Teigland Leading In Networked MNC

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  • Great to see so many people interested in networks. I came from Stanford where networking is part of everyday of life Started my PhD research over ten years ago and one of first things I did was to look at the knowledge flows between the r&D units of three multinationals, HP, Ericsson, and Xerox. At beginning of knowledge management era and companies investing heavily in KM, these companies no exception. Found that top management invested heavily in different intranet applications, thinking understood how individuals worked. So for example, patent, then spoke with one of scientists and found that on one hand did not even access the intranet this application, nahh, just went next door to ask colleague who working with this. Much easier, faster, and better information. This got me started on my journey of looking into networks. Very much management not understanding the way work gets done and now with knowledge work, thinking can manage knowledge in same way managed physical resources of organization. But not the case… So here today to talk about networks
  • Teigland Leading In Networked MNC

    1. 1. Leading in a Networked Multinational February 2009 Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland 1-
    2. 2. <ul><li>Understanding networks in multinational corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational corporation </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    3. 3. A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2008 Fischbowl 2007
    4. 4. … that becomes quickly outdated …. 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education Third year of education
    5. 5. <ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMcfrLYDm2U </li></ul><ul><li>How are these trends affecting you and your organization? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Knowledge is growing exponentially…. Cohen & Levinthal 1989 Growth Time Information and knowledge Human absorptive capacity
    7. 7. Yet, the world is “shrinking” family local colleagues friends old colleagues colleagues at other offices Just a click away… virtual communities local networks old classmates avatars business contacts social media contacts referrals
    8. 8. The speed of information: The power of social media http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8XxcOj3Seo Fortune, Rey 2008
    9. 9. <ul><li>Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967 </li></ul>Six degrees of separation
    10. 10. A new workforce is appearing… Mahaley 2008, Merrill Lynch 1999, Beck and Wade, Prensky “ Digital Immigrants” “ Digital Natives” Company loyalty Work ≠ Personal Professional loyalty Work = Personal
    11. 11. History tends to repeat itself…. Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics Late 18 th C Late 19 th C Late 20 th C Schön 2008
    12. 12. <ul><li>” No one knows everything, </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something, </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides in humanity.” </li></ul>networks Adapted from Lévy 1997
    13. 13. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power and performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    14. 14. What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties <ul><li>Ties/Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, trust, team, sit by, dislike, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance, customer, investment, etc. </li></ul></ul>Tie <ul><li>Actors/Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams, organizations, etc. </li></ul></ul>Actor
    15. 15. Individuals within a firm Mattsson 2004 < 1 yr 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs > 15 yrs Time at firm
    16. 16. Central connectors within one location Bottleneck  Teigland 1998 Surprise!! Stockholm
    17. 17. Boundary spanners between locations Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from Stockholm Teigland 1998 San Francisco
    18. 18. Proximal collaboration <ul><li>When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. </li></ul>Allen 1984
    19. 19. Communication still occurs within formal silos <ul><li>US-based MNC with 30 product divisions </li></ul><ul><li>30,328 people for 3 months in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>114 mln emails (114 mln) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>68 calendar meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does communication occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast majority is within business unit and functional boundaries, not across them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who are the boundary spanners? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid- to high-level executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales & Marketing executives </li></ul></ul>Kleinbaum et al 2008
    20. 20. Trust & reciprocity are essential for knowledge exchange in networks
    21. 21. … and most importantly, management cannot mandate social relationships John Eva Hans Miguel Paul Jan Lars Pia Anna Nils Bill Erik Mike Al Alex
    22. 22. Peripheral players between organizations San Francisco Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Teigland 1998 Other firms Electronic communities
    23. 23. Dual loyalties Loyalty Loyalty Organization Professional network Teigland 2003
    24. 24. Individuals between business firms SEB Ray-Adams & Sandberg 2000 Interlocking directorates of Sweden’s 110 largest firms, 2000 ??
