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Leveraging social networks and social media for improved performance
 

Leveraging social networks and social media for improved performance

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An updated version of my previous leveraging networks and social media ppts. I have included some new slides on social media in the latter half of the presentation.

An updated version of my previous leveraging networks and social media ppts. I have included some new slides on social media in the latter half of the presentation.

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  • Fischbowl 2007 ”Did you know? 3000 new books published daily One week’s issues of New York Times is more information than a person had access to during lifetime in 18th century. The amount of new information produced in number of bytes this year is more than was produced in the past 5000 years
  • The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years. It’s predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010.
  • While we have always had networks, what has changed dramatically is that now with social media we have the ability to easily and quickly reach out to individuals across the globe whom we have never met before. And another significant change is that previously while we had one to one two-way communication, this did not enable group communication, and while we also had one to many communication, this did not enable two way communication, but now with social media we can have many to many conversations. So for me the definition of social media are online communication channels that enable many to many interactions and conversations. And as no surprise the most active users of social media are younger people, those who have become skilled at using computers and the internet for all kinds of purposes – to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn. An extensive study that was just completed by one of the gurus in this area, danah boyd, found that the digital world really is changing the way that young adults and youths socialize and learn. These younger generations are using these new media to explore their own interests and experiment with self-expression – while at the same time they are developing both technical skills and a new form of social skills – solving complex problems online in virtual teams. As a result, these individuals are not only used to but expect more freedom and autonomy in their problem-solving activities at work enable communication & collaboration … through user-generated content …. from one-to-one to many-to-many people … - across all boundaries (Next slide) Other notes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. Extending friendships online while some developing shared interest communities. Change way that youth socialize and learn - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. – Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. Increased degree of freedom and autonomy Not just receivers of knowledge but creators of knowledge as well danah boyd study We are happy to announce the online release of the findings from our three-year Digital Youth project (http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu ). All of the researchers who have worked on this project will be writing up individual publications, but this report represents a synthesis of the findings across the 22 different case studies. It has been over three years in the making, and is the result of a truly collaborative effort with 28 researchers and research collaborators. This project is part of the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning initiative. http://digitallearning.macfound.org. You can find all the details in the documents linked below, and a summary of our report below. Two-page summary of report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-TwoPageSummary.pdf White paper: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-WhitePaper.pdf Full report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/report Press release and video: http://digitallearning.macfound.org/ethnography -------- RESEARCH SUMMARY Over three years, Mimi Ito and her 28-person research team interviewed over 800 youth and young adults and conducted over 5000 hours of online observations as part of the most extensive U.S. study of youth media use to date. They found that social network sites, online games, video-sharing sites, and gadgets such as iPods and mobile phones are now fixtures of youth culture. The research finds today's youth may be coming of age and struggling for autonomy and identity amid new worlds for communication, friendship, play, and self-expression. Many adults worry that children are wasting time online, texting, or playing video games. The researchers explain why youth find these activities compelling and important. The digital world is creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. MAJOR FINDINGS - Youth use online media to extend friendships and interests. - Most youth use online networks to extend the friendships that they navigate in the familiar contexts of school, religious organizations, sports, and other local activities. They can be always "on," in constant contact with their friends through private communications like instant messaging or mobile phones, as well as in public ways through social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook. With these "friendship-driven" practices, youth are almost always associating with people they already know in their offline lives. The majority of youth use new media to "hang out" and extend existing friendships in these ways. A smaller number of youth also use the online world to explore interests and find information that goes beyond what they have access to at school or in their local community. Online groups enable youth to connect to peers who share specialized and niche interests of various kinds, whether that is online gaming, creative writing, video editing, or other artistic endeavors. In these interest-driven networks, youth may find new peers outside the boundaries of their local community. They can also find opportunities to publicize and distribute their work to online audiences, and to gain new forms of Visibility and reputation. - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. - In both friendship-driven and interest-driven online activity, youth create and navigate new forms of expression and rules for social behavior. By exploring new interests, tinkering, and "messing around" with new forms of media, they acquire various forms of technical and media literacy. Through trial and error, youth add new media skills to their repertoire, such as how to create a video or game, or customize their MySpace page. Teens then share their creations and receive feedback from others online. By its immediacy and breadth of information, the digital world lowers barriers to self-directed learning. Some youth "geek out" and dive into a topic or talent. Contrary to popular images, geeking out is highly social and engaged, although usually not driven primarily by local friendships. Youth turn instead to specialized knowledge groups of both teens and adults from around the country or world, with the goal of improving their craft and gaining reputation among expert peers. While adults participate, they are not automatically the resident experts by virtue of their age. Geeking out in many respects erases the traditional markers of status and authority. New media allow for a degree of freedom and autonomy for youth that is less apparent in a classroom setting. Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. IMPLICATIONS New media forms have altered how youth socialize and learn, and raise a new set of issues that educators, parents, and policymakers should consider. -Adults should facilitate young people's engagement with digital media. Contrary to adult perceptions, while hanging out online, youth are picking up basic social and technical skills they need to fully participate in contemporary society. Erecting barriers to participation deprives teens of access to these forms of learning. Participation in the digital age means more than being able to access serious online information and culture. Youth could benefit from educators being more open to forms of experimentation and social exploration that are generally not characteristic of educational institutions. Because of the diversity of digital media, it is problematic to develop a standardized set of benchmarks against which to measure young people's technical and new media literacy. Friendship-driven and interest-driven online participation have very different kinds of social connotations. For example, whereas friendship-driven activities centers upon peer culture, adult participation is more welcomed in the latter more "geeky" forms of learning. In addition, the content, behavior, and skills that youth value are highly variable depending on what kinds of social groups they associate with. In interest-driven participation, adults have an important role to play. Youth using new media often learn from their peers, not teachers or adults. Yet adults can still have tremendous influence in setting learning goals, particularly on the interest-driven side where adult hobbyists function as role models and more experienced peers. To stay relevant in the 21st century, education institutions need to keep pace with the rapid changes introduced by digital media. Youths' participation in this networked world suggests new ways of thinking about the role of education. What, the authors ask, would it mean to really exploit the potential of the learning opportunities available through online resources and networks? What would it mean to reach beyond traditional education and civic institutions and enlist the help of others in young people's learning? Rather than assuming that education is primarily about preparing for jobs and careers, they question what it would mean to think of it as a process guiding youths' participation in public life more generally.
