The Virtual Futureof PhD Education?------
Today’s presentation • What is the Immersive Internet? • What does this mean for PhD   education? • Questions
Here comes the “Immersive Internet”                                      O’Driscoll, 2009
How manyusually think ofvirtual worlds…
What are Virtual Worlds?  •Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments       •Graphic representation of users t...
The number of virtual worlds and users               continues to rapidly increase                                        ...
VWs moving out of “Gartner hype cycle” trough                                                             >1 bln          ...
The Virtual Future of Healthcare              ------          July 14, 2012
Collaboration and visualization                      for Healthcare Development                      Merck’s Global R&DPro...
Training and simulation                for Healthcare ProvidersVirtual hallucinations at        In hospital counseling atU...
Treatment and Education       for Healthcare RecipientsCancer support groups       Health literacy byby the BE Community  ...
Nordic Virtual World Network - NVWN Team of 9 International Partners  •   Interdisciplinary: Communication, Design, Econo...
NVWN Monthly Meetings
NVWN built a strong web presence
96 seat                                 auditorium                              Oval workspace                            ...
Sample Presentation: vAcademia                     Mikhail Fominykh                 Norwegian University of             Te...
VWs as a tool for training, ….Learning virtual teaming skills                         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQa6v...
Action Research: Interacting with customers        in the development process                           http://www.youtube...
Data collection for PhD thesis in Marketing at Florida State University                     - Greater purchase intentState...
Research Methodology                       Text Analysis and SNA                       •   Developer mailing list         ...
What does this mean for   PhD education?
Virtual worlds throughout PhD education Application interviews Learning and training  − Courses, discussions simulation,...
Today’s presentation • What is the Immersive Internet? • What does this mean for PhD   education? • Into the Future
≈1.4 bln VW accounts under age 16225 mln 170 mln                                     200 mln           28 mln             ...
Tomorrow’s international entrepreneurs?
“Clearly, if social activity migrates tosynthetic worlds, economic activity will    go there as well.” Castronova, 2006
OpenSimulator: A value-creation ecosystem                                   Academic                                   Ent...
From the mobility of goods    to the mobility of financial capital to …...the “mobility” of labor?                        ...
Increasing pace of VW/3Di development Short-term                           Mid-termBrowser-based,hyperlinked 3D           ...
Today’s challenges           I’m “afraid” of the technology.           Isn’t a webconference better?           It’s jus...
The last generation to “attend” college?                                                   Linnaeus University     http://...
Karl M. Kapp, Bloomsburg       University’ &      Tony ODriscollDuke Corporate Education
The Euroversity Networkhttp://www.euroversity.eu/PROJECT       EuroVPROGRAMME     Lifelong Learning Programme             ...
“We ain’t seen nothin’ yet!”                                              Karinda Rhode  Photo: Lindholm, Metro           ...
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The Virtual Future of Business Administration PhD Education

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My keynote presentation at European Doctoral Programmes Association in Management and Business Administration (EDAMBA) Annual Meeting and General Assembly 2012 in Uppsala, Sweden in Sept 2012: http://www.edamba.eu/r/default.asp?iId=HEJFI

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  • Explore how entrepreneurs and SMEs globally are using and could use VWs to improve their competitiveness. how both formal and informal work and business processes, such as product and service design, customer and supplier interaction, learning and training, may be transformed and made more effective through the use of VWs.To create a Virtual Center for VW Entrepreneurship & Innovation to stimulate and facilitate networking and knowledge and resource sharing among Nordic individuals and organizations interested in VWs. We also plan to connect these Nordic actors to leading VW actors in other global areas, especially Silicon Valley, to improve knowledge transfer as well as business opportunity development
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/cGAPUCiKe6LI6l5fM4rFqAComputer-generated, persistent spaceThree-dimensional, immersiveenvironmentExperienced by many people at once/interactivity