    25. 25. But……. <ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>and not heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power and performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    27. 27. <ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and power? </li></ul>Power: Access to and control over resources
    28. 28. Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 Informal organization
    29. 29. How does informal power arise? Krebs 2004 Node 16 gains informal power, weakening the boss Node 15’s power…
    30. 30. How does informal power arise? … and now N16’s informal power is greater than the boss N15’s formal power Krebs 2004
    31. 31. Your network position is related to power <ul><li>Betweenness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often are you on the shortest path between 2 individuals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly can you reach all others in the network? </li></ul></ul>Krebs 2004
    32. 32. <ul><li>Does performance differ based on one’s networks? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Two individuals with the same number of contacts… B A
    34. 34. … but with very different access to resources B A
    35. 35. Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages <ul><li>More rapid promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater career mobility </li></ul><ul><li>More adaptable to changing environments </li></ul>Brass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi
    36. 36. Performance differs based on one’s network Firm A Low on-time High Creative High on-time Low creative Teigland 2003 High creative Virtual community Firm B
    37. 37. The strength of weak ties Network A’s knowledge Network D’s knowledge Network B’s knowledge Network C’s knowledge Granovetter 1973
    38. 38. When you hire someone,… … ..you “hire” his or her network.
    39. 39. Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Section 1 Section 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008
    40. 40. More social get-togethers and coffee breaks are not the solution
    41. 41. “ Managing” networks in your organization Before After Anklam & Welch 2005 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness
    42. 42. Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#
    43. 43. Comparing across firms Teigland et al 2000
    44. 44. Hewlett-Packard (1990s) <ul><li>Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels </li></ul><ul><li>Management support for informal and formal networking activities across internal and external boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practice task group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive socialization : personnel rotation, cross-office teams </li></ul><ul><li>A visionary organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company-wide goal of World’s Best Laboratory </li></ul></ul>Teigland et al 2000
    45. 45. IBM – “A marketplace for projects” for its 390,000 employees worldwide http://www.slideshare.net/SOMESSO/speaker-1-bettina-kahlau-presentation
    46. 46. <ul><li>“ Leading by values is very different …..It is empowering .. Rather than burden our people with excessive controls, we are trusting them to make decisions and to act based on values... </li></ul><ul><li>In today's world, where everyone is so interconnected and interdependent …. If we're going to solve the biggest, thorniest and most widespread problems in business and society, we have to innovate in ways that truly matter. And we have to do all this by taking personal responsibility for all of our relationships - with clients, colleagues, partners, investors and the public at large. </li></ul><ul><li>This is IBM's mission as an enterprise, and a goal toward which we hope to work with many others, in our industry and beyond. </li></ul>Samuel Palmisano, IBM Chairman, President, and CEO
    47. 47. IBM’s Atlas shows the social network of a topic and how to get to someone Poole 2008
    48. 48. IBM - Convergence in virtual spaces mentoring Green Data Center SOA Training Play is how we principally learn and principally create &quot; Ray Kurzweil many to choose from IBM Lotus Tools BMW Training Media Brain Thinking Hamilton, 2009
    49. 49. Are there any benefits from social media, or is it all hype? Poole 2008: IBM Global Technical Services Knowledge Community of Practice Business Impact Survey 2007, completed by approximately 2,300 respondents
    50. 50. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power and performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    51. 51. External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees in your country Co-Workers Friends Large portion of new ideas and formal collaboration relationships come from external contacts You Alex Eyal Your manager Rami’s manager Hila Yaron Yuval Eduardo Ed Muriel Peter Frequent e-mails Infrequent e-mails Web 2.0 Collaboration
    52. 52. Increasing number of external social media sites Rey 2008
    53. 53. Using social media http://adultaddstrengths.com/2008/11/05/obama-vs-mccain-social-media/
