Leveraging Social Networks and Social
Media for Improved Performance

Dr. Robin Teigland
Stockholm School of Economics
www...
Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)

Industry Research
McKinsey

Stanford
Wharton

SSE

Research
IFL Exec
Ed

2
Today’s discussion
Background
 Organizational network analysis

 Personal network analysis

3
What most people think of when they hear
―social networks‖

4
Relationships

Image: Hinton 2007
We are all
embedded in
networks

Image: http://info.data-scout.com/blog/bid/154938/Six-Degrees-of-Separation
Six degrees of separation
- Milgram, 1967

Image: http://www.deliveringhappiness.com/on-six-degrees-of-separation/

7
A big bang in the information universe
2.7Bln

daily comments and
‖likes‖ on Facebook
500Mln

daily posts on Twitter
and W...
From six degrees to four degrees

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8906693/Facebook-cuts-six-degrees-of-sepa...
Increasing focus on network science

10
Social Network Analysis (SNA)
- well established today
 Network applications appear in most social sciences
− anthropolog...
What is a network?
Actor

•Actors/Nodes
Tie

−Individuals
−Teams, organizations
, etc.

•Ties/Links

−Knowledge, trust, te...
Social network analysis has a long history
and is based on matrix algebra and graph theory

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S...
What is distinctive about SNA?
 The phenomenon: What we study
− Social relations among entities, conceptualized as social...
Hidden influence of social networks

Happy people
In between people
Unhappy people

Christakis & Fowler, 2011

http://www....
‖No one knows everything,
everyone knows something,
all knowledge resides in networks
humanity.‖

Six degrees of
separatio...
Even organizations are in networks
Internet industry: 1998-2001

Krebs, http://www.orgnet.com/netindustry.html

17
Today’s discussion
Background
 Organizational network analysis

 Personal network analysis

18
What are they doing?
Where do individuals go for help with problems?
Non-electronic
documents

Non-electronic
Intranet documents Contacts in
ot...
Knowledge flows along
existing pathways in organizations.
If we want to understand how to
improve the flow of knowledge,
w...
Uncovering networks in an organization
Formal organization

Teigland et al. 2005

Informal organization

22
What do you notice about the informal network?

Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysis

23
Revealing the informal hierarchy
Organization chart shows
how authority ties should
look…
… but digraph of actual
advice-s...
Myths about networks
 I already know what is going on in my network
 We can’t do much to help informal networks
 To bui...
Why are more social get-togethers and
coffee breaks not the solution?

26
Myths and reality checks
 I already know what is going on in my network
 Those who think they know their network the
bes...
Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)
Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, and
visualizing data about patterns of...
What positions are important
in Organizational Network
Analysis (ONA)?

29
―Central connectors‖ within one location
Stockholm
Surprise!!

Teigland 1998

Bottleneck 

30
With which colleagues do you discuss everyday technical
issues/work-related problems at least once a week?

Red=Male
Blue=...
With which colleagues do you discuss exciting new
ideas and better ways of getting things done?
Red=Male
Blue=Female

Sche...
Individuals within a firm

Time at firm
< 1 yr
1-5 yrs
5-10 yrs
10-15 yrs
> 15 yrs
Mattsson 2004

33
‖Birds of a feather flock together‖
―Lika barn leka bäst‖
People find similar people attractive and develop
relations with...
―Information brokers‖ between locations
Brussels

Transferred from
Stockholm
San Francisco

Stockholm

Helsinki

Teigland ...
Proximal collaboration

When people are more than 50
feet apart, the likelihood of them
collaborating more than once a
wee...
―Peripheral specialists‖ between organizations
Electronic
communities
Stockholm

Brussels

San Francisco

London

Other
fi...
Where does much of innovation start?
New ideas flow
from outside
into organization
through informal
networks

What happens...
Individual network positions

Anklam 2009

39
What structures are important
in Organizational Network
Analysis (ONA)?

40
Complete network structure
 Core/Periphery structure

− Network consists of single group
(core) with hangers-on (peripher...
What is the relationship
between networks and
performance?

