Teigland 3D Learning Online Education Conference
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My presentation at the Online Education Conference in Berlin on Dec. 2, 2009

My presentation at the Online Education Conference in Berlin on Dec. 2, 2009

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  • So if there is no one-liner to celebrate the birth of the Internet, maybe this skit, aired on National Public Radio in the US on the 40-year anniversary of the Internet in October 2009, can serve as a reminder of how far we have come
  • I always like to put things into perspective. The theme of today’s event is that of seeing opportunities in the midst of the financial crisis and I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are experiencing now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18th and 19th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking.experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Other notesNotes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in HistoryA crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to comeTransformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocationRationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of productionShifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as wellInternational crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumptionWaves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and servicesIt is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts!When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machineryReallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisisDevelopment of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changesDiffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
  • Thanks to Philippe Des Autels for picture.Impatience

Transcript

  • 1. Learning in 3D:
    Bringing a new dimension to enterprise learning and collaboration
    Dr. Robin Teigland, aka
    Karinda Rhode in SL
    Associate Professor
    Stockholm School of Economics
    www.knowledgenetworking.org
    www.slideshare.net/eteigland
  • 2. Today’s discussion
    Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds
    A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds
    Stepping into Second Life
    Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D
  • 3. 3
    - You on Youtube?
    • No, Hulu and Itunes, but I lost the USB for my MP3. It’s MIA, so is my GPS.
    • 4. This PDF won’t show up on my LCD.
    • 5. Call your ISP.
    - I could send them an SMS or look it up on the cookie wiki. So you on Google now?
    - No, Bing.
    - You are such a Yahoo! Oh, just got poked on Facebook.
    • From?
    • 6. My mom wants to know if she can use Paypal for Netflix.
    • 7. Did she ever sell her Imac on Ebay?
    - No, but she got WiFi for the Xbox.
    • Can we have a real conversation now?
    - Sure, can we have it in Second Life?
    NPR, Internet’s 40th Birthday, 2009
  • 8. 4
    "...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the rate of change inside, the end is near...."
    Jack Welch…
  • 9. Did You Know: Shift Happens
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpEnFwiqdx8&feature=fvst
    What does this mean for organizations?
    5
  • 10. Information and knowledge
    Growth
    Human absorptive capacity
    Time
    Human capacity cannot keep up…
    Cohen & Levinthal 1989
    6
  • 11. 7
    ”No one knows everything,
    everyone knows something,
    all knowledge resides in humanity.”
    networks
    Adapted from Lévy 1997
  • 12. 8
    The wisdom of the crowd
    Closed
    Expensive
    Complex
    Accurate
    Open
    Inexpensive
    Simple
    Close enough
    Accurate
    Adapted from Hinton 2007
  • 13. History tends to repeat itself….Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, …
    Microelectronics
    Internal combustion engine
    Steam engine
    Third
    industrial
    revolution?
    Late 18th C
    Late 19th C
    Late 20th C
    9
    Schön 2008
  • 14. A new workforce is appearing…
    10
    “Digital Immigrants”
    “Digital Natives”
    Company loyalty
    Work ≠ Personal
    Learning=Behind the desk
    Professional loyalty
    Work = Personal
    Learning=Fun and games
    Mahaley 2008, Merrill Lynch 1999, Beck and Wade, Prensky
  • 15. A new workforce is appearing
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk
    11
  • 20. 12
    Using the social web to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn
  • 21. 13
    Increasing pressure on “traditional” organizations
    Formal organization/
    Hierarchy
    Social organization /
    Heterarchy
    Teigland et al. 2005
  • 22. Where are the sources of sustainablecompetitiveadvantage?
    #1
    Brand &
    Reputation
    Innovation
    FIRM
    Networks of
    relationships
    Kay 1993
    14
  • 23. Where are the sources of sustainablecompetitiveadvantage?
    #1
    Brand &
    Reputation
    Innovation
    FIRM
    Networks of
    relationships
    15
  • 24. eZ Systems and its open source business model
    The eZ ecosystem of relationships
    eZ
    Partners
    Community
    Customers
    • #1 open source content management software
    • 25. Enterprise open source – “Grow the cake”
    • 26. 60 Employees in 8 countries (Europe & Asia)
    • 27. 230+ Partners
    • 28. 5000+ Customers
    • 29. 30,000+ Community members
    www.ez.no
    Skien, Norway
    16
  • 30. Innovation in the eZ ecosystem
    eZ Software development team
    Jill
    Jack
    Rob
    Alex
    Who are the company employees?