  • Virtual world A 3D virtual environment where users can interact, use and create objects.Avatar The graphic representation of a user in the Virtual world.Communication media text, graphical icons, visual gesture and sound.Platforms for unleashing creativity and revolutionizing value creationPersistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments ranging from 2D "cartoon" imagery to more immersive 3D environmentworld exists regardless of whether users logged inUsers can manipulate and/or alter existing content or even create customized content Shared space or co-presencenumerous users, or ‘avatars’, simultaneously participate, interact, and share experiences through gestures, text chat, and voiceSocialization/community formation of in-world social groups such as teams, guilds, clubs, cliques, housemates, neighborhoods, etc the world allowed and encouraged
  • http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/number_of_virtual_world_users_breaks_the_1_billion.phpWhat are the 5 phases of a Hype Cycle?1. "Technology Trigger"The first phase of a Hype Cycle is the "technology trigger" or breakthrough, product launch or other event that generates significant press and interest. 2. "Peak of Inflated Expectations"In the next phase, a frenzy of publicity typically generates over-enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations. There may be some successful applications of a technology, but there are typically more failures. 3. "Trough of Disillusionment"Technologies enter the "trough of disillusionment" because they fail to meet expectations and quickly become unfashionable. Consequently, the press usually abandons the topic and the technology. 4. "Slope of Enlightenment"Although the press may have stopped covering the technology, some businesses continue through the "slope of enlightenment" and experiment to understand the benefits and practical application of the technology. 5. "Plateau of Productivity"A technology reaches the "plateau of productivity" as the benefits of it become widely demonstrated and accepted. The technology becomes increasingly stable and evolves in second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only a niche market.Virtual worlds have reached a stage where new users continue to build, even though the media has moved on to fan the fires of Facebook and Twitter, says Douglas Thompson, CEO of Remedy Communications, a Toronto marketing firm. Second Life says the time spent on the site by users increased 21 percent in 2009. Most paying customers on Second Life are purely social, but it still boasts 1,400 business-related organizations as users. Thompson says traffic on Metanomics, his company’s Second Life video presence, has picked up in the past year, with 50 percent of new users coming from small or medium-size companies. “People no longer ask what an avatar is,” says Thompson. “We can thank Jim Cameron for that.”Read more: Entrepreneurs Doing Business by Avatar - Personal Finance - Employment - SmartMoney.comhttp://www.smartmoney.com/Personal-Finance/Employment/Entrepreneurs-Doing-Business-by-Avatar/#ixzz0pp1H6D7N
  • http://www.thebecommunity.org/http://www.hypergridbusiness.com/2010/10/treatment-center-gets-865000-for-second-opensim-project/http://vhil.stanford.edu/projects/Avatar - Media Psychology Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.slideshare.net/sheilawebber/fostering-health-information-literacy-through-use-of-a-virtual-worldhttp://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hmep20 Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors Jesse Fox a & Jeremy N. Bailenson aJesse Fox a & Jeremy N. Bailenson 2009The three studies presented above indicate that virtual self-models can be effective instigators of health behavior change. In the first study, participants who witnessed the reward and punishment of their VRSs engaged in more voluntary exercise than those who saw an unchanging VRS or no virtual human. The second study determined that either the reward of the VRS losing weight or the punishment of the VRS gaining weight was sufficient to encourage participants to exercise, whereas observing either change in a VRO was not. In the third study, participants who viewed their VRS exercising engaged in more exercise in the 24 hours following the experiment than participants who viewed their VRS loitering or a VRO exercising.4
  • Hurkommerdet sig att vi identifierarosssåstarkt med avatarer? Frågangår till HenrikEhrsson, professor påKarolinskainstitutet, somforskarikognitivneurovetenskap, somär en blandningavpsykologiochneurofysiologi. Han ärpionjärinomdettaområdeochhansforskningsgruppsresultatharuppmärksammatsinternationellt. – När vi spelardataspelsäger vi ofta: ”Vemär du? Jag är den därgrönagubben.” Detfinns en koppling till vårkropp. När vi kontrolleraravatarensrörelser, får vi en känslaavatt jag är ”den där” och vi börjartalaomatt vi är ”den där”. Vi har en känslaavatt vi styrvårkroppochdärförhar vi känslanatt vi ärvårkropp.– Hjärnanharettmultisensorisktområde, somskapar en inremodellavvårkropp, såatt vi kanhållaredapåkroppennär vi röross. När jag spelar tennis måstehjärnanhållaredavaravar mina armarochbenär. Ochdetmåstegåväldigtsnabbt under en tennismatch, därförharnervcellerna, somfinnsi de härområdena, grovupplösning.