  • RT: One of the major results of the internet is that the growth of information and knowledge now exceeds human capacity to absorb this..and while research shows that the part of our brain that deals with processing signals from the environment has indeed grown and is now larger in the younger generation, we are still unable to keep up. So how do we handle this? (Next slide) Cohen, WM och Levinthal, D A, Absorptive Capacity: A new Perspective on Learning and Innovation, Working paper, Carnegie Mellon University and University of Pennsylvania, October 1989
  • RT: Here is a quotation from Pierre Levy, a researcher who studies collective intelligence, or …. He says, ”No one knows……”, but I have adapted this to be that “all knowledge resides in networks”. What good is knowledge if you cannot access it? Knowledge is created and transferred through networks. How many of you have heard of six degrees of separation? (raise hands)…this means that we are collected to all other human beings on the face of the planet through six links, where a link is from me to person x in audience. Thus, each of us actually has access to all knowledge and resources that exist. (Next slide) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk&feature=PlayList&p=079F3CFE9701D083&index=0 Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace , 1997 My example of how this presentation was made. Asked a question on Socnet and received many good answers with people’s presentations and links to interesting sources
  • Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. “ Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967 Back ground Example who ever you take that average is six step
  • Ency picture from www.versandantiquariat-schmitz.de/Lexika-Brit... http://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/architectures-for-conversation-ii-what-communities-of-practice-can-mean-for-information-architecture-5733.pdf An essential difference between britannica and wikipedia is >>britannica is a one-way medium, handed down from authorities, >> While wikipedia is conversational. It fulfills more of what human beings want in their daily life. That’s not to say that wikipedia is better than britannica, or that the old way is evil or irrelevant. It’s just to say that technology has tapped into a latent need people have to be part of conversations.
  • GoldCorp ... a mining company, 50 years old. Geologists couldn't tell him where the gold was. The CEO was ready to shut down the company. Heard about Linux ... and embraced the principles. Took his geological data, published it on the Internet, and held a contest on the Internet called the "GoldCorp Challenge". Offered $500K for those who could find the gold. Found $3.4 billion of gold. Value jumped from $90 million to $10 billion. Wikipedia…The Canadian gold mining group Goldcorp made 400 megabytes of geological survey data on its Red Lake, Ontario property available to the public over the internet. They offered a $575,000 prize to anyone who could analyse the data and suggest places where gold could be found. The company claims that the contest produced 110 targets, over 80% of which proved productive; yielding 8 million ounces of gold, worth more than $3 billion.
  • RT: Well, let’s put this into perspective. I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are coming out of now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18 th and 19 th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18 th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19 th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s. Draw on board about value-added. Why does it take 40 years? And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking. (Next slide) Other notes Notes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in History A crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to come Transformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocation Rationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of production Shifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as well International crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s 1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways 1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumption Waves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and services It is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts! When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machinery Reallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisis Development of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changes Diffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
  • Fades into center screen Speaker notes: And that is exactly what we are seeing now. Here on this chart you can see the distribution of the population (US figures). On the right of the red line are the “digital immigrants” or those who did not grow up with digital technology such as the computer and the internet, while on the left of the red line we see the “digital natives” or those who have grown up with the internet always there. I would just like to say that I am not wild about this categorization, especially since I belong to the baby boomers but I see myself more of a digital native – I used to visit the university computer center with my father in the early 1970s, but I think that it works as a generalization to help explain the changes we are seeing. The interesting thing is that this new generation of workers is huge and is even larger than the babyboomers and in fact in the US, 56 mln are old enough to be employees with 7 million already managers. Those that are 38 and younger are the gamers and those that are 28 years and younger are the net-generation and we now have a new generation that is entering the workforce that has grown up with mobile phones. These generations have a different outlook on work, learning, and play. On the right hand side, we have individuals with a high degree of company loyalty and in which there was a clear line between work and one’s personal or social life and play was something to be done only in one’s free time. However, in these new generations we have individuals who are more loyal to their peers and their professions – choosing to mix their working life with their personal life while also not seeing such a clear line between work and play. And anyway, who ever said that we cannot combine work and play? (Next slide) danah boyd: Unlike adults, who are relearning how to behave in public because of networked technologies, teens are simply learning how to behave in public with networked publics in mind. Other notes The new generation is huge - 90 million people in USA alone Larger than baby boomers 81% of US business population ≤ age 34 are gamers 56 million old enough to be employees 7 million already managers CNRS – isabelle berrebi Points: we are looking at a wave of Digital Natives that are already in our workforce. That design of learning will in large part be for some portion of these 90 million americans, not to mention the internationals. 38 years old and younger – they are the gamers. 28 years old and younger – these are the net-generation, having grown up with the internet always being there. These are people for whom the technology has always been available to provide them with engaging experiences, connections beyond the realm of their home towns to people and information that otherwise would never have been available or accessible.