    Jim
    Jason
    Lisa
    George
    Jane
    Doug
    Mary
    Bob
    Sarah
    Flåten et al, 2009
    Bill
    17
  • 31. From Brand owners to Brand advocates
    18
    “Organizations no longer own their brand…rather they should see their brand as a relay race baton that people should pick up and pass on to others.”
    Berlin, CEO Silver, 2009
  • 32. What came first – the community or the company?
    19
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VKRbmnqXR4
  • 33. 20
    eBay allowed people to sell
    their personal items in a worldwide yard sale, the Immersive Internet will
    allow people to sell their personal skills and abilities in much the same way.
    Kapp & O’Driscoll, 2009
  • 34. Towards 3D Internet
    SENSORY
    3D Internet
    Thinking
    Connected
    Web 2.0 Thinking
    SecondLife, There Active Worlds,
    Entropia, SimsOnline, Club Penguin,Habbo, ToonTown,
    World of Warcraft, 3D planets, VSlide, Protosphere
    Individual
    Web 1.0 Thinking
    Facebook, Friendster, Yahoo, Blogger, Wikipedia, eBay, Typepad, LinkedIn. Amazon, MySpace, Textamerica, Delicious, HubPages
    Mosaic, Prodigy, Compuserve, AOL, Netscape
    Level of Interaction
    Time
    Hamilton 2008
    21
  • 35. Here Comes the Immersive Internet
    O’Driscoll 2009
    22
  • 36. A growing universe of Virtual Worlds
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CijdlYOSPc
    23
  • 37. Around 150 virtual worlds
    • Q1 2009:
    • 38. $68 mln invested in 13 virtual world companies
  • VWS have many different models
    25
    Around 150 virtual worlds
  • 39. What are Virtual Worlds?
    • Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments
    • 40. Shared space/co-presence with possibility for socialization and community
    • 41. In some cases, ability to manipulate/create content
    • 42. In some cases, virtual economy and currency
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMOqI3hH9Gs
    26
  • 43. MMOs
    • Scripted narrative – created by game designers
    • 44. Goals and objectives, ranking systems
    • 45. Rules for gameplay, winners and losers
    • 46. Entertainment only?
    Virtual Worlds
    • Open-ended–built by residents
    • 47. Social environment, affinity groups
    • 48. Boundaries for access and building
    • 49. Commerce, education, innovation, and…?
  • What financial crisis?
    Increasing members
    Increasing turnover
    Increasing companies
    Wonderland
    28
  • 50. Number of Accounts-Age (Cumulative)
    39% increase from Q1 2009
    29
  • 51.  
    Two popular Kids & Tweens worlds
    • 40 mln members
    • 52. 135 mln members
    30
  • 53. Building skills in virtual environments
    My CV
    • Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe
    • 54. Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure
    • 55. Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication
    31
  • 56. “Clearly if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.”Castranova
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ahqjBeknT0
    32
  • 57. Gartner’s hype cycle
    Virtual Worlds today?
    33
  • 58. Virtual world revenues
    USD 3bln in 2009
    US spending on virtual goods passes USD 1 bln in 2009
    34
  • 59. Microtransactions business model
    Zynga
    - Majority revenues comes from 2% to 10% of users who pay $1 an hour to play premium games or buy virtual goods
    - Annual sales of about USD 100 mln
    Playdom
     - Estimated USD 50 mln in sales per year from virtual goods
    Social Gaming Network
     - Estimated USD 50 mln sales mainly from virtual goods
    Weeworld
    - Estimated 2008 revenue USD 10 mln+ mainly from virtual goods
    Habbo
    - Estimated 2008 revenue USD 50 mln from virtual goods - 10% monthly players pay $10.30/month
     
    35
    http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2009/tc20090429_963394_page_2.htm
  • 60.