  • SNS – social networking sites, eglinkedin, twitter,
  • Virtual LearningOvercomes the limitations of a traditional classroom settingIdeal for collaborative learning, role playing, serious gaming and learning by doingStudents find it more attractive: learning process more effectiveThe use of new technologies as a support to training involves new active and collaborative teaching models that reduce traditional methods. The use of virtual worlds offers the possibility to use different communication codes at the same time and is expected to provide more vivid information which is also easier to understand. Inquiry and project-based learning activities use a graphical 3D application that builds on the students’ curiosity and motivates students to reflect on what they are learning.Virtual worlds have the ability to adapt and grow to different learner needs and can overcome the limitations of a traditional classroom setting where certain tasks can be difficult due to constraints like cost, location, etc.collaborative learning, role playing, serious gaming and learning by doing in simulated settings will be encouraged;Used to videogames, students will find this kind of environment much more familiar and attractive, which should make the whole learning process more effective.According to the article Serious Virtual Worlds (3) “the lines between virtual worlds, games and social networking are blurring significantly leading to the assertion that over the next five years the majority of young people under 18 will have avatars and be using these kinds of applications daily and therefore have different expectations about how education may be delivered to them”.Six “learnings framework” (Lim, 2009)Learning by exploringLearning by collaboratingLearning by beingLearning by buildingLearning by championingLearning by expressingActivities: LivesessionsRecorded lessons (machinamas)Exhibition / expositionRole-playingSimulationsVirtual Lab Discussion groups
  • Explore how entrepreneurs and SMEs globally are using and could use VWs to improve their competitiveness. how both formal and informal work and business processes, such as product and service design, customer and supplier interaction, learning and training, may be transformed and made more effective through the use of VWs.To create a Virtual Center for VW Entrepreneurship & Innovation to stimulate and facilitate networking and knowledge and resource sharing among Nordic individuals and organizations interested in VWs. We also plan to connect these Nordic actors to leading VW actors in other global areas, especially Silicon Valley, to improve knowledge transfer as well as business opportunity development
  • https://marketplace.secondlife.com/stores/19444RT: traditional leadership further challenged as we move to a world of web 3.0 or the immersive internet…
  • http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/866
  • Lecuyer et al, Brain-Computer Interfaces, Virtual Reality, and Videogames Opensimulator3d printingBCI
  • n many ways, education hasn’t changed much since students sat at the feet of Socrates more than two millenniums ago. Learners still gather each autumn at colleges to listen to and be questioned by professors.But the Internet has caused sudden shifts in other industries, from the way people read news to the way they buy music or plan travel. Might higher education be nearing such a jolt?Aside from the massive dent put in their endowments by Wall Street’s woes, colleges and universities mostly have been conducting business as usual. Costs have soared compared with general inflation, but students still flock to classes.Many have theorized that the Internet could give education a rude shock. Recently, an opinion piece by Zephyr Teachout, a law professor at Fordham University in New York who once served as an Internet organizer for presidential candidate Howard Dean, put the possibility in dramatic terms.“Students starting school this year may be part of the last generation for which ‘going to college’ means packing up, getting a dorm room, and listening to tenured professors,” she wrote in The Washington Post. “Undergraduate education is on the verge of a radical reordering. Colleges, like newspapers, will be torn apart by new ways of sharing information enabled by the Internet.”She’s not the first to see newspapers moving from print to online and wonder whether something similar could happen to colleges. Online newspaper readers tend to seek out individual stories, not what papers as a whole have to say. Might finding the right class online become more important than which institution was offering it? What happens if colleges or even specialized online-only education companies provide essentially the same Economics 101 course? Does geography cease to matter and do low-cost providers win out?Some think it could happen, perhaps sooner than expected. “Three years ago nobody thought the newspaper industry was going to collapse,” says Kevin Carey, policy director of Education Sector, an independent education think tank in Washington, D.C.Today, a college education is more than twice as expensive as it was in the early 1990s, even after adjusting for inflation.