  • Speaker notes As a result, we are seeing significant pressure being put on traditional forms of organizing. On the left is what we are used to thinking about when we speak about organizations. A formal organization - a hierarchy in which information and knowledge goes up and down through the formal lines of an organization. Work tasks are broken down and coordinated through formal processes. However, research has shown that the large majority of work is actually done through informal networks – some say even 80% in knowledge-intensive organizations which is what we see on the right hand side. Here we have mapped the informal or social organization within one organization we were researching - how many of you have seen one of these sociograms or network diagrams before? This is what my research focuses on – investigating knowledge flows through social networks. In this diagram you can see the dots or nodes are individuals and the lines are the knowledge flows between these individuals. Organizations, especially in the US, are increasingly conducting network analyses to better understand the knowledge flows in their organizations and with the help of these diagrams and network analyses, they are strategically developing the organization’s networks to improve the creation and transfer of knowledge within their organizations. And this is becoming of increasing importance to understand and leverage these informal or social networks as the digital natives continue to enter the workforce – bringing with them their way of solving problems, organizing and learning. Next slide Other notes Org on the left is Built around the expert – put the expert in the box But in this new social organization – Large majority of work done through informal networks, some even say approx 80%. Important to understand both these worlds and how relate to one another… Suggests that as much as 90% of information that people take action on comes from people in their own network – Cross dissertation experts are all over the place and you need to find where the expertise lies in the org and how to connect these individuals
  • Refer to social networks here Began with Jacob Levy Moreno in the 1930s in attempt to quantify social relationships. Based on matrix algebra. Advanced statistics… Nodes can be people, departments, or organizations Networks consist of links that form a structure Links between nodes have different purposes , e.g., task or general advice, expertise, strategic information, navigating the organization (procedures, know-who, etc.) Links can be one or two directional Links can be both formal and informal Links can have different strengths
  • http://www.ux-sa.com/2007/09/structural-holes-and-online-social.html But avoid becoming a bottleneck!
  • Back to performance. Interesting results here as well. Similar to intra-organizational networks. See creative performance but interesting to see other Why do you think so? Someone who interested in developing first solution, being seen as guru. Helping others all time with problems. Prestige. Also, difficulty of knowledge, applying external knowledge to own organization’s problems. Have to maintain connections. Interesting example of company that hired one of these gurus. Guy who fired bc all time working on someone else’s problems.
  • Interesting now that companies changing from hiring fresh graduates to mid-career professionals Everyone knows that when you hire one talented programmer, you get 20 for free! Anders L.
  • Here I would like to show the results of a study in the construction industry with colleague, Andy Schenkel. This illustrates how two departments can have completely different informal networks and connectedness. The one to left did not meet the structural properties of a community, while the one to the right did . As you can visually see D epartment 1 is disconnected no clear core or periphery not particularly dense In contrast, D epartment 2 is well connected has a core with numbers 77 and 82 forming it and a periphery it also appears to be dense
  • While research that shows this relationship, thought it would be best to show what I have found in my research. Here have rd operations of three multinationals, Xerox, Ericsson, and HP. Found that HP had highest of three in terms of perf indicators that looked at. Can even talk about regional level – silicon valley vs rte 128 in Boston.
  • Did some research in which HP one of companies. Found that this company really understood the importance of informal networks both in terms of ”managing” the informal structure but also in terms of the visionary organization. Interestingly, HP doing network maps based on email communication. Would like to do something similar here.
  • Kenneth Lay delegated responsibility to those in his old boys network – failed to listen to someone outside the club – Sherron Watkins.