    • 800,000 users
    • 61. USD 420 mln turnover 2008
    • 62. Bank license from Swedish Government in March 2009 to MindArk Bank
    36
  • 63. Entropia Universe by MindArk
    • Virtual universe with real cash economy
    • 64. Fixed exchange rate to US Dollar, 1 USD = 10 PED
    • 65. Five banks auctioned for USD 404,000 in 2007
    • 66. Real life bank license granted by Swedish Government to MindArk Bank in March 2009
    • 67. Ability to develop skills and sell virtual goods
    • 68. Asteroid space resort sold for USD 100,000 in 2005
    • 69. Jon “Neverdie” Jacobs – Self-made millionaire
    • 70. Clothes Against Violence – limited edition virtual jackets sold for more than same model of real world jackets
    37
  • 71. Second Life by Linden Lab
    • 1.4 million residents logged in/60 day period
    • 72. 71,200 logged on Monday, Nov 30
    • 73. Average age=32, 43% female, 55% non-US
    • 74. Grew 33% in one year to 126 mln at end of 2Q 2009
    • 75. Economy grew by 94% 2Q 2008-2009
    • 76. 270 Linden dollars ≅ USD 1
    • 77. 350,000 hours of use per day
    • 78. 68,000 people making profit
    IT Businessedge, Linden Lab, 2009
    38
  • 79. Self-made millionaires
    • Jon “Neverdie” Jacobs
    • 80. Paid USD 100,000 for asteroid space resort
    • 81. Bank owner in Entropia
    • 82. Anshe Chung
    • 83. Started with < USD 10
    • 84. Community developer
    • 85. Bank owner in Entropia
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mg4TwOqVprw&feature=related
    39
  • 86. Redgrave – One virtual boutique
    • Numerous stores selling all kinds of wares and services in-world
    • 87. International customer base
    • 88. Easy payment scheme: Microtransactions
    • 89. Global work force: Microemployees
    40
  • 90. Buying and selling Linden Dollars
    https://www.xstreetsl.com/modules.php?name=Currency
    http://www.crossworldsxchange.com/
    41
  • 91. Virtual credit
    http://www.firstmeta.com/consumers
    42
  • 92. Showcasing current products
    IBM’s Green Data Center
    43
  • 93. Co-creating solutions
    Philips Design Group
    Lead-user innovation workshops
    44
  • 94. Facilitating the virtual workforce
    • Completely private virtual business worlds offering tools to conduct business and collaborate
    • 95. Fortune 500: IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Motorola, Novartis, Unilever
    45
  • 96. Training and education
    IFL at SSE and Duke CorporateEducation
    Co-developing and running a virtual team buildingexercise
    46
  • 97. Finding and recruiting talent globally
    47
  • 102. The future of 3D internet
    Before the first plate of aluminum is even bent for production, the passengers will have sat in the plane, the crew will have serviced the plane, and the pilots will have flown the plane.
    CEO of Boeing supplier
    48
  • 103. 49
    From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to …
    ...the “mobility” of labor?
  • 104. 50
    Will the playing field for SMEs be leveled?
    Innovation workshops bring together users from across the globe
    Giovacchini et al. 2009
  • 105. What are the implications for traditional industries?
    “Soon all fashion designers will be originating their designs and managing the production in virtual worlds….Why such a dramatic change? Economics, pure and simple.”
    Shenlei Winkler,
    Director Fashion Research Institute
    Learn how to become an SL Fashion Designer at Fashiontech.wordpress.com/
    51
  • 106. Which professions will be revolutionized?
    52
  • 107. 53
    DN
    Aug 20, 1996
  • 108. Today’s discussion
    Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds
    A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds
    Stepping into Second Life
    Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D
    54
  • 109. A wide range of education and training efforts in VWs
    55
  • 110. The University of Texas goes inworld
    56
    https://blogs.secondlife.com/community/learninginworld/blog/2009/09/15/the-first-statewide-rollout-of-a-virtual-world-learning-environment-the-university-of-texas-system-in-second-life
  • 111. The last generation to “attend” college?
    57
    http://features.csmonitor.com/innovation/2009/10/15/the-future-of-college-may-be-virtual/
  • 112. 58
    The future of education & training with VWs?
    Distributed
    ??
    Participant
    reach
    Co-located
    High
    Low
    Degree of
    “co-creation”
  • 113. NEWSFLASH: The Book is FINALLY DONE!
    59
  • 114. Slide: 60
    Learning to change: The problem
    Knowing
    Formal
    Content
    Topic
    Learning
    Doing
    Informal
    Context
    Task
    Performing
    O’Driscoll 2009
    60
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/hansvandevorst/216877526/
  • 115. Where does learning take place?
