Social Media and Public Transportation Associations


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My presentation on social media for the Think Tanks by the Swedish Public Transportation Authorities in April-May 2010.

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  • This screen should be live. social media Web site, Facebook. com, now enjoys more than twice as many American viewers daily as all newspapers in the United Sates combined.
  • Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation.“Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967Back groundExample who ever you take that average is six step
  • RT: Well, let’s put this into perspective. I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are coming out of now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18th and 19th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s.Draw on board about value-added.Why does it take 40 years? And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking.(Next slide)Other notesNotes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in HistoryA crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to comeTransformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocationRationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of productionShifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as wellInternational crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumptionWaves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and servicesIt is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts!When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machineryReallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisisDevelopment of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changesDiffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
  • While we have always had networks, what has changed dramatically is that now with social media we have the ability to easily and quickly reach out to individuals across the globe whom we have never met before. And another significant change is that previously while we had one to one two-waycommunication,this did not enable groupcommunication, and while we also had one to many communication,this did not enable two way communication, but now with social media we can have many to many conversations. So for me the definition of social media are online communication channels that enable many to many interactions and conversations. And as no surprise the most active users of social media are younger people, those who have become skilled at using computers and the internet for all kinds of purposes – to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn. An extensive study that was just completed by one of the gurus in this area, danahboyd, found that the digital world really is changing the way that young adults and youths socialize and learn. These younger generations are using these new media to explore their own interests and experiment with self-expression – while at the same time they are developing both technical skills and a new form of social skills – solving complex problems online in virtual teams. As a result, these individuals are not only used to but expect more freedom and autonomy in their problem-solving activities at workenable communication & collaboration… through user-generated content….from one-to-one to many-to-many people…- across all boundaries(Next slide)Other notes creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence.Extending friendships online while some developing shared interest communities. Change way that youth socialize and learn - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. – Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals.Increased degree of freedom and autonomy Not just receivers of knowledge but creators of knowledge as well danahboyd studyWe are happy to announce the online release of the findings from our three-year Digital Youth project ( All of the researchers who have worked on this project will be writing up individual publications, but this report represents a synthesis of the findings across the 22 different case studies. It has been over three years in the making, and is the result of a truly collaborative effort with 28 researchers and research collaborators.This project is part of the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning initiative. can find all the details in the documents linked below, and a summary of our report below.Two-page summary of report: paper: report: release and video: SUMMARYOver three years, Mimi Ito and her 28-person research team interviewed over 800 youth and young adults and conducted over 5000 hours of online observations as part of the most extensive U.S. study of youth media use to date.They found that social network sites, online games, video-sharing sites, and gadgets such as iPods and mobile phones are now fixtures of youth culture. The research finds today's youth may be coming of age and struggling for autonomy and identity amid new worlds for communication, friendship, play, and self-expression.Many adults worry that children are wasting time online, texting, or playing video games. The researchers explain why youth find these activities compelling and important. The digital world is creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression.These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence.MAJOR FINDINGS- Youth use online media to extend friendships and interests. -Most youth use online networks to extend the friendships that they navigate in the familiar contexts of school, religious organizations, sports, and other local activities. They can be always "on," in constant contact with their friends through private communications like instant messaging or mobile phones, as well as in public ways through social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook. With these "friendship-driven" practices, youth are almost always associating with people they already know in their offline lives. The majority of youth use new media to "hang out" and extend existing friendships in these ways.A smaller number of youth also use the online world to explore interests and find information that goes beyond what they have access to at school or in their local community. Online groups enable youth to connect to peers who share specialized and niche interests of various kinds, whether that is online gaming, creative writing, video editing, or other artistic endeavors. In these interest-driven networks, youth may find new peers outside the boundaries of their local community. They can also find opportunities to publicize and distribute their work to online audiences, and to gain new forms of Visibility and reputation.- Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. -In both friendship-driven and interest-driven online activity, youth create and navigate new forms of expression and rules for social behavior. By exploring new interests, tinkering, and "messing around" with new forms of media, they acquire various forms of technical and media literacy. Through trial and error, youth add new media skills to their repertoire, such as how to create a video or game, or customize their MySpace page. Teens then share their creations and receive feedback from others online. By its immediacy and breadth of information, the digital world lowers barriers to self-directed learning.Some youth "geek out" and dive into a topic or talent. Contrary to popular images, geeking out is highly social and engaged, although usually not driven primarily by local friendships. Youth turn instead to specialized knowledge groups of both teens and adults from around the country or world, with the goal of improving their craft and gaining reputation among expert peers. While adults participate, they are not automatically the resident experts by virtue of their age. Geeking out in many respects erases the traditional markers of status and authority.New media allow for a degree of freedom and autonomy for youth that is less apparent in a classroom setting. Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that isoriented by set, predefined goals.IMPLICATIONSNew media forms have altered how youth socialize and learn, and raise a new set of issues that educators, parents, and policymakers should consider.-Adults should facilitate young people's engagement with digital media. Contrary to adult perceptions, while hanging out online, youth are picking up basic social and technical skills they need to fully participate in contemporary society. Erecting barriers to participation deprives teens of access to these forms of learning. Participation in the digital age means more than being able to access serious online information and culture. Youth could benefit from educators being more open to forms of experimentation and social exploration that are generally not characteristic of educational institutions.Because of the diversity of digital media, it is problematic to develop a standardized set of benchmarks against which to measure young people's technical and new media literacy. Friendship-driven and interest-driven online participation have very different kinds of social connotations. For example, whereas friendship-driven activities centers upon peer culture, adult participation is more welcomed in the latter more "geeky" forms of learning. In addition, the content, behavior, and skills that youth value are highly variable depending on what kinds of social groups they associate with.In interest-driven participation, adults have an important role to play. Youth using new media often learn from their peers, not teachers or adults. Yet adults can still have tremendous influence in setting learning goals, particularly on the interest-driven side where adult hobbyists function as role models and more experienced peers.To stay relevant in the 21st century, education institutions need to keep pace with the rapid changes introduced by digital media. Youths' participation in this networked world suggests new ways of thinking about the role of education. What, the authors ask, would it mean to really exploit the potential of the learning opportunities available through online resources and networks? What would it mean to reach beyond traditional education and civic institutions and enlist the help of others in young people's learning? Rather than assuming that education is primarily about preparing for jobs and careers, they question what it would mean to think of it as a process guiding youths' participation in public lifemore generally.
  • INC 500 companies: When asked if the use of social media has been successful for their business, theoverwhelming response is that it has. Twitter users report an 82% success rate whileevery other tool studied enjoys at least an 87% success level. Measuring success wasinvestigated and most respondents report using hits, comments, leads or sales as primaryindicators (see graph below).Fastest growing private US companiesHits, comments, leads or sales as primary ROI indicatorsIncrease in all except wikis since 2007
  • RT: many companies looking at marketing and sales through social media such as twitter and facebook. But I believe that this is only the surface as we are beginning to see some fundamental changes in the way companies create value.
  • Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • RT: the 3D internet characterized by ….(next slide)
  • Social Media and Public Transportation Associations

    1. 1. Creating value through social media <br />---------<br />Swedish Public Transportation Association Think Tank<br />Dr. Robin Teigland, aka<br />Karinda Rhode in SL<br />Associate Professor<br />Stockholm School of Economic<br /><br /><br />Photo: Lundholm, Metro <br />April 2010<br /><br />
    2. 2. Did You Know: Shift Happens<br /><br />How are these trends impacting you and your organization?<br />2<br />
    3. 3.<br />
    4. 4. Human capacity cannot keep up…<br />Information and knowledge<br />Growth<br />Human absorptive capacity<br />Time<br />Adapted from Cohen & Levinthal 1989<br />
    5. 5. ”No one knows everything, <br />everyone knows something, <br />all knowledge resides in humanity.”<br />networks<br />Adapted from Lévy 1997<br />
    6. 6. 6 degrees of separation<br /><ul><li>Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation.