    54. 54. Facebook Fridays – Embracing social media <ul><li>#1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup </li></ul><ul><li>96 of Fortune 100 as customers </li></ul><ul><li>800 employees in 18 countries across globe </li></ul><ul><li>One hour every Friday to Facebook to find fun and connect with co-workers, customers, family, and friends </li></ul>
    55. 55. Increasing job turnover Time Number of jobs in lifetime Estimated time at one organization in Silicon Valley: ~18 months CNET 2000
    56. 56. Why use these new social media tools? Melcrum 10/07
    57. 57. The wisdom of crowds (Surowiecki 2004) Closed Expensive Complex Accurate Open Inexpensive Simple Close enough Hinton 2007
    58. 58. Innovations - www.innocentive.com
    59. 59. Problem solutions - The Goldcorp Challenge
    60. 60. Creating tomorrow’s solutions Building the house of the future in an HSB competition in Second Life
    61. 61. eZ Systems and the eZ ecosystem: An open source business model eZ Partners Community Customers <ul><li>#1 open source content management software </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise open source – “Grow the cake” </li></ul><ul><li>60 Employees in 8 countries (Europe & Asia) </li></ul><ul><li>230+ Partners </li></ul><ul><li>5000+ Customers </li></ul><ul><li>30,000+ Community members </li></ul>www.ez.no Skien, Norway
    62. 62. Promoting an open innovation attitude Not all the smart people work for us. We need to work with smart people inside and outside the company. The smart people in our field work for us. If you create the most and the best ideas in the industry, you will win. If you make the best use of internal and external ideas, you will win. Closed attitude Open attitude Chesborough 2003
    63. 63. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power and performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging your networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading a global virtual team </li></ul></ul>Today’s discussion
    64. 64. Myths and reality checks about networks <ul><li>I already know what is going on in my network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who think they know their network the best are usually the ones who know the least </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We can’t do much to help informal networks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal networks can be “managed” through changing the organizational context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To build networks, you have to communicate more </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networks can be strategically developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. So, what does this mean for you? <ul><li>An actor’s position in a social network, i.e., social capital, determines in part the actor’s opportunities and constraints </li></ul>Casper & Murray 2002 German biotech scientists
    66. 66. High performers leverage networks (in top 20% of organization’s HR ratings) <ul><li>Structural – Position themselves at key points in the network and leverage networks to get things done </li></ul><ul><li>Relational – Invest in relationships that extend expertise and help to avoid learning biases and career traps </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral – Understand and cultivate the value of networks and focus on building high quality relationships, not just big networks </li></ul>Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006
    67. 67. Two individuals with the same number of contacts but with very different access to resources B A
    68. 68. Structural holes Advantages of position in information networks Bill Burt 1992, Baker 2003 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 1 Dept 2 Barb
    69. 69. Build relationships with people at all hierarchical levels Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006 Higher: Help with making decisions, acquiring resources, developing political awareness, explaining organizational activities beyond local setting Equal: Help brainstorm and provide specific help, support, and needed information Lower: Provide best sources of technical information and expertise
    70. 70. Do you know who has informal power across the organization? Teigland 2003 How can you get to know these people?
    71. 71. Are you connected? Your subsidiary Subsidiary D Subsidiary A Subsidiary B
    72. 72. Develop participation in a variety of networks Strong ties Weak ties Outside organization Inside organization SOCNET
    73. 73. Start your own network Swedish International Business School Alumni Network (SIBSAN) Stanford GSB Alumni Club Nobel Laureates Government Ministers Stanford
    74. 74. Develop three forms of networking Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007 Operational Personal Strategic Purpose Getting work done efficiently Enhancing personal and professional development Developing and achieving future priorities Members Mostly internal contacts and focused on current demands Mostly external contacts and focused on current and future interests Both internal and external contacts and focused on future Network attributes Depth through building strong working relationships Breadth through reaching out to contacts who can refer you to others Leverage through creating inside-outside links
    75. 75. Build relationships before you need them,…. … … while making sure you create value and foster trust.