“It’s getting worse all the time. There’s no end in sight,” Mr. Carey says.Colleges “have set the bar pretty low for competitors” through a lack of competition, he says. At the same time, many potential students are being underserved. “We need more institutions that are good at serving working students, immigrant students, low-income students, students who are basically going to college because they want to get a credential and have a career,” he says.Carey points to the fledgling company Straighterline.com, which offers college courses in subjects from algebra to business statistics, English composition, and accounting. Students can take as many courses as they want for $99 per month, the company’s website says. The price includes 10 hours each month of one-on-one live support and a course adviser. Passing courses results in “real college credit” from one of several colleges affiliated with the program.About 30 percent of the undergraduate credits given each year at US colleges and universities derive from only 20 or 30 introductory classes. It seems logical, then, that these could be turned into “commodities” sold at the lowest price online.“Econ 101 for $99 is online, today. 201 and 301 will come,” Carey writes in an essay, “College for $99 a Month,” in Washington Monthly. “The Internet doesn’t treat middlemen kindly.” He describes an unemployed woman in Chicago who was able to complete four college courses for less than $200 on Straighterline.com. The same courses would have cost $2,700 at a local university.Of course, colleges and universities have discovered online learning themselves. They already offer thousands of online courses to their registered students. According to one recent survey, nearly4 million college students, more than 20 percent of all students, have taken at least one online course.But colleges don’t generally offer a lower price for online courses. The reason is that the courses actually take more work to prepare and teach than similar classroom courses, says Janet Poley, president of the American Distance Education Consortium in Lincoln, Neb. Members of the consortium, made up of public universities and community colleges, find that they often must provide extra resources to faculty who are preparing to teach online for the first time, such as help from a graduate assistant or a lighter teaching load, she says. [Editor’s note: The original version mischaracterized the role of the consortium.]Online learning at these institutions“has been growing very fast,” Dr. Poley says. Students appreciate the flexibility to be able to take courses whenever they want, allowing them to keep their jobs or avoid paying baby sitters or commuting to campus as often.What’s holding back more online courses, she says, is the lack of good broadband Internet options in some places, especially rural areas.What may be evolving, Poley says, is a “home institution model,” in which students take introductory courses online but come on campus for work in their major field and for graduate study.“I don’t really care whether there are students on campus or not,” she says. But “I think there will still be folks who like to be in a community with others while they are learning.” Some students enjoy athletics and other on-campus activities, she says. “I don’t think people are ready to give that up.”Online courses, the latest form of distance learning, have had a reputation for being of lower quality than on-campus work, Carey says – something advertised in the back pages of a magazine. But that may be out of date.Online education is continually improving, he says. “It’s better now than it was 10 years ago.”A study of 12 years of online teaching by SRI International on behalf of the US Department of Education concluded earlier this year that “On average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction.”What’s more, this wasn’t true only of lower-level courses. “Online learning appeared to be an effective option for both undergraduates … and for graduate students and professionals … in a wide range of academic and professional studies,” the study said.The Obama administration has talked in general terms about online education as part of a grand plan to give the US the highest proportion of college-educated citizens in the world by 2020. The plan, when announced next year, could include funds to develop more online course materials and make them freely available.If other online education start-ups like Straighterline.com do appear, they won’t be looking for “18-year-olds from suburban high schools who want to go to Harvard,” Carey says. Elite schools will always offer other reasons to attend, such as making social connections. “Exclusivity never goes out of style,” he says.Professor Teachout is reminded of the 19th century, when wealthy Americans sent their children off to Europe to absorb its cultural treasures on a so-called Grand Tour. “I can imagine the off-line, brick-and-mortar, elegant, beautiful MIT experience becoming the Grand Tour” of tomorrow, she says in an interview.Reaction to her article has been strong and varied. Some, including her father, also a law professor, have said, “This is horrible. This is the end of the world,” she says. Those she calls “techno-Utopians” have said, “This is fantastic!”An online learning experience for the self-motivated, organized person could be “extraordinary,” she says. And we’ve only scratched the surface. “The totally free online university that is stitched together from MIT-quality professors is going to happen very soon.”Others remain skeptical.“I do question whether things are really as dire as she says, and whether we’re moving toward a model where the online [courses] will almost completely displace the classroom,” says Dan Colman, associate dean and director of continuing studies at Stanford University in California. He also has founded openculture.com, a website that points visitors to free educational courses online.“I think there could be a day when a lot … could be done online, but I don’t think it’s in 20 years. I think it’s further out.”