  • This screen should be live. http://www.personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count/
  • While we have always had networks, what has changed dramatically is that now with social media we have the ability to easily and quickly reach out to individuals across the globe whom we have never met before. And another significant change is that previously while we had one to one two-way communication, this did not enable group communication, and while we also had one to many communication, this did not enable two way communication, but now with social media we can have many to many conversations. So for me the definition of social media are online communication channels that enable many to many interactions and conversations. And as no surprise the most active users of social media are younger people, those who have become skilled at using computers and the internet for all kinds of purposes – to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn. An extensive study that was just completed by one of the gurus in this area, danah boyd, found that the digital world really is changing the way that young adults and youths socialize and learn. These younger generations are using these new media to explore their own interests and experiment with self-expression – while at the same time they are developing both technical skills and a new form of social skills – solving complex problems online in virtual teams. As a result, these individuals are not only used to but expect more freedom and autonomy in their problem-solving activities at work enable communication & collaboration … through user-generated content …. from one-to-one to many-to-many people … - across all boundaries (Next slide) Other notes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. Extending friendships online while some developing shared interest communities. Change way that youth socialize and learn - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. – Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. Increased degree of freedom and autonomy Not just receivers of knowledge but creators of knowledge as well danah boyd study We are happy to announce the online release of the findings from our three-year Digital Youth project (http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu ). All of the researchers who have worked on this project will be writing up individual publications, but this report represents a synthesis of the findings across the 22 different case studies. It has been over three years in the making, and is the result of a truly collaborative effort with 28 researchers and research collaborators. This project is part of the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning initiative. http://digitallearning.macfound.org. You can find all the details in the documents linked below, and a summary of our report below. Two-page summary of report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-TwoPageSummary.pdf White paper: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-WhitePaper.pdf Full report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/report Press release and video: http://digitallearning.macfound.org/ethnography -------- RESEARCH SUMMARY Over three years, Mimi Ito and her 28-person research team interviewed over 800 youth and young adults and conducted over 5000 hours of online observations as part of the most extensive U.S. study of youth media use to date. They found that social network sites, online games, video-sharing sites, and gadgets such as iPods and mobile phones are now fixtures of youth culture. The research finds today's youth may be coming of age and struggling for autonomy and identity amid new worlds for communication, friendship, play, and self-expression. Many adults worry that children are wasting time online, texting, or playing video games. The researchers explain why youth find these activities compelling and important. The digital world is creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. MAJOR FINDINGS - Youth use online media to extend friendships and interests. - Most youth use online networks to extend the friendships that they navigate in the familiar contexts of school, religious organizations, sports, and other local activities. They can be always "on," in constant contact with their friends through private communications like instant messaging or mobile phones, as well as in public ways through social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook. With these "friendship-driven" practices, youth are almost always associating with people they already know in their offline lives. The majority of youth use new media to "hang out" and extend existing friendships in these ways. A smaller number of youth also use the online world to explore interests and find information that goes beyond what they have access to at school or in their local community. Online groups enable youth to connect to peers who share specialized and niche interests of various kinds, whether that is online gaming, creative writing, video editing, or other artistic endeavors. In these interest-driven networks, youth may find new peers outside the boundaries of their local community. They can also find opportunities to publicize and distribute their work to online audiences, and to gain new forms of Visibility and reputation. - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. - In both friendship-driven and interest-driven online activity, youth create and navigate new forms of expression and rules for social behavior. By exploring new interests, tinkering, and "messing around" with new forms of media, they acquire various forms of technical and media literacy. Through trial and error, youth add new media skills to their repertoire, such as how to create a video or game, or customize their MySpace page. Teens then share their creations and receive feedback from others online. By its immediacy and breadth of information, the digital world lowers barriers to self-directed learning. Some youth "geek out" and dive into a topic or talent. Contrary to popular images, geeking out is highly social and engaged, although usually not driven primarily by local friendships. Youth turn instead to specialized knowledge groups of both teens and adults from around the country or world, with the goal of improving their craft and gaining reputation among expert peers. While adults participate, they are not automatically the resident experts by virtue of their age. Geeking out in many respects erases the traditional markers of status and authority. New media allow for a degree of freedom and autonomy for youth that is less apparent in a classroom setting. Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. IMPLICATIONS New media forms have altered how youth socialize and learn, and raise a new set of issues that educators, parents, and policymakers should consider. -Adults should facilitate young people's engagement with digital media. Contrary to adult perceptions, while hanging out online, youth are picking up basic social and technical skills they need to fully participate in contemporary society. Erecting barriers to participation deprives teens of access to these forms of learning. Participation in the digital age means more than being able to access serious online information and culture. Youth could benefit from educators being more open to forms of experimentation and social exploration that are generally not characteristic of educational institutions. Because of the diversity of digital media, it is problematic to develop a standardized set of benchmarks against which to measure young people's technical and new media literacy. Friendship-driven and interest-driven online participation have very different kinds of social connotations. For example, whereas friendship-driven activities centers upon peer culture, adult participation is more welcomed in the latter more "geeky" forms of learning. In addition, the content, behavior, and skills that youth value are highly variable depending on what kinds of social groups they associate with. In interest-driven participation, adults have an important role to play. Youth using new media often learn from their peers, not teachers or adults. Yet adults can still have tremendous influence in setting learning goals, particularly on the interest-driven side where adult hobbyists function as role models and more experienced peers. To stay relevant in the 21st century, education institutions need to keep pace with the rapid changes introduced by digital media. Youths' participation in this networked world suggests new ways of thinking about the role of education. What, the authors ask, would it mean to really exploit the potential of the learning opportunities available through online resources and networks? What would it mean to reach beyond traditional education and civic institutions and enlist the help of others in young people's learning? Rather than assuming that education is primarily about preparing for jobs and careers, they question what it would mean to think of it as a process guiding youths' participation in public life more generally.
