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Leadership in networks teigland jun2013
 

Leadership in networks teigland jun2013

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My network presentation updated with some new slides.

My network presentation updated with some new slides.

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  • Image:http://socialnewsdaily.com/14097/social-media-the-new-face-of-disaster-response-infographic/
  • http://www.deliveringhappiness.com/on-six-degrees-of-separation/
  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8906693/Facebook-cuts-six-degrees-of-separation-to-four.html
  • Seeing natural systems as networksMolecules: network of kinds of atomsBrains: neural networksOrganisms: network of specialized cellsOrganizations: networks of jobs/individualsEconomies: networks of organizationsEcologies: networks of organismsTelephone, roads, internet, etc...
  • Fowler: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkmsjFisW_AMin 10 start and then to 15.4446% of variation in how many friends you have is explained by your genes – some born shy and some gregarious.47% of variation in whether your friends know each other has to do with your genes. So do people knit networks of those around them or not….30% of variation in whether in middle or on edge of network has to do with your genes.
  • Each node in the network represents a company that competes in the Internet industry. Two companies are connected with a grey line if they have announced a joint venture, strategic alliance or other partnership. This map shows a subset of the total internet industry -- 250 companies -- during the period from 1998 to 2001. Many companies have a few partnerships, a few companies have many. The industry is dominated by several 'hubs' -- companies with bridging ties that connect the unconnected. Prior to 2002, the best positioned companies in this network of partnerships were: Microsoft, AOL-TimeWarner and IBM. These industry visualizations demonstrate the forces that organizations exhibit upon each other in complex, interconnected economic systems. The data is gathered from various public sources and includes only data on business partnerships such as strategic alliances and joint ventures.We can also measure the map and determine which nodes are well positioned. A well-positioned company will be able to learn about, adapt to, and influence what is happening in the industry. These measures illuminate the competitive advantage of 'being in the right place' in the network of information, knowledge, and resource exchanges. In a networked economy, the player with better connections to diverse knowledge and resources has a great advantage.A well connected node... hears about, and understands, what is happening in the network before others do influences others through direct and indirect ties acts a broker of key information and knowledge between various parts of the network combines information and knowedge gathered from various parts of the network to develop innovative products and services More musings on complex organizational systems are available in my article in the Feb. '96 issue of Esther Dyson's industry publication, Release 1.0.Also, check out the interactive network -- need Java 1.1 enabled browser -- try the right-click options on any node/company. Beware! People have been known to waste their whole lunch hour playing with this interactive maplet.
  • Formal – reports to, unit of, task interdependencies, rights, obligationsInformal – helping, informing, gossip, trusting, joking, harassmentBut also among organizations As corporate entities – JVs, alliances, partnership, supplier, customer, boards, invests in, outsourcingAs individuals – friends, ex-colleagues, interlocking directoratesKin basedOther role-basedCognitiveAffectiveInteractionsAffiliations & proximities & attributes
  • First, the ONA identified mid-level managers that were critical in terms of information flow within the group. A particular surprise came from the very central role that Cole played in terms of both overall information flow within the group and being the only point of contact between members of the production division and the rest of the network. If he were hired away, the efficiency of this group as a whole would be significantly impacted as people in the informal network re-established important informational relationships. Simply categorizing various informational requests that Cole received and then allocating ownership of these informational or decision domains to other executives served to both unburden Cole and make the overall network more responsive and robust. Second, the ONA helped to identify highly peripheral people that essentially represented untapped expertise and underutilized resources for the group. In particular, it became apparent that many of the senior people had become too removed from the day-to-day operations of this group. For example, the most senior person (Jones) was one of the most peripheral in the informal network. This is a common finding. As people move higher within an organization their work begins to entail more administrative tasks that makes them both less accessible and less knowledgeable about the day-to-day work of their subordinates. However, in this case our debrief session indicated that Jones had become too removed and his lack of responsiveness frequently held the entire network back when important decisions needed to be made.Third, the ONA also demonstrated the extent to which the production division (the sub-group on the top of the diagram) had become separated from the overall network. Several months prior to this analysis these people had been physically moved to a different floor in the building. Upon reviewing the network diagram, many of the executives realized that this physical separation had resulted in loss of a lot of the serendipitous meetings that occurred when they were co-located. Structured meetings were set up to help avoid operational problems the group had been experiencing due to this loss of communication between production and the rest of the network.
  • Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a diagnostic method for collecting and analyzing data about the patterns of relationships among people in groups. SNA provides a view into the network of relationships that gives knowledge managers leverage to:Improv e the flow of knowledge, information and Innovation; Build social capitalAcknowledge the thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks); Target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have the most impact on your bottom line. Establishes a learning organization /communityIn addition to that, SNA present the advantages of:Providing both a visual and mathematical analysisUsing community inputsBeing replicable
  • Image from Anklam, 2009
  • Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a diagnostic method for collecting and analyzing data about the patterns of relationships among people in groups. SNA provides a view into the network of relationships that gives knowledge managers leverage to:Improv e the flow of knowledge, information and Innovation; Build social capitalAcknowledge the thought leaders and key information brokers (and bottlenecks); Target opportunities where increased knowledge flow will have the most impact on your bottom line. Establishes a learning organization /communityIn addition to that, SNA present the advantages of:Providing both a visual and mathematical analysisUsing community inputsBeing replicable
  • Cross, Intro to ONAIdentify a strategically important group.The first step is to identify a group within the organization where investments made to improve collaboration have the potential to yield a significant payback either strategically or operationally. We typically look for groups crossing functional, physical, hierarchical and organizational lines because networks often fragment at these junctures. 2. Assess meaningful and actionable relationships.The second step is to identify relationships that will meaningfully reveal a group's effectiveness as well as be actionable for managers once results are disclosed. Most companies are keenly interested in work-related collaboration. As a result, we almost always map information flow. We can also look at relationships that reveal the information sharing potential of a network, decision-making or power relations, or those that reveal well-being and supportiveness in a network such as friendship or trust networks. Organizational network information can be obtained in a variety of ways, from tracking e-mails to observing people over time. Often the most efficient means is to administer a 10-20 minute survey designed to assess relationships within and outside of a group. 3. Visually and quantitatively analyze results.Once the data have been collected, it can be analyzed using a network software package. There are a variety of different packages available, some of which combine drawing functionality with quantitative analysis and some of which specialize in one or the other. For more information on visual assessment see the interpreting a network diagram section. 4. Create meaningful feedback sessions.We typically conduct feedback sessions in two phases. In the first half of the workshop, we present an overview of network analysis to orient the participants, and then provide a summary presentation highlighting important points from the analysis of the specific group. The second half of the workshop consists of breakout sessions with smaller groups that brainstorm ways to promote appropriate connectivity and ensure that organizational design, culture and leadership will not push the network back to ineffective patterns. These subgroups then debrief the larger group, and ideas are catalogued for action planning. In this process, it is always important to focus on what can be done to improve the effectiveness of the group. Rather than questioning why someone or some department is peripheral or central, it is more constructive to focus on how the organization can overcome unproductive patterns. 5. Assess progress and effectiveness.Conducting an organizational analysis of a group indicates the level of connectivity only at a specific point in time. Repeating this process after six to nine months can reveal whether appropriate change has occurred in the network. It is also a good idea to track objective measures of performance over time.
  • http://www.ux-sa.com/2007/09/structural-holes-and-online-social.htmlBut avoid becoming a bottleneck!
  • Image: http://marketingmotivator.net/body-language-intelligence-women-leaders/
  • Kenneth Lay delegated responsibility to those in his old boys network – failed to listen to someone outside the club – Sherron Watkins.