    76. 76. Higher performers create energy in their interactions with others <ul><li>Those who energize others are higher performers while those who drain energy are lower performers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get higher commitment from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate others so get resources they need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help others learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they do this? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a compelling vision – see the possibilities and not the roadblocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable others to contribute meaningfully to achieving the vision – allowing them to shape the road </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are trustworthy – honest and not driven by a hidden agenda </li></ul></ul></ul>Cross, Baker, & Parker 2003
    77. 77. What can you do? <ul><li>What do your networks look like? </li></ul><ul><li>With whom do you work? </li></ul><ul><li>What locations do you visit? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you sit? </li></ul><ul><li>With whom do you eat lunch? </li></ul><ul><li>With whom do you socialize? </li></ul><ul><li>To which communities, networks do you belong? </li></ul><ul><li>Build networks before you need them… </li></ul><ul><li>How are decisions made in your organization? </li></ul><ul><li>What information flows would you like to be in? </li></ul><ul><li>What resources will you need in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom should you get to know? </li></ul>
    78. 78. Reflection <ul><li>Reflect on your own networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which network is strongest (operational, personal, strategic)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which network would you like to develop? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you like to do this? </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. The positive spiral of social networks tschaut’s photos Contribution Reciprocity Accumulation Value
    80. 80. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power and performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving high performance in a networked multinational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging your networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading a global virtual team </li></ul></ul>Today’s discussion
    81. 81. While we know what to do…. Network picture from http://n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com/blog/?m=200712 Hierarchy Linear, static, process-based organization Heterarchy Dynamic, integrated collaboration networks … .getting there is hard to do!!
    82. 82. <ul><li>Profitable growth through higher efficiency and innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing the waste of valuable resources - avoid reinventing the wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring the use of leading-edge technology and thinking across the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing customer satisfaction through shorter lead-times and consistent behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a competitive cost structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating breakthrough and incremental innovations through combination of technologies and ideas from across and outside the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An attractive workplace that encourages cross-functional co-operation across the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting and retaining key individuals </li></ul></ul>What are the benefits of global networks?
    83. 83. How to bridge islands of competence? Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from Stockholm Teigland 1998 San Francisco
    84. 84. Increasing focus on Global Virtual Teams Adapted from McDermott 2001 -Obligation -Job requirement -Value -Commitment - Friendship Glue -Planned -Actively discovered -Serendipitously discovered Value Creation -Organize tasks -Meetings -Informal communications -One-on-one Activity -Assigned -Defined boundary -Mostly volunteers -Permeable boundary -Friends & acquaintances -No boundary Members -Accomplish goal -Solve problems -Share info & ideas -Expand knowledge -Share information -Friendship Purpose Virtual Team Community of Practice Personal Network
    85. 85. What is a Global Virtual Team (GVT)? Manager Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Leader Manager Manager Manager <ul><li>A group of people often with complementary skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Functioning across boundaries of space, time, and organization </li></ul><ul><li>Working together to achieve a shared purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by information and communication technology </li></ul>
    86. 86. Great potential from GVTs! <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the best people, no matter where they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different perspectives from several locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better resources for problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of decision making, eg test ideas in multiple contexts before making final decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater commitment to tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved creativity and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More individual need satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher organizational commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced employee burnout due to travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced expenses related to travel and office costs </li></ul></ul>Schermerhorn 2004 <ul><ul><li>Creation of the whole > sum of its parts </li></ul></ul>
    87. 87. What are the key challenges to GVTs? <ul><li>Think for 5 minutes individually about the challenges with global virtual teams that you are experiencing, have experienced, or have seen around you. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss these with others at your table for 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the 3 most crucial challenges per table. </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint a spokesperson to present them. </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the group. </li></ul>
    88. 88. What are the key challenges to GVTs? <ul><li>Three key aspects make working in global virtual teams different from working in collocated teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You’re dealing with greater complexity , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of which you see less, i.e., reduced visibility , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while having to rely on “handicapped” communication . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within the overall theme of greater cross-cultural diversity </li></ul>Baan 2005