  • #1 Blogs ( 30% of respondents) For brand positioning, innovation/development, business intelligence, customer relations/feedback # 2 YouTube ( 28% of respondents) Primarily for marketing/campaigns # 3 Facebook & LinkedIn ( 25% of respondents) Primarily for networking Facebook also used for brand positioning/reputation, marketing/campaigns, and customer relations/feedback #4 Skype ( 20% respondents) Meeting effectiveness
  • Currently, there are over 200 ideas preparing for release, representing a wide variety of innovations for both internal use and the marketplace. There are over 4,000 comments on these ideas. One of the new products is ViewMyPaycCheck which allows the employees of small businesses to view the details behind their pay check in the same detailed manner often offered by large organizations with comprehensive HR systems. This new product was developed in three months through Brainstorm. Within Brainstorm there is an auto-generated activity stream where anyone can see comments on ideas in the pipeline in a real time manner. You start the process by adding your idea through a lightweight submission form. Brainstorm will instantly show related ideas to your idea upon submission. So you can connect with those team members. Team members can edit the details of a registered idea and others can provide comments. These comments can start a threaded conversation. Contributors take these comments seriously and Brainstorm added the ability to edit comments at the request of users. You can recruit people and people can also request to join a team. The system also makes recommendations on who might be a best fit for the team based on their activity and tags within the system. You can place help wanted ads asking for help. You can also get updates on the tags you follow. They added Outlook integration to allow you to reach out to other employees and bring them into the Intuit Brainstorm network. The system also indentifies top contributors to provide recognition. You can see the most active, top commentors, and top taggers over the last week, last month or all time. Adding this “leaderboard” increased comments by thirty percent. Brainstorm increased participation in innovation by 500% and increased ideation by 1,000% at Intuit. Here is a sample leaderboard.
  • Serena Software Adopts Facebook as Corporate Intranet "Facebook Fridays" Foster Fun and Community Spirit at Serena Software   SAN MATEO, Calif. — November 2, 2007 — Serena Software, Inc. is breaking out of the corporate mold by announcing today that its 800 employees around the globe will participate each week in a company-wide program called “Facebook Fridays,” which encourages employees to find fun and personal connections in the workplace. Each Friday, employees are granted one hour of personal time to spend on their Facebook profiles and connect with co-workers, customers, family and friends. This initiative will start on Friday November 2nd and will be rolled out in 18 countries where the company has offices. As Web 2.0 technologies such as instant messaging (IM), wikis, and texting make communication faster and more efficient, the “human” element of communication can feel increasingly removed. How can people bring that sense of personal interaction and community back into the workplace? Surprisingly, through one of the hottest technologies around—Facebook, a social utility that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. Fanatic for Facebook Serena President and CEO Jeremy Burton is an avid user of Facebook, using it to keep in touch with employees, friends, and business partners from wherever he is in the world—in Japan visiting customers or racing cars at Laguna Seca. He wants to bring the benefits he gains from using Facebook to his company, and allow employees to have more fun combining their personal and professional lives. He is doing this by making Facebook his company’s intranet—a place where employees can find everything from a list of company holidays to the CEO’s favorite movie. Burton believes that colleagues who get to know one another on a more personal level will work together better. The company already has more than 30% of its global workforce on Facebook prior to the launch of Facebook Fridays. “ As our business continues to grow, the workplace becomes more and more distributed, which can make us feel disconnected from one another,” said Burton. “Social networking tools like Facebook can bring us back together, help us get to know each other as people, help us understand our business and our products, and help us better serve our customers—on demand. A corporate culture that fosters a sense of community and fun will ultimately help us get more done. Companies that do not embrace social networking are making a huge mistake.” Recent studies indicate there are roughly 70 million Gen Y’ers (born between the years 1980-2000), and Burton believes it’s critical to understand and embrace “their world,” including on-demand Internet applications and an “innovation without permission” mentality. Serena is using new methods of recruiting, like Facebook, to tune into this next generation of workers who are, ultimately, the corporate leaders of tomorrow. About Serena Software, Inc. Serena Software, Inc. is the leading global independent software company focused on Business Mashups and Application Lifecycle Management (ALM). More than 15,000 organizations around the world, including 96 of the Fortune 100, rely on Serena solutions to automate the application development process and effectively manage their IT portfolio. Serena is headquartered in San Mateo, California, and has offices throughout the U.S., Europe, and Asia Pacific. For more information on Serena solutions and services, visit www.serena.com . Serena is a registered trademarks of Serena Software, Inc. All other product or company names may be trademarks of their respective owners, and their use is intended for identification purposes only and not in association with or as sponsorship or endorsement by such owners Copyright © 2007 Serena Software, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • RT: many companies looking at marketing and sales through social media such as twitter and facebook. But I believe that this is only the surface as we are beginning to see some fundamental changes in the way companies create value.