42
Two individuals with the same number of
contacts…

A

B

43
…but with very different access to resources

A

B

44
Performance differs based on one’s network
Firm B
High
on-time

Low
creative

Firm A

Virtual
community

High
creative
Hig...
When you hire someone,…

…..you “hire” his or her network.
46
Network structure affects performance
Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)
Division 1

Division 2

Stagnant perf...
Knowledge sharing across client teams

48
Knowledge sharing across client teams

49
Significantly improved performance
U.K.

UK

ONA Actions

Angola

Angola
Nigeria

•Identify overly connected people
Brazil...
Comparing performance across firms

Teigland et al 2000

51
Hewlett-Packard
 Networking activities recognized and rewarded at
individual and unit levels
 Management support for inf...
“Managing” networks in your organization
Before

After

1. Uncover networks
2. Analyze networks
3. Improve connectedness
C...
Why are more social get-togethers and
coffee breaks not the solution?

54
Informal networks in your organization
 Reflect on your organization.
− What informal network would you like to learn mor...
Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)
Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, and
visualizing data about patterns of...
http://nodexl.codeplex.com/

57
Some questions to ask
 Communication: How often do you talk with the
following people regarding (topic x)?
 Information:...
Conduct your own ONA
1. Uncover strategically important networks
− Collaboration generally poor across functional,
physica...
Analyze and visualize data

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18

60
Myths and reality checks
 I already know what is going on in my network
 Those who think they know their network the
bes...
Today’s discussion
Background
 Organizational network analysis

 Personal network analysis

62
So, what does this mean for you?
 An actor’s position in a social network, i.e.,
social capital, determines in part the a...
Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages

•More rapid promotions
•Greater career mobility
•Higher salaries
•More adap...
Develop three forms of networking
Operational

Personal

Strategic

Purpose

Getting work done
efficiently

Enhancing pers...
Build relationships with people
at all hierarchical levels
Higher: Help with making
decisions, acquiring
resources, develo...
―Think about it: everybody you know,
everyone you meet, also know about 250
people. So every time you cultivate a
relation...
Build relationships before you need them
Outside
organization

Inside
organization
Stronger
ties

Weaker
ties

68
Avoid creating insular networks

http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#

69
Leverage social media to build your networks

70
What benefits can you achieve
through using social media?
- Innovation
- Learning
- Relationships
- Leads
- Other?

71
72
73
74
Why do people use twitter?
 What’s happening now?
− News, events, trending topics

 What do you think?
− Ability to get ...
Get started with Twitter

Getting Started with Twitter
Robin Teigland
www.knowledgenetworking.org
@robinteigland

Step 1: ...
Twitter exercise
 How could you use Twitter?
 How could Twitter help you professionally?
 How could you use Twitter to ...
Some tools to build your network

78
Tools to uncover your networks

 Facebook
− TouchGraph Facebook Browser


http://www.touchgraph.com/facebook

 LinkedIn...
Analyze your networks

http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/network
Facebook network via TouchGraph

http://www.touchgraph.com/facebook

81
Track your influence

www.klout.com
Exercise
 Social network development
− What is your personal strategic objective for next 1-2 years?
− What resources do ...
Today’s discussion
Background
 Organizational network analysis

 Personal network analysis

84
If you love
knowledge, set it free…

Karinda Rhode
aka Robin Teigland
robin.teigland@hhs.se
www.knowledgenetworking.org
ww...
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Leveraging Social Networks and Social Media for Improved Performance Teigland

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My presentation on social networks and social media with an updated section on social media and twitter that I use when I lecture for executives.