  • The Virtual Future of Business Administration PhD Education

    1. 1. The Virtual Futureof PhD Education?------
    2. 2. Today’s presentation • What is the Immersive Internet? • What does this mean for PhD education? • Questions
    3. 3. Here comes the “Immersive Internet” O’Driscoll, 2009
    4. 4. How manyusually think ofvirtual worlds…
    5. 5. What are Virtual Worlds? •Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments •Graphic representation of users through avatars• Collaboration through text, graphical icons, visual gestures, voice, sounds, and interactive content
    6. 6. The number of virtual worlds and users continues to rapidly increase ≈1.9 bln accounts ≈100 worldshttp://www.slideshare.net/nicmitham/kzero-universe-q1-2012
    7. 7. VWs moving out of “Gartner hype cycle” trough >1 bln May 2006 users Virtual worlds July 2007 todayhttp://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1447613
    8. 8. The Virtual Future of Healthcare ------ July 14, 2012
    9. 9. Collaboration and visualization for Healthcare Development Merck’s Global R&DProViWo: Professional Collaboration and Productivity in Virtual Worlds, http://vmwork.net/proviwo/
    10. 10. Training and simulation for Healthcare ProvidersVirtual hallucinations at In hospital counseling atUC Davis Univ of New EnglandPharmacy training at Umeå U Emergency training w/ SAIC
    11. 11. Treatment and Education for Healthcare RecipientsCancer support groups Health literacy byby the BE Community Trinitas Regional MedicalBehavioral modeling Virtual counseling by through avatars at Preferred Family Stanford Healthcare
    12. 12. Nordic Virtual World Network - NVWN Team of 9 International Partners • Interdisciplinary: Communication, Design, Economic Geography, Entrepreneurship, Information Technology, Innovation, Strategy • International: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, USA • Interorganizational: Academia, Industry, Public Sector Project Objectives • To explore how entrepreneurs and SMEs globally use and could use VWs to improve competitiveness • To create Virtual Center for VW Entrepreneurship & Innovation Mar 2010 to Feb 2012, USD 1 mln budget
    13. 13. NVWN Monthly Meetings
    14. 14. NVWN built a strong web presence
    15. 15. 96 seat auditorium Oval workspace • Discussion group • Presentation • Collaborative Workspace • Open SpaceCircle workspace• Discussion group layout• Presentation layout• Office layout• Blank layout
    16. 16. Sample Presentation: vAcademia Mikhail Fominykh Norwegian University of Technology (NTNU) presenting on behalf of vAcademia
    17. 17. VWs as a tool for training, ….Learning virtual teaming skills http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQa6vyG8Dkg
    18. 18. Action Research: Interacting with customers in the development process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kMNWBU1Yb8
    19. 19. Data collection for PhD thesis in Marketing at Florida State University - Greater purchase intentState of flow - Positive brand attitudes Hooker et al 2010
    20. 20. Research Methodology Text Analysis and SNA • Developer mailing list • Ohloh commit list • OpenSimulator wiki • SNS, blogs, homepages, etc. • Twenty-one interviews
    21. 21. What does this mean for PhD education?
    22. 22. Virtual worlds throughout PhD education Application interviews Learning and training − Courses, discussions simulation, role-play, mentoring Collaboration − International, interdisciplinary, interorganizational Research − Data collection, experiments, visualization Dissemination − Seminars, exhibitions, conferences Recruiting
    23. 23. Today’s presentation • What is the Immersive Internet? • What does this mean for PhD education? • Into the Future
    24. 24. ≈1.4 bln VW accounts under age 16225 mln 170 mln 200 mln 28 mln 265 mln http://www.slideshare.net/nicmitham/kzero-universe-q1-2012
    25. 25. Tomorrow’s international entrepreneurs?
    26. 26. “Clearly, if social activity migrates tosynthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.” Castronova, 2006
    27. 27. OpenSimulator: A value-creation ecosystem Academic Entrepreneur Hobbyist Large Firm Non-profit Local Public Federal Pub Research Inst SME Employee PeripheryTeigland, Di Gangi, & Yetis 2012
    28. 28. From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to …...the “mobility” of labor? Teigland, JVWR, 2010
    29. 29. Increasing pace of VW/3Di development Short-term Mid-termBrowser-based,hyperlinked 3D Mobile Long-term Radical interfaces Adapted from Burden, 2012
    30. 30. Today’s challenges  I’m “afraid” of the technology.  Isn’t a webconference better?  It’s just a game.  Who’s behind that avatar?  Here today, gone tomorrow….  You’re only as good as your technology.  The technology isn’t stable.  I can’t read their body language.  ….
    31. 31. The last generation to “attend” college? Linnaeus University http://features.csmonitor.com/innovation/2009/10/15/the-future-of-college-may-be-virtual/
    32. 32. Karl M. Kapp, Bloomsburg University’ & Tony ODriscollDuke Corporate Education
    33. 33. The Euroversity Networkhttp://www.euroversity.eu/PROJECT EuroVPROGRAMME Lifelong Learning Programme KA3 (ICT) Multilateral networksDURATION 3 years – Dec 2011 – Nov 2013COORDINATOR University of Hull, UKPARTNERS 19 partners (from Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Cyprus, Portugal, Spain, UK, Netherlands, Italy, Israel)AIM To facilitate transfer of core knowledge in teaching and learning in VWs to new contexts. To provide a framework for the creation of pan-European virtual-world university
    34. 34. “We ain’t seen nothin’ yet!” Karinda Rhode Photo: Lindholm, Metro aka Robin Teigland robin.teigland@hhs.sePhoto:Nordenskiöld www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland www.nordicworlds.net RobinTeigland Photo: Lindqvist

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