    7. 7. “Small World Phenomenon” </li></ul> by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967<br />
    8. 8. The wisdom of the crowd<br />Closed<br />Expensive<br />Complex<br />Accurate<br />Open<br />Inexpensive<br />Simple<br />Close enough<br />Hinton 2007<br />
    9. 9. History tends to repeat itself….Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … <br />Microelectronics<br />Internal combustion engine<br />Steam engine<br />Third <br />industrial <br />revolution?<br />Late 18th C<br />Late 19th C<br />Late 20th C<br />Schön 2008<br />
    10. 10. A new workforce is appearing…<br />“Digital Immigrants”<br />“Digital Natives”<br />Company loyalty<br />Work ≠ Personal<br />Learning=Behind the desk<br />Professional loyalty<br />Work = Personal<br />Learning=Fun and games<br />Prensky 2001, Beck and Wade 2004, Mahaley 2008 <br />
    11. 11. Increasing number of social media<br />Adapted from<br />
    12. 12. My definition of social media<br /><ul><li>enable communication & collaboration…
    13. 13. through user-generated content….
    14. 14. from one-to-one to many-to-many people…</li></ul>- across all boundaries<br />Teigland 2010<br />
    15. 15. Organizations span the full range of use but….<br />Organizational use<br />No use <br />One-way “broadcasting”<br />Two-way<br />conversations<br />..the majority are here<br />Ban use<br />Allow use<br />Encourage use<br />Employee use<br />Teigland 2010<br />
    16. 16. Positive return on social media for INC 500 companies<br />No<br />If you use social media, has it been successful (hits, comments, leads, sales)?<br />12%<br />88%<br />Yes<br />Barnes & Mattsson 2009<br />
    17. 17. $6.5 million as of Dec 2009<br />
    18. 18. Where is valuecreated by the firm?<br />#1<br />Brand & <br />Reputation<br />Innovation<br />FIRM<br />Networks of <br />relationships<br />Kay 1993<br />
    19. 19. #1<br />Brand & <br />Reputation<br />Innovation<br />FIRM<br />Networks of <br />relationships<br />Where is valuecreated by the firm?<br />
    20. 20. Building brand/reputation throughconversations<br />
    21. 21. Developing solutions together with the public<br /> in Austin, Texas<br />
    22. 22. Using social media to make transit fun<br /><br />
    23. 23. Playing interactive games<br /><br />
    24. 24. Choose the right tool for the right purpose<br />Houston Metro<br />Twitter: immediate service issues<br />Facebook: corporate communications<br />Blogs: more detailed general information, such as explaining new route or service<br />YouTube: education and awareness <br />;col1<br />
    25. 25. IBM’s blogging policy, created by IBM employees<br />Policies based on IBM’s<br />Business Conduct Guidelines<br />Apply internally and externally<br />Available on<br />“blogging guidelines”<br />Adapted from Poole 2008<br />
    26. 26. Treat social media like any change project<br />1. Establish a sense of urgency<br />2. Form a powerful guiding coalition<br />3. Create a vision<br />4. Communicate the vision <br />5. Empower others to act on the vision<br />6. Plan for and create short-term wins<br />7. Consolidate improvements and produce more change<br />8. Anchor new approaches<br />Kotter 1996<br />
    27. 27. Monitor what is said<br />
    28. 28. Here comes the Immersive Internet<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />
    29. 29. Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority in Second Life (a virtual world)<br />
    30. 30. From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to … <br />...the “mobility” of labor?<br />
    31. 31. New demands on leadership<br />Hierarchy <br />Network<br />If you love knowledge, set it free…<br />Teigland et al. 2005<br />
    32. 32. Thanks and <br />see you in world!<br />Karinda Rhode<br />aka Robin Teigland<br /><br /><br /><br />Photo: Lindholm, Metro<br />