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  • Image:http://socialnewsdaily.com/14097/social-media-the-new-face-of-disaster-response-infographic/
  • http://www.deliveringhappiness.com/on-six-degrees-of-separation/
  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8906693/Facebook-cuts-six-degrees-of-separation-to-four.html
  • Seeing natural systems as networksMolecules: network of kinds of atomsBrains: neural networksOrganisms: network of specialized cellsOrganizations: networks of jobs/individualsEconomies: networks of organizationsEcologies: networks of organismsTelephone, roads, internet, etc...
  • Fowler: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkmsjFisW_AMin 10 start and then to 15.4446% of variation in how many friends you have is explained by your genes – some born shy and some gregarious.47% of variation in whether your friends know each other has to do with your genes. So do people knit networks of those around them or not….30% of variation in whether in middle or on edge of network has to do with your genes.
  • Each node in the network represents a company that competes in the Internet industry. Two companies are connected with a grey line if they have announced a joint venture, strategic alliance or other partnership. This map shows a subset of the total internet industry -- 250 companies -- during the period from 1998 to 2001. Many companies have a few partnerships, a few companies have many. The industry is dominated by several &apos;hubs&apos; -- companies with bridging ties that connect the unconnected. Prior to 2002, the best positioned companies in this network of partnerships were: Microsoft, AOL-TimeWarner and IBM. These industry visualizations demonstrate the forces that organizations exhibit upon each other in complex, interconnected economic systems. The data is gathered from various public sources and includes only data on business partnerships such as strategic alliances and joint ventures.We can also measure the map and determine which nodes are well positioned. A well-positioned company will be able to learn about, adapt to, and influence what is happening in the industry. These measures illuminate the competitive advantage of &apos;being in the right place&apos; in the network of information, knowledge, and resource exchanges. In a networked economy, the player with better connections to diverse knowledge and resources has a great advantage.A well connected node... hears about, and understands, what is happening in the network before others do influences others through direct and indirect ties acts a broker of key information and knowledge between various parts of the network combines information and knowedge gathered from various parts of the network to develop innovative products and services More musings on complex organizational systems are available in my article in the Feb. &apos;96 issue of Esther Dyson&apos;s industry publication, Release 1.0.Also, check out the interactive network -- need Java 1.1 enabled browser -- try the right-click options on any node/company. Beware! People have been known to waste their whole lunch hour playing with this interactive maplet.
  • Photo source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/philliecasablanca/3344142642/
  • First, the ONA identified mid-level managers that were critical in terms of information flow within the group. A particular surprise came from the very central role that Cole played in terms of both overall information flow within the group and being the only point of contact between members of the production division and the rest of the network. If he were hired away, the efficiency of this group as a whole would be significantly impacted as people in the informal network re-established important informational relationships. Simply categorizing various informational requests that Cole received and then allocating ownership of these informational or decision domains to other executives served to both unburden Cole and make the overall network more responsive and robust. Second, the ONA helped to identify highly peripheral people that essentially represented untapped expertise and underutilized resources for the group. In particular, it became apparent that many of the senior people had become too removed from the day-to-day operations of this group. For example, the most senior person (Jones) was one of the most peripheral in the informal network. This is a common finding. As people move higher within an organization their work begins to entail more administrative tasks that makes them both less accessible and less knowledgeable about the day-to-day work of their subordinates. However, in this case our debrief session indicated that Jones had become too removed and his lack of responsiveness frequently held the entire network back when important decisions needed to be made.Third, the ONA also demonstrated the extent to which the production division (the sub-group on the top of the diagram) had become separated from the overall network. Several months prior to this analysis these people had been physically moved to a different floor in the building. Upon reviewing the network diagram, many of the executives realized that this physical separation had resulted in loss of a lot of the serendipitous meetings that occurred when they were co-located. Structured meetings were set up to help avoid operational problems the group had been experiencing due to this loss of communication between production and the rest of the network.
  • Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a diagnostic method for collecting and analyzing data about the patterns of relationships among people in groups. SNA provides a view into the network of relationships that gives knowledge managers leverage to:Improv e the flow of knowledge, information and Innovation; Build social capitalAcknowledge the thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks); Target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have the most impact on your bottom line. Establishes a learning organization /communityIn addition to that, SNA present the advantages of:Providing both a visual and mathematical analysisUsing community inputsBeing replicable
  • Image from Anklam, 2009
  • Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a diagnostic method for collecting and analyzing data about the patterns of relationships among people in groups. SNA provides a view into the network of relationships that gives knowledge managers leverage to:Improv e the flow of knowledge, information and Innovation; Build social capitalAcknowledge the thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks); Target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have the most impact on your bottom line. Establishes a learning organization /communityIn addition to that, SNA present the advantages of:Providing both a visual and mathematical analysisUsing community inputsBeing replicable