    89. 89. Improving GVT performance Lipnak & Stamps 2007, Coleman 2006 90% people + 10% technology
    90. 90. <ul><li>Teams that focus on the issues of being “virtual” sometimes do well, but often don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Teams that focus on being a team and getting their job done well generally figure out the technology anyway </li></ul><ul><li>But equal technology support for all team members is essential!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each team needs to customize its own communications strategy based on members experience and skills </li></ul></ul>Technology is not the most important part! Adapted from Maznevski 2001 90% people + 10% technology
    91. 91. <ul><li>Leading from a distance is an absolute necessity …… It will be that way in more and more industries. It is a hard skill. People who have never done it don’t even recognize it as a separate skill. </li></ul>Connaughton & Daly
    92. 92. What characterizes strong GVT leadership? <ul><li>Think for 1-2 minutes individually about the challenges of leading virtual teams that you are experiencing, have experienced, or have seen around you. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss these with others at your table for 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the 3 most crucial challenges per table. </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint a spokesperson to present them. </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the group. </li></ul>
    93. 93. Characteristics of high-performing teams <ul><li>A clear and elevating goal </li></ul><ul><li>A task-driven, results-oriented structure </li></ul><ul><li>Competent, committed members who work hard </li></ul><ul><li>A collaborative climate </li></ul><ul><li>High standards of excellence </li></ul><ul><li>External support and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and principled leadership </li></ul>
    94. 94. <ul><li>You really want to create that feeling that you’re right down the hallway. </li></ul>Create a feeling of presence - Global Marketing Director
    95. 95. Facebook Fridays – Embracing social media <ul><li>#1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup </li></ul><ul><li>96 of Fortune 100 as customers </li></ul><ul><li>800 employees in 18 countries across globe </li></ul><ul><li>One hour every Friday to Facebook to find fun and connect with co-workers, customers, family, and friends </li></ul>
    96. 96. Accessibility and attention matter more than physical closeness <ul><ul><li>“ The frequent interactions with people you have here [at headquarters] are often attributed to trust. And over distance you have a complete void there. So you are missing one of your fundamental tools. Somehow you’ve got to overcome that. And that’s where the one-on-one calls come in…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you do with your interaction to make it more personal? </li></ul></ul>
    97. 97. Communicate, communicate, communicate <ul><li>Communicate timely and continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Use at least two communication channels for important messages </li></ul><ul><li>Link “big picture” with “little picture” </li></ul><ul><li>Balance and respect all members’ interests </li></ul>Don’t take silence for agreement
    98. 98. <ul><li>It is easy to under-communicate outside of your immediate sphere of contact everyday. And that means that people feel lost and disconnected. When they hear about something that everyone back here [headquarters] knew for weeks was coming and nobody told them, they feel they have wasted time, effort, and personal investment. </li></ul>Connaughton & Daly
    99. 99. Avoid creation of an “inner circle” <ul><li>Ensure information equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid informing local team members before distant ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make information open to all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link “big picture” with “little picture” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to those who are distant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid giving more attention to those team members who are closer geographically or organizationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim to have weekly / bi-weekly one-on-one chats with all team members where concerns can be raised and feedback given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to other connections in your network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t assume anything - silence does not mean people agree/disagree, care/don’t care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly check in and get involvement </li></ul></ul>More difficult in Global Virtual Teams!!!
    100. 100. Create trust through open, balanced communication….. <ul><ul><li>Provide open forum for discussion between all partners, e.g., virtual project space </li></ul></ul>Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    101. 101. … .and a rhythm in your meetings <ul><li>Meets face-to-face every six months </li></ul><ul><li>Meets by formal telephone conference every two months </li></ul>1 3 13 9 7 5 11 Maznevski 2001 Month 1 3 13 9 7 5 11 Month <ul><li>No established rhythm of face-to-face meetings </li></ul><ul><li>No rhythm of contact using rich media </li></ul>Ineffective team Effective team
    102. 102. Stretch time, don’t overload it <ul><li>High performing teams stretch time, ie leverage time differences and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Low performing teams overload time, ie meeting together simultaneously too often </li></ul>Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Leader
    103. 103. Clearly define virtual team roles Coleman 2006
    104. 104. Develop guidelines <ul><li>Example: Email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer messages promptly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update your outgoing message when out of the office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep distribution lists current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly identify the subject in the subject line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize mail by coding top of message with either “Requires action” or “For your information (FYI)” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send short, straightforward messages (no scrolling required) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use attachments sparingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use websites to communicate large documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check spelling and grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send group mail when all recipients actually need it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward messages with care and consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When replying to a mail, only keep the relevant part of the mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only write what you are willing to see in the newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid irony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use for urgent messages (use voice-to-voice or face-to-face) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree that email is a supplement and not a substitute for personal interaction </li></ul></ul>Reeves-Lipscomb 2001