  • http://www.fieldstonealliance.org/client/tools_you_can_use/08-05-09_social_capital.cfm#tableMapping your social capitalThe social capital mapping exercise that follows is designed to be done either by an individual (Option A) or by a group (Option B). Either option will help you create a “map” of your connections and networks—a table listing who you know, the type of tie you have to the person or network (strong tie or weak tie), and the resources that each person or network can access. Option A: Individual exerciseUse this exercise to map your social capital in general, or to analyze your social capital with key stakeholders or potential partners for a specific community project.Step 1. List the relevant groups and organizationsUse the following table for this step. In the first column (Group or Organization), list the groups and organizations with which you are linked. For example, you might be a member, serve on staff, or participate as a board member or volunteer. You might also do business with some of these groups or have a personal connection with their leadership.If you are doing the exercise to map your general social capital as a nonprofit or community leader, be selective about the organizations that you list. Focus on those that play some sort of community role.If you are doing this exercise to map your social capital for a particular initiative, list the groups or organizations that are most relevant to it. Include organizations inside and outside your community.Step 2. Determine the strength of the tiesIn column two, indicate groups with an S or a W:S = Strong ties = higher levels of trust, reciprocity, and durabilityW = Weak ties = lower levels of trust, reciprocity, and durabilityStep 3. Determine the resources representedIn the Resources column, write down the resources that each group represents. Resources include money, information, votes, volunteers, and access to other groups and networks.Step 4. Analyze the mapWhen your map is finished, analyze it by answering these questions:What resources do your strong ties give you access to?What resources do your weak ties give you access to?Are there ties you want to strengthen? If so, how will you strengthen them?Are there relevant groups with which you lack social capital (that is, they do not appear on your map)? How will you access the resources of these groups?How can you leverage your ties to have access to more groups, organizations, and resources?Step 5. Set next stepsAfter you've finished the analysis, identify how and when to use the results. Determine what actions you will take in response to the questions in the Analysis— especially how you will strengthen ties, build new ties, and leverage existing ties to increase social capital.Group or Organization Strength of Tie Resources                  

Leadership in networks teigland jun2013 Leadership in networks teigland jun2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Leveraging Social Networks forImproved PerformanceDr. Robin TeiglandStockholm School of Economicswww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandRobinTeiglandJune 2013www.hhs.se
  • Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)2SSEIFL ExecEdIndustryResearchWhartonStanfordMcKinseyResearch
  • Today’s discussionBackground Organizational network analysis Personal network analysis3
  • What most people think of when they hear―social networks‖4
  • RelationshipsImage: Hinton 2007
  • We are allembedded innetworksImage: http://info.data-scout.com/blog/bid/154938/Six-Degrees-of-Separation
  • 7Six degrees of separation- Milgram, 1967Image: http://www.deliveringhappiness.com/on-six-degrees-of-separation/
  • A big bang in the information universe2.7Blndaily comments and‖likes‖ on Facebook500Mlndaily posts on Twitterand Weibo combined200kvideos uploaded toYouTube dailyImage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet, Tomas Larsson, 2012
  • From six degrees to four degrees9http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/8906693/Facebook-cuts-six-degrees-of-separation-to-four.html
  • Increasing focus on network science10
  • Social Network Analysis (SNA)- well established today Network applications appear in most social sciences− anthropology, management, public health, sociology,economics Studies span levels from individual to greater society• personal social & health support systems• children’s play groups, high school cliques• neighboring behavior, community participation• work teams, voluntary associations, social movements• military combat platoons, terrorist cells• corporate strategic alliances, board interlocks• international relations: trade, aid, war & peace11Borgatti
  • What is a network?A set of actors connected by ties•Ties/Links−Knowledge, trust,team, sit by, dislike, etc.−Alliance, customer,investment, etc.Tie•Actors/Nodes−Individuals−Teams,organizations, etc.Actor12
  • Social network analysis has a long historyand is based on matrix algebra and graph theory13http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network
  • What is distinctive about SNA? The phenomenon: What we study− Social relations among entities, conceptualized as socialnetwork The methodology: How we study it− Units of observation (cases) are dyads, not individual actors− Variables are relations, not actor attributes− Dyadic, autocorrelated data require different statisticalmethods The theory: How we understand it− Model groups as networks− Theoretical constructs such as centrality, structuralequivalence, etc.− No single theory of everything but common perspective14Borgatti
  • Hidden influence of social networks15http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/nicholas_christakis_the_hidden_influence_of_social_networks.htmlHappy peopleIn between peopleUnhappy peopleChristakis & Fowler, 2011
  • ‖No one knows everything,everyone knows something,all knowledge resides in humanity.‖networksAdapted from Lévy 1997Six degrees ofseparation- Milgram, 1967
  • Even organizations are in networks17Krebs, http://www.orgnet.com/netindustry.htmlInternet industry: 1998-2001
  • Today’s discussionBackground Organizational network analysis Personal network analysis18
  • 19What relationshipsdo you have atwork?
  • 20Where do individuals go for help with problems?Co-locatedcolleaguesIntranetNon-electronicdocumentsInternalelectronicnetworksContacts inother officesExternalelectronicnetworksInternetNon-electronicdocumentsOthercontacts??Teigland 2003
  • Knowledge flows alongexisting pathways in organizations.If we want to understand how toimprove the flow of knowledge,we need to understandthose pathways.Larry Prusak, FounderInstitute for Knowledge Management
  • 22Uncovering networks in an organizationFormal organization Informal organizationTeigland et al. 2005
  • What do you notice about the informal network?23Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysis
  • Revealing the informal hierarchy24Brandes, Raab and Wagner (2001)Organization chart showshow authority ties shouldlook…… but digraph of actualadvice-seeking …… can berestructured toreveal “real”hierarchy!Knoke
  • 25Myths about networks I already know what is going on in my network We can’t do much to help informal networks To build networks, you have to communicatemoreAdapted from Cross et al. 2002
  • 26Why are more social get-togethers andcoffee breaks not the solution?