  • Cross, Intro to ONAIdentify a strategically important group.The first step is to identify a group within the organization where investments made to improve collaboration have the potential to yield a significant payback either strategically or operationally. We typically look for groups crossing functional, physical, hierarchical and organizational lines because networks often fragment at these junctures. 2. Assess meaningful and actionable relationships.The second step is to identify relationships that will meaningfully reveal a group&apos;s effectiveness as well as be actionable for managers once results are disclosed. Most companies are keenly interested in work-related collaboration. As a result, we almost always map information flow. We can also look at relationships that reveal the information sharing potential of a network, decision-making or power relations, or those that reveal well-being and supportiveness in a network such as friendship or trust networks. Organizational network information can be obtained in a variety of ways, from tracking e-mails to observing people over time. Often the most efficient means is to administer a 10-20 minute survey designed to assess relationships within and outside of a group. 3. Visually and quantitatively analyze results.Once the data have been collected, it can be analyzed using a network software package. There are a variety of different packages available, some of which combine drawing functionality with quantitative analysis and some of which specialize in one or the other. For more information on visual assessment see the interpreting a network diagram section. 4. Create meaningful feedback sessions.We typically conduct feedback sessions in two phases. In the first half of the workshop, we present an overview of network analysis to orient the participants, and then provide a summary presentation highlighting important points from the analysis of the specific group. The second half of the workshop consists of breakout sessions with smaller groups that brainstorm ways to promote appropriate connectivity and ensure that organizational design, culture and leadership will not push the network back to ineffective patterns. These subgroups then debrief the larger group, and ideas are catalogued for action planning. In this process, it is always important to focus on what can be done to improve the effectiveness of the group. Rather than questioning why someone or some department is peripheral or central, it is more constructive to focus on how the organization can overcome unproductive patterns. 5. Assess progress and effectiveness.Conducting an organizational analysis of a group indicates the level of connectivity only at a specific point in time. Repeating this process after six to nine months can reveal whether appropriate change has occurred in the network. It is also a good idea to track objective measures of performance over time.
  • http://www.ux-sa.com/2007/09/structural-holes-and-online-social.htmlBut avoid becoming a bottleneck!
  • Image: http://marketingmotivator.net/body-language-intelligence-women-leaders/
  • Kenneth Lay delegated responsibility to those in his old boys network – failed to listen to someone outside the club – Sherron Watkins.
  • Image:http://socialnewsdaily.com/14097/social-media-the-new-face-of-disaster-response-infographic/
  • Communication, improved brand image, more transparency, improved company morale, better leadership
  • http://www.brandfog.com/CEOSocialMediaSurvey/BRANDfog_2012_CEO_Survey.pdfhttp://www.sociagility.com/ftse100/http://www.slideshare.net/Debask/developing-your-social-media-voice-and-online-leadershiphttp://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/3503218/Wave6/Wave%206%20from%20UM/index.html
  • http://mashable.com/2013/01/02/world-leaders-twitter/
  • http://www.fieldstonealliance.org/client/tools_you_can_use/08-05-09_social_capital.cfm#tableMapping your social capitalThe social capital mapping exercise that follows is designed to be done either by an individual (Option A) or by a group (Option B). Either option will help you create a “map” of your connections and networks—a table listing who you know, the type of tie you have to the person or network (strong tie or weak tie), and the resources that each person or network can access. Option A: Individual exerciseUse this exercise to map your social capital in general, or to analyze your social capital with key stakeholders or potential partners for a specific community project.Step 1. List the relevant groups and organizationsUse the following table for this step. In the first column (Group or Organization), list the groups and organizations with which you are linked. For example, you might be a member, serve on staff, or participate as a board member or volunteer. You might also do business with some of these groups or have a personal connection with their leadership.If you are doing the exercise to map your general social capital as a nonprofit or community leader, be selective about the organizations that you list. Focus on those that play some sort of community role.If you are doing this exercise to map your social capital for a particular initiative, list the groups or organizations that are most relevant to it. Include organizations inside and outside your community.Step 2. Determine the strength of the tiesIn column two, indicate groups with an S or a W:S = Strong ties = higher levels of trust, reciprocity, and durabilityW = Weak ties = lower levels of trust, reciprocity, and durabilityStep 3. Determine the resources representedIn the Resources column, write down the resources that each group represents. Resources include money, information, votes, volunteers, and access to other groups and networks.Step 4. Analyze the mapWhen your map is finished, analyze it by answering these questions:What resources do your strong ties give you access to?What resources do your weak ties give you access to?Are there ties you want to strengthen? If so, how will you strengthen them?Are there relevant groups with which you lack social capital (that is, they do not appear on your map)? How will you access the resources of these groups?How can you leverage your ties to have access to more groups, organizations, and resources?Step 5. Set next stepsAfter you&apos;ve finished the analysis, identify how and when to use the results. Determine what actions you will take in response to the questions in the Analysis— especially how you will strengthen ties, build new ties, and leverage existing ties to increase social capital.Group or Organization Strength of Tie Resources                  
  • Leveraging Social Networks and Social Media for Improved Performance Teigland