  • INC 500 companies: When asked if the use of social media has been successful for their business, the overwhelming response is that it has. Twitter users report an 82% success rate while every other tool studied enjoys at least an 87% success level. Measuring success was investigated and most respondents report using hits, comments, leads or sales as primary indicators (see graph below). Fastest growing private US companies Hits, comments, leads or sales as primary ROI indicators Increase in all except wikis since 2007
  • RT: Walls are breaking down – value added coming from across boundaries of the firm Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success , Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • RT: Walls are breaking down – value added coming from across boundaries of the firm Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success , Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • (1) teaching people how to do things we already know how to do and (2) creating collaborative environments that allow people to develop new ideas and concepts to address unanticipated opportunities or challenges. Productive learning focuses mostly on the individual and on helping that individual to adopt a pattern of behavior that improves productivity. Generative learning, by contrast, is a collaborative endeavor. Shared meaning and insights are developed at the group level, and these insights drive enterprise transformation to ensure growth and sustainability. Today, the learning function is focused primarily on productive learning. As a result, it appears that trainers are more likely to want to maintain the status quo, rather than challenge it. Learning is a far more complicated phenomenon than can ever be limited to the classroom context. If we convey knowledge about tasks we already know how to do, we call it productive learning . If we share knowledge about tasks that are new and different, we call it generative learning . Productive learning serves largely to maintain the status quo within an enterprise by conveying what is already known, while generative learning involves not only absorbing existing information but also creating new solutions to unanticipated problems. Information age learning requires that individuals and organizations change the way they think about and act on what is known and what needs to be known in order to innovate, change, and win.
  • RT: presents Threadless, http://www.nickburcher.com/2009/05/threadless-twitter-tees-another-example.html 1,530,000 followers on Twitter The whole business model for Threadless is based on an implicit understanding of how the social web works and gives a great demonstration of how communities can be built and harnessed across an organisation. Identifying online enthusiasts and passion groups and then using social platforms to bring them into the core of a business would appear to be a more powerful way of utilising social opportunities than just running ads on Facebook - but it requires a good deal more commitment. The media aspect of social offers some exciting opportunities for brands, but the potential of the social web can be significantly greater if the power of community is fully realised. In summary, there has to be purpose behind why you use social media. Largest challenge is about changing the mindset though – where create value? Use of social media considerably larger in smaller companies: Inc 100 vs Fortune 100. In these smaller companies, social media being used as a leadership tool as well. Let’s hear from some of you now on your thoughts about social media. (Next Slide)
  • http://ez.no/company/news/ez_systems_wins_the_red_herring_global_100 To be selected as a Red Herring 100 winner is a mark of distinction and high honor. Only 200 companies are chosen as finalists out of a pool of thousands. Of those finalists Red Herring selected 100 companies as winners. To decide on these companies the Red Herring editorial team diligently surveys entrepreneurship around the globe. Technology industry executives, investors, and observers regard the Red Herring 100 lists as invaluable instruments to discover and advocate the promising startups that will lead the next wave of disruption and innovation. Past award winners include Google, Yahoo!, Skype, Netscape, Salesforce.com, and YouTube.
  • RT: the 3D internet characterized by …. (next slide)
  • RT: traditional leadership further challenged as we move to a world of web 3.0 or the immersive internet… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ahqjBeknT0
  • http://flickr.com/photos/secondsweden/2110677418/
  • RT: We are already beginning to see dramatic changes in several professions such as architecture and fashion. Side screens – second life film from conference or collage of different activies in virtual worlds
  • http://www.protonmedia.com/ www.qwaq.com VOIP Chatrooms Wikis, blogs Social networking avatars
  • Speaker notes So, in closing, what does all this mean? Been a very short presentation, but in the midst of this financial crisis, my belief that those organizations that are able to strategically develop their networks - both inside and outside of the organization as well as that learn to leverage the new social media will be those that are able to win the war for talent as well as to innovate for competitive advantage. However, I think the real key to this lies in one’s mindset related to knowledge. In order to really reap the opportunities provided, companies must cultivate an open knowledge sharing culture in which those that live by the old adage, Knowledge is power, are not rewarded. Knowledge cannot be used up – rather it grows as others learn about it and contribute to it. One must think about how to create awareness of one’s efforts. Rather better to live by this saying, if you love knowledge, then set it free. Has to do with networks that in order to receive knowledge, one must create value and give in relationships Next slide Other notes N etworking – player in space of new technology as well – SSE for adventure into SL “ Knowledge is power” “ Birds of a feather, flock together” (“Lika barn leka bäst”) “ Not-invented-here”
  • Speaker notes As a result, we are seeing significant pressure being put on traditional forms of organizing. On the left is what we are used to thinking about when we speak about organizations. A formal organization - a hierarchy in which information and knowledge goes up and down through the formal lines of an organization. Work tasks are broken down and coordinated through formal processes. However, research has shown that the large majority of work is actually done through informal networks – some say even 80% in knowledge-intensive organizations which is what we see on the right hand side. Here we have mapped the informal or social organization within one organization we were researching - how many of you have seen one of these sociograms or network diagrams before? This is what my research focuses on – investigating knowledge flows through social networks. In this diagram you can see the dots or nodes are individuals and the lines are the knowledge flows between these individuals. And this is becoming of increasing importance to understand and leverage these informal or social networks as the digital natives continue to enter the workforce – bringing with them their way of solving problems, organizing and learning. (Next slide) Screen shots: revolving social media sites and pictures of digital natives Other notes Org on the left is Built around the expert – put the expert in the box But in this new social organization – Large majority of work done through informal networks, some even say approx 80%. Important to understand both these worlds and how relate to one another… Suggests that as much as 90% of information that people take action on comes from people in their own network – Cross dissertation experts are all over the place and you need to find where the expertise lies in the org and how to connect these individuals
  • RT: Remember where we were just 14 years ago…. Where will be tomorrow with social media and virtual worlds?