    105. 105. Foster trust to build relationships Coleman 2006 Practices and discipline build trust, not who you are in virtual environments
    106. 106. Team configuration matters when it comes to trust! Fully dispersed Three subgroups Two subgroups Least conflict Most trust Most conflict Least trust Polzer et al 2002
    107. 107. Cultural differences affect GVT behaviors “ Work-to-live” culture Risk avoidance + — + Teigland 2003 Knowledge acquisition Knowledge sharing
    108. 108. Diversity presents additional challenges to achieving high performance <ul><li>Surface diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic background, age, gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural diversity ( difficult to see ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different training/educational and occupational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning histories, i.e., own patterns of information acquisition and use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspectives on analyzing and solving problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Basic researcher vs politician vs salesperson </li></ul></ul></ul>Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    109. 109. The complexity scorecard <ul><li>How does your team rate on a scale of 1-low to 5-high? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members from multiple functions, divisions, or organizations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members with multiple jobs/tasks? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible member composition, ie changes over time in size and members? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide geographical spread (number of time zones spanned)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members from multiple national cultures? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members with different native languages and fluency? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in cross-cultural fluency? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between members regarding access to communications and technology facilities? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in ability to use various communication technologies? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivational diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members with different underlying goals </li></ul></ul></ul>Adapted from Baan 2005
    110. 110. Understand individual member’s motivations Low visibility/importance High visibility/importance Develop new creative solutions R e use old solutions Adapted from Briner, Hastings & Geddes, 1996 Team member 1 Team member 2
    111. 111. Conduct joint problem solving tasks <ul><li>Ensure participation by all members in joint tasks from the very beginning of the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Development of project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use boundary objects to facilitate understanding </li></ul>Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    112. 112. Develop collective competence Collective competence Team’s ability to work together to solve problems and achieve common goals Shared norms Shared routines Shared language Shared understanding Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    113. 113. Collective competence It’s really important to get a collective perspective in order for everyone to understand the project’s core and to develop the project’s goals and outcomes…a critical point is when everyone is on the same page and is able to look at the project with the same ”set of eyeglasses”. Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    114. 114. Build a community <ul><ul><li>” Eld-själ” who burns for cause/drives the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical mass of insiders who help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second layer of seekers who ask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lurkers on outside who follow conversation </li></ul></ul>Wasko & Teigland 2002
    115. 115. Cap Gemini – NCN MS Electronic Community <ul><li>Background and objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide programmers working with Microsoft products a forum to help each other solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>345 programmers across Nordic countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping each other through posting questions and responses on listserv nicknamed “L2A2L” (Learn to ask to learn) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical success factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eldsjäl” – one who burned for community and walked the talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of reciprocity </li></ul></ul>Teigland & Wasko 2003
    116. 116. Encourage distributed leadership … <ul><li>Make every member responsible for recognizing when task and/or maintenance activities are needed and taking actions to provide them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading through task activities focuses on solving problems and achieving performance results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading through maintenance activities helps strengthen and perpetuate the team as a social system </li></ul></ul>
    117. 117. How can you turn conflict into creative conflict ? ? Teigland & Ruuska 2009
    118. 118. High team performance comes from ongoing processes of positive and negative feedback Other Speaking about other Self Speaking about oneself or own group Advocacy Arguing for own position High Perf. Pos/Neg: 5.6 Medium Perf. Pos/Neg: 1.9 Low Perf. Pos/Neg: 0.4 Losada & Heaphy 2004 Inquiry Exploring other’s viewpoint Positive – Support, encouragement, appreciation Negative – Disapproval, sarcasm, cynicism
    119. 119. … and make sure you are connected Your subsidiary Subsidiary D Subsidiary A Subsidiary B
    120. 120. Explore new communication technologies <ul><li>Text messaging/IM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate and share knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forums & message boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get employee feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve mutual problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facebook, MySpace, Ning, Twitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships, share, explore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life, QWAQ, other virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicate the “water cooler” </li></ul></ul>