    1. 1. Leveraging Social Networks and Social Media for Improved Performance Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland RobinTeigland Dec 2013 www.hhs.se
    2. 2. Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps) Industry Research McKinsey Stanford Wharton SSE Research IFL Exec Ed 2
    3. 3. Today’s discussion Background  Organizational network analysis  Personal network analysis 3
    4. 4. What most people think of when they hear ―social networks‖ 4
    5. 5. Relationships Image: Hinton 2007
    6. 6. We are all embedded in networks Image: http://info.data-scout.com/blog/bid/154938/Six-Degrees-of-Separation
    7. 7. Six degrees of separation - Milgram, 1967 Image: http://www.deliveringhappiness.com/on-six-degrees-of-separation/ 7
    8. 8. A big bang in the information universe 2.7Bln daily comments and ‖likes‖ on Facebook 500Mln daily posts on Twitter and Weibo combined 200k videos uploaded to YouTube daily Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet, Tomas Larsson, 2012
    9. 9. From six degrees to four degrees http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8906693/Facebook-cuts-six-degrees-of-separation-to-four.html 9
    10. 10. Increasing focus on network science 10
    11. 11. Social Network Analysis (SNA) - well established today  Network applications appear in most social sciences − anthropology, management, public health, sociology, economics  Studies span levels from individual to greater society • personal social & health support systems • children’s play groups, high school cliques • neighboring behavior, community participation • work teams, voluntary associations, social movements • military combat platoons, terrorist cells • corporate strategic alliances, board interlocks • international relations: trade, aid, war & peace Borgatti 11
    12. 12. What is a network? Actor •Actors/Nodes Tie −Individuals −Teams, organizations , etc. •Ties/Links −Knowledge, trust, tea m, sit by, dislike, etc. −Alliance, customer, inv estment, etc. A set of actors connected by ties 12
    13. 13. Social network analysis has a long history and is based on matrix algebra and graph theory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network 13
    14. 14. What is distinctive about SNA?  The phenomenon: What we study − Social relations among entities, conceptualized as social network  The methodology: How we study it − Units of observation (cases) are dyads, not individual actors − Variables are relations, not actor attributes − Dyadic, autocorrelated data require different statistical methods  The theory: How we understand it − Model groups as networks − Theoretical constructs such as centrality, structural equivalence, etc. − No single theory of everything but common perspective Borgatti 14
    15. 15. Hidden influence of social networks Happy people In between people Unhappy people Christakis & Fowler, 2011 http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/nicholas_christakis_the_hidden_influence_of_social_networks.html 15
    16. 16. ‖No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in networks humanity.‖ Six degrees of separation - Milgram, 1967 Image: Krebs Adapted from Lévy 1997
    17. 17. Even organizations are in networks Internet industry: 1998-2001 Krebs, http://www.orgnet.com/netindustry.html 17
    18. 18. Today’s discussion Background  Organizational network analysis  Personal network analysis 18
    19. 19. What are they doing?
    20. 20. Where do individuals go for help with problems? Non-electronic documents Non-electronic Intranet documents Contacts in other offices Internet Internal electronic networks External electronic networks Teigland 2003 Other contacts ?? Co-located colleagues 20
    21. 21. Knowledge flows along existing pathways in organizations. If we want to understand how to improve the flow of knowledge, we need to understand those pathways. Larry Prusak, Founder Institute for Knowledge Management
    22. 22. Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 Informal organization 22
    23. 23. What do you notice about the informal network? Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysis 23
    24. 24. Revealing the informal hierarchy Organization chart shows how authority ties should look… … but digraph of actual advice-seeking … … can be restructured to reveal “real” hierarchy! Brandes, Raab and Wagner (2001) Knoke 24
    25. 25. Myths about networks  I already know what is going on in my network  We can’t do much to help informal networks  To build networks, you have to communicate more Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 25