  • Speaker notes Just to give you an example, I try to practice what I preach and I put all my presentations on a site called slideshare.net and make them downloadable. I have one presentation based on my research on networks that has received almost 18 000 hits and it has been downloaded several thousand times by people all over the world. It has been used as course material in France and in articles and I have been contacted by people from places as far away as South Africa, Canada, Dubai, and India for interviews and for teaching opportunities. Also, through Second Life I have met some fascinating people and one of my closest colleagues now is Steve Mahaley, aka Ace Carson, who is the Director of Learning Technology at Duke Corporate Education. Steve is in the audience here…. So, in closing, I would like to say that I am now in your networks, and it would be fantastic if some of you were interested in participating in a research project or if you were just curious about learning more about virtual worlds. SSE has an island here and the idea was to create a playing ground where companies could experiment and play with virtual worlds. So, feel free to contact me online or inworld! Thank you! End

Leveraging social networks and social media for improved performance Leveraging social networks and social media for improved performance Presentation Transcript

    • Leveraging Networks and Social Media for Improved Performance
    • Dr. Robin Teigland, aka
    • Karinda Rhode in SL
    • IFL at Stockholm School of Economics
    • Associate Professor
    • www.knowledenetworking.org
    • www.slideshare.net/eteigland
    Photo: Lundholm, Metro March 2010 ww.ifl.se
  • Today’s discussion
    • Background
    • Introduction to networks
    • Creating value through social media
  • "...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the change inside, the end is near...." Jack Welch…
  • A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2010 Fischbowl 2007
  • … that becomes quickly outdated 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education Third year of education
  • Increasing number of social media Adapted from FredCavazza.net
    • Did You Know: Shift Happens
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpEnFwiqdx8&feature=fvw
    • How are these trends affecting you and your organization?
  • Human capacity cannot keep up… Growth Time Information and knowledge Human absorptive capacity Adapted from Cohen & Levinthal 1989
    • ” No one knows everything,
    • everyone knows something,
    • all knowledge resides in humanity.”
    networks Adapted from Lévy 1997
  • 6 degrees of separation
    • Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation.
    • “ Small World Phenomenon”
    • by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967
  • The wisdom of the crowd Closed Expensive Complex Accurate Open Inexpensive Simple Close enough Hinton 2007
  • Leveraging external resources to find solutions and solve unsolved problems
  • Transparency: There is nowhere to hide… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8XxcOj3Seo Fortune, Rey 2008
  • Traditional media vs social media http://adultaddstrengths.com/2008/11/05/obama-vs-mccain-social-media/
  • History tends to repeat itself…. Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics Late 18 th C Late 19 th C Late 20 th C Schön 2008 Third industrial revolution?
  • A new workforce is appearing… Prensky 2001, Beck and Wade 2004, Mahaley 2008 “ Digital Immigrants” “ Digital Natives” Company loyalty Work ≠ Personal Learning=Behind the desk Professional loyalty Work = Personal Learning=Fun and games
  • Facebook: Only for people I have met in real life. Mainly friends but also colleagues and managers Google Reader/Buzz: All blogs that I read as well as alerts on specific words. A lot of sharing among friends LinkedIn: My resume online, one of the first links you see in Google My B l og: Interaction with other bloggers, allow me to write down my own thoughts, makes me pay more attention. A good way of showing who I am Twitter: I learn new things everyday, people share links to interesting posts, articles etc. Good place to network and get to know people in your field Enckel 2010
  • Enckel 2010
  • Teigland 2010
  • Building skills in virtual environments
    • My CV
    • Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe
    • Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure
    • Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication
    Teigland 2010
  • Increasing pressure on “traditional” organizations Formal organization/ Hierarchy Teigland et al. 2005 Social organization / Heterarchy
  • What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties
    • Ties/Links
      • Knowledge, trust, team, sit by, dislike, etc.
      • Alliance, customer, investment, etc.
    Tie
    • Actors/Nodes
      • Individuals
      • Teams, organizations, etc.