    Wenger 1998, Hinton 2007
    61
  • 116. Slide: 62
    Learning to change: History lesson
    1585-1587
    O’Driscoll 2009
    62
  • 117. Learning 2.0=NetWORKing
    Getting things done requires good connections, both the human kind and the Internet kind.
    Schooling has confused us into thinking that learning was equivalent to pouring content into people’s heads.
    .
    It’s more practical to think of learning as optimizing our networks.
    Jay Cross
    63
  • 118. Learning to change: Mind the TRAP!
    Now that we are moving from factory work to anytime, anyplace work, we need an anytime anyplace educational parallel.
    - Alvin Toffler
    O’Driscoll 2009
    64
  • 119. Escaping FLATland
    3D Learning Experience
    2D Synchronous Learning
    O’Driscoll 2009
    65
  • 120. Immersive internet sensibilities
    2D Synchronous Learning
    3D Learning Experience
    Sensibilities
    Kapp & O’Driscoll 2009
    66
  • 121. 3D Global Team Experience
    July 16, 2009 @ 7:30 AM EDT
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N8XPmp0qGyg
    Stockholm School of Economics
  • 122. Our innovation workshop area
    Giovacchini, Teigland, Kuhler, & Helms 2009
    68
  • 123. “Flow” leads to creativity
    Four steps
    Giovacchini, Teigland, Kuhler, & Helms 2009
    69
  • 127. Training & education programs
    Play2train
    • New employee training, eg policies, organizational culture
    • 128. Skills training, eg sales
    • 129. Virtual teaming
    70
  • 130. Other examples
    Medical training by Forterra
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDTJJAwf6A4&feature=related
    Virtual collaboration by ProtonMedia
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYFolFZ2pRM
    Workshop training by Teleplace (Qwaq)
    http://www.teleplace.com/solutions/workgroup_training.php
    Disaster simulation by Play2Train
    http://www.pandemicsimulation.com/irhbtisopodcomp.jpg/view
    71
    Snapshots by Reynolds 2007
  • 131. Creating a successfulVirtual Learning Environment (VLE)
    Pragmatic
    Experience of achieving learning objectives
    Sociability
    Perception of being a member of a group/community
    Usability
    Quality of human-computer interactions
    Hedonic
    Feeling of being mentally stimulated or entertained
    72
    Flow
    State of mind leading to intrinsic reward, one of main drivers of creativity
    Adapted from Nambisan & Nambisan 2008
  • 132. Some 3DLE tips
    Initial design
    Ensure objectives align with overall organizational strategy: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors
    Ensure learning objectives drive design and not technology
    Understand the participant profile, eg demographics, learning style
    Aim to match between objectives, participants, and context of VW platform
    Design
    Think freely and do not be restricted by real world
    Design based on four VLE components: pragmatic, sociability, usability, hedonic
    Keep it simple, do not overdesign
    73
    Giovacchini et al 2009, Mahaley & Teigland 2009, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010
  • 133. Some 3DLE tips (cont’d)
    Preparation
    Separate learning of technology from learning related to program objectives
    Do not underestimate technical challenges, eg running software on various computers, accessing networks
    Do not assume younger generation is tech-savvy
    Plan for contingencies
    Running the event
    Ensure adequate time for set-up and initial introduction phase
    Have coaches to help solve last minute technical challenges
    Overcommunicate logistics to participants
    Ensure adequate debriefing
    After the event
    Conduct follow-up, eg survey or interviews, of participants
    Conduct After Action Review
    74
    Mahaley & Teigland 2009, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010
  • 134. Building the business case
    Microsoft conducted virtual Global Inclusion Summit
    Travel and lodging cost avoidance of $1,617,000
    Negative productivity avoidance of 900 Days
    Environmental impact avoidance of 450,000 pounds CO2 equivalent
    Mercedes-Benz simulated the manufacture of aluminum component
    Cost reductions of up to 30% in several areas of vehicle planning
    IBM held virtual conference and annual meeting
    Savings of USD 250,000 in travel and venue costs
    USD 150,000 in productivity gains
    Canadian Border Patrol conducted officer training inworld
    Grades increased by 37%
    75
    Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010
  • 135. 76
    What are the challenges going forward?
    What skills and roles are required?
    For academics, coaches, program managers, and of course the participants?
    How do we get over the “digital immigrant” hurdle?
    What does content look like? 
    Creation in real world for in-world? Or in-world for real world?
    Created by program or participants? Or co-created?
    How do we escape our real world thinking?