    26. 26. Why are more social get-togethers and coffee breaks not the solution? 26
    27. 27. Myths and reality checks  I already know what is going on in my network  Those who think they know their network the best are usually the ones who know the least  We can’t do much to help informal networks  Informal networks can be ―managed‖ through changing the organizational context  To build networks, you have to communicate more  Networks can be strategically developed Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 27
    28. 28. Organizational Network Analysis (ONA) Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, and visualizing data about patterns of relationships among people in groups. Provides view into network of relationships that enables leaders to… • improve flows of knowledge, information and innovation • build social capital • acknowledge thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks) • target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have most impact on bottom line • establish a learning organization /community Modified from Valente 28
    29. 29. What positions are important in Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)? 29
    30. 30. ―Central connectors‖ within one location Stockholm Surprise!! Teigland 1998 Bottleneck  30
    31. 31. With which colleagues do you discuss everyday technical issues/work-related problems at least once a week? Red=Male Blue=Female =Left org Schenkel & Teigland 2011 31
    32. 32. With which colleagues do you discuss exciting new ideas and better ways of getting things done? Red=Male Blue=Female Schenkel & Teigland 2011 =Left org 32
    33. 33. Individuals within a firm Time at firm < 1 yr 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs > 15 yrs Mattsson 2004 33
    34. 34. ‖Birds of a feather flock together‖ ―Lika barn leka bäst‖ People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves Our networks tend to be homogeneous and not heterogeneous Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 34
    35. 35. ―Information brokers‖ between locations Brussels Transferred from Stockholm San Francisco Stockholm Helsinki Teigland 1998 Copenhagen London Madrid 35
    36. 36. Proximal collaboration When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. - Allen 1984 36
    37. 37. ―Peripheral specialists‖ between organizations Electronic communities Stockholm Brussels San Francisco London Other firms Teigland 1998 Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen 37
    38. 38. Where does much of innovation start? New ideas flow from outside into organization through informal networks What happens to them after entering the organization? Whelan & Teigland 2010 38
    39. 39. Individual network positions Anklam 2009 39
    40. 40. What structures are important in Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)? 40
    41. 41. Complete network structure  Core/Periphery structure − Network consists of single group (core) with hangers-on (periphery) − Core connects to all − Periphery connects only to core − Short distances, good for transmitting information − Identification with group as whole  Clique structure − Multiple subgroups of factions − Identity with subgroup − Diversity of norms, belief Borgatti 41
    42. 42. What is the relationship between networks and performance? 42
    43. 43. Two individuals with the same number of contacts… A B 43
    44. 44. …but with very different access to resources A B 44
    45. 45. Performance differs based on one’s network Firm B High on-time Low creative Firm A Virtual community High creative High Low on-time Creative Teigland 2003 45
    46. 46. When you hire someone,… …..you “hire” his or her network. 46
    47. 47. Network structure affects performance Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Division 1 Division 2 Stagnant performance over time Improved efficiency over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008 47
    48. 48. Knowledge sharing across client teams 48
    49. 49. Knowledge sharing across client teams 49
    50. 50. Significantly improved performance U.K. UK ONA Actions Angola Angola Nigeria •Identify overly connected people Brazil Brazil Nigeria •Bridge invisible network silos •Create awareness of distributed expertise Canada Canada Saudi Arabia U.S. Saudi Arabia Nigeria U.S. Gulf of Mexico •Bring in peripheral players ONA Results UK Canada •24% rise in customer satisfaction •66% reduced cost of poor quality •22% increase in new product revenue Brazil Saudi Arabia Gulf of Mexico Angola Cross 2010 •10% improved operational productivity