    121. 121. Survey on collaboration technologies <ul><li>Survey of >100 people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 50% are top executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% in US and 50% elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working on teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62% work on teams over 50% of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72% not sure how to apply collaboration technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% have fear of using collaboration technologies </li></ul></ul>Coleman 2006
    122. 122. Facilitating the virtual workforce through virtual worlds <ul><li>Completely private virtual business worlds offering tools to conduct business and collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Fortune 500: IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Motorola, Novartis, Sun Microsystems, Unilever </li></ul>
    123. 123. VWs improve global collaboration Unilever uses SL to bring together individuals working with Dove across the world <ul><li>Finding and connecting with people </li></ul><ul><li>Building communities </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems and finding solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning informally </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming diversity challenges through creating collective competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language, norms </li></ul></ul>
    124. 124. Improving global collaboration <ul><li>Creating immersive workspaces in virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnPBQAxUuDE </li></ul>By 2012, Gartner estimates that 70% of organizations will have their own private virtual worlds. (May 2008)
    125. 125. Tomorrow’s meeting <ul><li>Telepresence by Cisco </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcfNC_x0VvE </li></ul>
    126. 126. Why use these new tools? Melcrum 10/07
    127. 127. Individuals make choices about how they use their knowledge… <ul><li>Knowledge resides in the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals make own choices about knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share openly for the benefit of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in work practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that an individual’s value is diminished if share knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in external relationships for own benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge leakage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the firm and take knowledge with them </li></ul></ul>
    128. 128. By the end of 2008 … <ul><li>At least 70% of companies without official support for blogs and wikis will have multiple unofficial deployments </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise social software will be the biggest new workplace technology success story of this decade </li></ul>Gartner: “Predicts 2007:Web 2.0 and Consumerization Forge Into Enterprise”, “Wikis and Social Software, 2007” <ul><li>Young people ”demand” to have collaboration tools/social media, they will not want to work there otherwise (HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal, security reasons for slow deployment, not CIO (technical) </li></ul>
    129. 129. Leading and learning Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” - John F. Kennedy Leadership, teaching, and learning are inextricably interlinked. - Jack Welch
    130. 130. <ul><li>“ The rate at which individuals and organizations learn may become the only sustainable competitive advantage, especially in knowledge-intensive industries.” </li></ul>Ray Stata, Chairman Analog Devices
    131. 131. Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland
    132. 132. Network sources and acknowledgements <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks . Perseus, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castells, The Rise of the Network Society . Blackwell, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross & Parker, The Hidden Power of Social Networks . Harvard Business School, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gladwell, The Tipping Point . Abacus, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Social Network Analysis . Sage, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teigland, Knowledge Networking , SSE, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teten & Allen, The Virtual Handshake . American Management Assoc., 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homepages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Bird, people.bu.edu/sbird </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Borgatti, www.socialnetworkanalysis.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rob Cross, www.robcross.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Network for Social Network Analysis http://www.insna.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Krackhardt, www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/krack/index.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valdis Krebs, www.orgnet.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fredrik Liljeros, www.sociology.su.se/home/Liljeros/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Moody, www.soc.duke.edu/~jmoody77/presentations/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giancarlo Oriani, www.informalorg.eu (In Italian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barry Wellman, www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/ </li></ul></ul>
    133. 133. GVT sources <ul><li>Coleman, D. Virtual Team Spaces, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Connaughton, SL & Daly, JA, “Leading from Afar: Strategies for Effectively Leading Virtual Teams” in Virtual Collaborative Teams: Process, Technologies, & Practice (S. H. Godar & S. P. Ferris, Eds.). </li></ul><ul><li>Lipnack, J. & Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology . John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Maznevski, M. High performance from global virtual teams, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruuska, I. & Teigland, R. 2009 (Forthcoming). “Ensuring Project Success through Collective Competence and Conflict Management in Public-private Partnerships: A Case Study of a Swedish Triple Helix e-government Initiative”. International Journal of Project Management . </li></ul><ul><li>Schermerhorn, Jr., J., Management , 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Robin’s homepage at www.knowledgenetworking.org </li></ul>

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