mosaic Farm MISSION STATEMENT Offer unique vegetables, fruits and nuts, produced with sustainable methods, and provide a diverse, seasonal, year-round diet to local customers, while developing a model farm for the future, including investing in a carbon neutral energy supply, building ecological capital on site, utilizing a mixed food forest system of perennial crops, and a low-input, self-regenerating, high-yielding system where crops and products are byproducts of improvements in the site ecosystem.
  • 102. Mosaic Farm LANDSCAPE MOSAIC A geographic group of site-level ecosystems (Bailey, 1998).
  • 103. Food Forest Farm Goal
#1:
Acquire
15‐25
acres
class
I
or
II
soil
in
one
to
two
 con=guous
fields
within
range
of
willing
customer
base
for
 experimental
CSA.
Long
term
lease,
rent
to
own,
or
purchase.
Water
access.

 
 Goal
#2:
Lay
groundwork
for
CSA
opera=on
on
site.
 Objec/ves:
 A:
Ini=al
Soil
Improvements
(Green
Manures)
Q3
2010 B.
Ini=al
Infrastructure
Improvements
(barn,
water,
greenhouse)
Q1
2011 C.
Ini=al
Equipment
Acquisi=on
(Tractor
1
and
2)
Q4
2010 D.
Land
Use
Plan
&
Nursery
Garden
Q3
2010
  • 104. Mosaic Farm Goal
#3:
Meet
energy
needs
in
a
carbon
neutral
manner Objec/ves: A.
Complete
Energy
Plan,
with
solar
specs
and
budget

 (Completed
Q1
09)
 B.
Solar
electric
system
on
barn
roof C.
Solar
electric
for
heat
in
greenhouse E.
Research,
evaluate
and
conduct
electric
tractors
and
 tractor
conversions
 
 Goal
#4:
Create
a
150
member
CSA
that
serves
customers
year
 round
and
offers
new
and
exci=ng
fruits,
vegetables
and
nuts.
 Objec/ves: A.
Sign
up
100
shareholders,
Q2
2011 

  • 105. Mosaic Farm FARM PRODUCTS - beginning in years 1-2  Annual vegetable production  Winter greens  Storage roots and alliums  Mushrooms  Solar energy FARM PRODUCTS - beginning years 3-5  Fruits  Perennial Vegetables (greens, alliums, roots etc…)  Perennial Flowers FARM PRODUCTS -beginning in years 10-25  Nuts
  • 106. Mosaic Farm Benneth Phelps Northampton, Massachusetts bphelps2@gmail.com All
photos:
Benneth
Phelps,
2008

  • 107. Eco-Ag Design Tool
  • 108. Next Steps • Resources: Handout • Northeastern Permaculture Wiki: • www.nepc.wikispaces.com • Forest Garden Immersion Series • www.appleseedpermaculture.com Northeast
  • 109. Questions? Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture
  • 110. Permaculture for Farmers Ecological Production by Design Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture Regenerative Apios Design Group Institute