    How is the process best facilitated?
    Embedding a 3D internet experience in the flow of the learning program?
    How do we ensure seamlessness?
    Mahaley & Teigland 2009
  • 136. Improving performance
    77
    Exploitation
    Exploration
    Productive
    learning
    Generative
    learning
    How do we move from productive learning to generative learning?
    March 1991, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010
  • 137. Today’s discussion
    Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds
    A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds
    Stepping into Second Life
    Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D
    78
  • 138. Some things to do in SL
    Take a guided tour at the IBM Business Center
    Visit a nuclear power power plant at Science School (Univ of Denver)
    Experience a tsunami at Meteora (NOAA)
    Learn and experience the holocaust at the Holocaust Museum
    Test your health literacy at Healthinfo Island (Group owned)
    Diagnose patients at the Respiratory Ward at Imperial College
    Fly a plane at Boyington Airfield (Group owned)
    Experience schizophrenia at UC Davis
    Learn English at ESL (English as a Second Language)
    Help make the world greener at Univ of Innsbruck
    Join the innovation team at Philips
    Play basketball at Ballers City (Group owned)
    79
  • 139. Today’s discussion
    Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds
    A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds
    Stepping into Second Life
    Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D
    80
  • 140. 81
    Tony O’Driscoll, aka
    Wada Tripp in SL
    Duke University
    Professor of the Practice Fuqua School of Business
  • 141. NEWSFLASH: The Book is FINALLY DONE!
    82
  • 142. Immersive Internet Sensibilities
    Sensibilities
    3D Learning Experience
    2D Synchronous Learning
    83
  • 143. Seven activities or archetypes…. to date
    84
    Avatar Persona
    Role Play
    Scavenger Hunt
    Guided Tour
    Operational Application
    Conceptual Orienteering
    Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010
  • 148. 3DLE Design Principles
    85
  • 149. Case Studies: The Power of Positive Example
    86
  • 150. Case Study: Experiencing Kristallnacht
    Challenge/Objectives
    Why 3D?
    • Experiment with 3D installation design to avoid having to make costly physical mock ups
    • 151. Engage people outside the museum in a co-create installation design process
    • 152. Explore feasibility of leveraging 3D technologies to stage virtual exhibitions
    • 153. The Museum’s narrative exhibition must affect visitors not only intellectually, but also emotionally
    • 154. Wanted to explore whether or not virtual installations could create visceral experiences for participants
    Solution
    Benefit/Result
    • The Kristallnacht exhibition succeeded in delivering a kinetic, intellectual and visceral learning experience for participants.
    • 155. Experience drove participants to ask how they should go about donating to the museum
    87
  • 156. 3DLE Design Points
    • Build around specific OBJECTIVES
    • 157. Create the right CONTEXT
    • 158. Provide MINIMAL GUIDELINES
    • 159. Allow opportunities to DEMOSTRATE LEARNING
    • 160. Build in INCENTIVES
    88
  • 161. New Rules!
    • RULE 1: Change the NAME Game
    • 162. RULE 2: Build a Grass Roots Community
    • 163. RULE 3: Begin with Business Issues
    • 164. RULE 4: Connect to Core Motivation
    • 165. RULE 5: Select the Right Pilots
    • 166. RULE 6: Pilot Early and Often
    • 167. RULE 7: Focus on the First Hour
    • 168. RULE 8: Begin with the Familiar
    • 169. RULE 9: Build an Evidence Base
    • 170. RULE 10: Prime the Scale Pump
    89
  • 171. Back to the Future!
    90
  • 172. Some helpful sources
    http://secondlifegrid.net/slfe/education-use-virtual-world
    http://www.kzero.co.uk/
    http://www.virtualworldsnews.com/
    Books
    Wankel & Kingsley, Higher Education in Virtual Worlds
    http://books.emeraldinsight.com/display.asp?isb=9781849506090&CUR=GBP
    Kapp & O’Driscoll, Learning in 3D
    Blogs
    http://wadatripp.wordpress.com/
    SLED list
    https://lists.secondlife.com/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/educators
    91
  • 173. Tremendous
    opportunities!!!!
    92
  • 174. Thanks and
    see you in world!
    Karinda Rhode
    aka Robin Teigland
    robin.teigland@hhs.se
    www.knowledgenetworking.org
    www.slideshare.net/eteigland
    Photo: Lindholm, Metro
    93