    51. 51. Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000 51
    52. 52. Hewlett-Packard  Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels  Management support for informal and formal networking activities across internal and external boundaries  Best practice task group  Personal initiatives  Extensive socialization: personnel rotation, crossoffice teams, “open” office layout  A visionary organization − Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity” − Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness − Company-wide goal of World’s Best Laboratory Teigland et al 2000 52
    53. 53. “Managing” networks in your organization Before After 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness Cross; Anklam & Welch 2005 53
    54. 54. Why are more social get-togethers and coffee breaks not the solution? 54
    55. 55. Informal networks in your organization  Reflect on your organization. − What informal network would you like to learn more about?  What do you think this informal network looks like? − Who are the key players: central connectors, information brokers, peripheral players? − What does the overarching network structure look like: core/periphery, cliques, silos, isolates?  What do you think needs to be done to improve performance, e.g., knowledge flows? − How would you like to do this? 55
    56. 56. Organizational Network Analysis (ONA) Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, and visualizing data about patterns of relationships among people in groups. Provides view into network of relationships that enables leaders to… • improve flows of knowledge, information and innovation • build social capital • acknowledge thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks) • target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have most impact on bottom line • establish a learning organization /community Modified from Valente 56
    57. 57. http://nodexl.codeplex.com/ 57
    58. 58. Some questions to ask  Communication: How often do you talk with the following people regarding (topic x)?  Information: Who do you typically seek workrelated information from?  Problem-solving: Who do you typically turn to for help in thinking through a new or challenging problem?  Knowing: How well do you understand this person’s knowledge and skills?  Access: Who is generally accessible to you within a sufficient amount of time to help solve a problem? Cross et al 2002 58
    59. 59. Conduct your own ONA 1. Uncover strategically important networks − Collaboration generally poor across functional, physical, hierarchical, and organizational lines − Meaningful, actionable relationships, e.g., information flow, knowledge sharing, trust, decision-making 2. Collect and analyze data − E.g., email, survey, interview, observation − Visually map data 3. Improve connectedness − Create meaningful feedback sessions Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysis 59
    60. 60. Analyze and visualize data http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18 60
    61. 61. Myths and reality checks  I already know what is going on in my network  Those who think they know their network the best are usually the ones who know the least  We can’t do much to help informal networks  Informal networks can be ―managed‖ through changing the organizational context  To build networks, you have to communicate more  Networks can be strategically developed Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 61
    62. 62. Today’s discussion Background  Organizational network analysis  Personal network analysis 62
    63. 63. So, what does this mean for you?  An actor’s position in a social network, i.e., social capital, determines in part the actor’s opportunities and constraints German biotech scientists Casper & Murray 2002 63
    64. 64. Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages •More rapid promotions •Greater career mobility •Higher salaries •More adaptable to changing environments Brass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi 64
    65. 65. Develop three forms of networking Operational Personal Strategic Purpose Getting work done efficiently Enhancing personal Developing and and professional achieving future development priorities Members Mostly internal contacts and focused on current demands Mostly external contacts and focused on current and future interests Both internal and external contacts and focused on future Network attributes Depth through building strong working relationships Breadth through reaching out to contacts who can refer you to others Leverage through creating insideoutside links Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007 65