    Actor
  • Two individuals with the same number of contacts… B A
  • … but with very different access to resources B A
  • Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages
    • More rapid promotions
    • Greater career mobility
    • Higher salaries
    • More adaptable to changing environments
    Brass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi
  • Network dynamics impact creativity and innovation…. Firm A Low on-time High Creative High on-time Low creative Teigland 2003 High creative Virtual community Firm B
  • When you hire someone,… … ..you “hire” his or her network.
  • … as well as organizational learning.. Division 1 Division 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008 Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)
  • Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000
  • Hewlett-Packard (1990s)
    • Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels
    • Management support for informal and formal networking activities across internal and external boundaries
      • Best practice task group
      • Personal initiatives
    • Extensive socialization : personnel rotation, cross-office teams
    • A visionary organization
      • Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity”
      • Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness
      • Company-wide goal of World’s Best Laboratory
    Teigland et al 2000
  • Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#
  • External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees in your country Co-Workers Friends Large portion of new ideas and formal collaboration relationships come from external contacts You Alex Eyal Your manager Rami’s manager Hila Yaron Yuval Eduardo Ed Muriel Peter Frequent e-mails Infrequent e-mails Web 2.0 Collaboration
  • Management cannot mandate social relationships My company has blocked my computer from accessing most of the social media sites. But I feel so cut off from my network. So, now I just connect through my phone.
  • http://www.personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count/
  • Increasing number of social media Adapted from FredCavazza.net
  • My definition of social media
    • enable communication & collaboration …
    • through user-generated content ….
    • from one-to-one to many-to-many people …
    • - across all boundaries
    Teigland 2010
  • Companies span the full range of use but…. Teigland 2010 Organizational use Employee use No use Ban use One-way “broadcasting” Allow use Encourage use Two-way conversations ..the majority are here
  •  
  • Organizations primarily use social media for branding….. B2C companies are more active than B2B Teigland 2010   Blogs YouTube Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Branding 30% 28% 23% 12%   Customer relations 24%         Innovation 28%         Networking     25%   25% Marketing   28%       Employee communications 23%         Learning & training   27%       Business intelligence 26%         Future employees     15%    
  • Improving internal operations http://billives.typepad.com/portals_and_km/2009/10/intuit-brainstorm-offers-innovation-management.html
  • Strengthening internal and external relationships through Facebook
    • #1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup
    • 96 of Fortune 100 as customers
    • 800 employees in 18 countries across globe
    • Facebook Fridays: One hour every Friday on Facebook to find fun and connect with co-workers, customers, family, and friends
    • Average employee age: 46
    • 27 year old Silicon Valley company
    • >90% of employees on FB
  • Creating value through external conversations
  • http://www.socialmedia.biz/2009/11/02/why-i-love-public-transportation-and-hate-hp/ Check out HP’s responsiveness!
  • $6.5 million as of Dec 2009
  • Positive return on social media for INC 500 companies Barnes & Mattsson 2009 No Yes 88% 12% If you use social media, has it been successful (hits, comments, leads, sales)?
  • Where are the sources of sustainable competitive advantage? Kaye 1993 #1 Innovation Networks of relationships Brand & Reputation FIRM
  • Where are the sources of sustainable competitive advantage? #1 Innovation Networks of relationships Brand & Reputation FIRM Teigland 2010
  • Exploitation Improving existing value creation activities Exploration Developing new value creation activities Adapted from March 1991
  • Threadless: What came first – the community or the company?
  • eZ 230+ Partners 30,000+ Community members 5,000+ Customers in 130 countries
    • #1 open source content management software
    • Customers include UN, Vogue, Hitachi, 3M, MIT
    • 75 employees in 9 countries (US, Europe & Asia)
  • The backbone of eZ Systems is social media - throughout the value chain
  • Innovation in the eZ ecosystem
  • Here comes the Immersive Internet O’Driscoll 2009
  • “ Clearly if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.” Castranova http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ahqjBeknT0
    • USD 3 bln in virtual goods sales in 2009, to grow to USD 12 bln in 2012
    • Swedish government granted b ank license to virtual world Mind Bank in 2009
    • USD 330,000 for virtual space station in 2010
  • Building skills in virtual environments
    • My CV
    • Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe
    • Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure
    • Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication
    Teigland 2010
  • Innovation workshops bring together users from across the globe Giovacchini, Teigland, Kohler, Helms 2010
  • Which professions and industries will not be revolutionized?
  • From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to … ...the “mobility” of labor? Teigland 2010
  • So, what does all this mean?
    • Organizations have to ….
    • develop their employees’ network leadership skills
      • to build their networks globally - both inside and out
    • leverage social media
      • to win the war for talent
      • to innovate for continuous competitive advantage
      • to build their reputation and brand
      • to build their networks across numerous boundaries
    • cultivate an open, knowledge sharing culture
  • Leadership moving forward…… I f you love knowledge, set it free … Hierarchy Linear, static, process-based organization Heterarchy Dynamic, integrated collaboration networks Teigland 2010
  • DN Aug 20, 1996
  • Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland Photo: Lindholm, Metro