    66. 66. Build relationships with people at all hierarchical levels Higher: Help with making decisions, acquiring resources, developing political awareness, explaining organizational activities beyond local setting Equal: Help brainstorm and provide specific help, support, and needed information Lower: Provide best sources of technical information and expertise Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006 66
    67. 67. ―Think about it: everybody you know, everyone you meet, also know about 250 people. So every time you cultivate a relationship with one new person, you have actually expanded your personal inventory by 250 people – every single time.‖ — Bob Burg, Author and Speaker 67
    68. 68. Build relationships before you need them Outside organization Inside organization Stronger ties Weaker ties 68
    69. 69. Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185# 69
    70. 70. Leverage social media to build your networks 70
    71. 71. What benefits can you achieve through using social media? - Innovation - Learning - Relationships - Leads - Other? 71
    72. 72. 72
    73. 73. 73
    74. 74. 74
    75. 75. Why do people use twitter?  What’s happening now? − News, events, trending topics  What do you think? − Ability to get immediate response  Who else is interested in this? − Ability to reach a broader community − Ability to learn about topic  To take a break − Chat informally about serious and less serious topics 75
    76. 76. Get started with Twitter Getting Started with Twitter Robin Teigland www.knowledgenetworking.org @robinteigland Step 1: Create a Twitter account. 1. Go to http://twitter.com. Step 2: Create your twitter profile. 1. Click on Settings & edit your profile (make sure to add a photo). 2. View the results on “View my profile page” (http://twitter.com/yourusername). Step 3: Send a tweet. 1. Go to “Compose new Tweet” and type what you are doing / thinking, etc. and click enter - 140 character max! Step 4: Find some people or accounts to follow. 1. Use #Discover (at the top of your Twitter homepage) or simply type a name into search box at top of screen (e.g., robin teigland). Click on Follow. 2. Some people you might want to follow: a. People in your local community whom you see at professional or personal events b. Customers (and potential customers) c. Competitors d. Peers and people in your industry e. Service providers for your business f. People who inspire you personally or professionally g. Gurus in a field of interest Click on the document to the left to see some basic steps to get started with Twitter Step 5: Interact with others who are tweeting. 1. Favorite a tweet. 2. Retweet a tweet. 3. Reply to a tweet. Step 6: Send a tweet. 1. Compose a tweet and include a link to an interesting website, article, etc. 2. Include a hashtag for your topic, eg #crowdfunding. 76
    77. 77. Twitter exercise  How could you use Twitter?  How could Twitter help you professionally?  How could you use Twitter to build social networks in your organization?  How will you use Twitter this next week? 77
    78. 78. Some tools to build your network 78
    79. 79. Tools to uncover your networks  Facebook − TouchGraph Facebook Browser  http://www.touchgraph.com/facebook  LinkedIn − http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/  Klout − http://klout.com/#/dashboard 79
    80. 80. Analyze your networks http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/network
    81. 81. Facebook network via TouchGraph http://www.touchgraph.com/facebook 81
    82. 82. Track your influence www.klout.com
    83. 83. Exercise  Social network development − What is your personal strategic objective for next 1-2 years? − What resources do you need to fulfill this objective? − What resources do your network ties give you access to? − What network ties do you need to strengthen? − How can you help one another make new connections? − How could you use social media to help you develop your strategic networks? Resource Network tie Strength Action
    84. 84. Today’s discussion Background  Organizational network analysis  Personal network analysis 84
    85. 85. If you love knowledge, set it free… Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland robin.teigland@hhs.se www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland www.nordicworlds.net RobinTeigland Photo: Lindholm, Metro Photo: Nordenskiöld Photo: Lindqvist

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