  • 27Myths and reality checks I already know what is going on in my network Those who think they know their network thebest are usually the ones who know the least We can’t do much to help informal networks Informal networks can be ―managed‖ throughchanging the organizational context To build networks, you have to communicate more Networks can be strategically developedAdapted from Cross et al. 2002
  • Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, andvisualizing data about patterns of relationships amongpeople in groups.Provides view into network of relationships thatenables leaders to…• improve flows of knowledge, information andinnovation• build social capital• acknowledge thought leaders and key informationbrokers (and bottlenecks)• target opportunities where increased knowledgeflow will have most impact on bottom line• establish a learning organization /community28Modified from Valente
  • 29What positions are importantin Organizational NetworkAnalysis (ONA)?
  • ―Central connectors‖ within one locationBottleneck Teigland 1998Surprise!!Stockholm30
  • 31With which colleagues do you discuss everyday technicalissues/work-related problems at least once a week?Schenkel & Teigland 2011Red=MaleBlue=Female=Left org
  • 32With which colleagues do you discuss exciting newideas and better ways of getting things done?Schenkel & Teigland 2011Red=MaleBlue=Female=Left org
  • ‖Birds of a feather flock together‖―Lika barn leka bäst‖People find similar people attractive and developrelations with people like themselvesOur networks tend to be homogeneousand not heterogeneousMarsden 1987, Burt 1990 34
  • StockholmLondonBrusselsHelsinkiMadridCopenhagen―Information brokers‖ between locationsTransferred fromStockholmTeigland 1998San Francisco35
  • 36Proximal collaborationWhen people are more than 50feet apart, the likelihood of themcollaborating more than once aweek is less than 10%.- Allen 1984
  • San FranciscoStockholmLondonBrusselsHelsinkiMadridCopenhagen―Peripheral specialists‖ between organizationsTeigland 1998OtherfirmsElectroniccommunities37
  • New ideas flowfrom outsideinto organizationthrough informalnetworksWhat happens tothem afterentering theorganization?38Whelan & Teigland 2010Where does much of innovation start?
  • Individual network positions39Anklam 2009
  • 40What structures are importantin Organizational NetworkAnalysis (ONA)?
  • Complete network structure Core/Periphery structure− Network consists of single group(core) with hangers-on (periphery)− Core connects to all− Periphery connects only to core− Short distances, good fortransmitting information− Identification with group as whole Clique structure− Multiple subgroups of factions− Identity with subgroup− Diversity of norms, belief41Borgatti
  • 42What is the relationshipbetween networks andperformance?
  • 43BATwo individuals with the same number ofcontacts…
  • …but with very different access to resourcesBA44
  • Performance differs based on one’s networkFirm ALowon-timeHighCreativeHighon-timeLowcreativeTeigland 2003HighcreativeVirtualcommunityFirm B45
  • …..you “hire” his or her network.When you hire someone,…46
  • Network structure affects performance47Division 1 Division 2Improved efficiencyover timeStagnant performanceover timeSchenkel & Teigland 2008Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)
  • Knowledge sharing across client teams48
  • Knowledge sharing across client teams49
  • Comparing performance across firmsTeigland et al 2000 50
  •  Networking activities recognized and rewarded atindividual and unit levels Management support for informal and formalnetworking activities across internal and externalboundaries Best practice task group Personal initiatives Extensive socialization: personnel rotation, cross-office teams, “open” office layout A visionary organization− Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for theadvancement and welfare of humanity”− Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness− Company-wide goal of World’s Best LaboratoryHewlett-PackardTeigland et al 2000 51
  • 52“Managing” networks in your organizationBefore AfterCross; Anklam & Welch 20051. Uncover networks2. Analyze networks3. Improve connectedness
  • 53Why are more social get-togethers andcoffee breaks not the solution?
  • Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)Diagnostic method for collecting, analyzing, andvisualizing data about patterns of relationships amongpeople in groups.Provides view into network of relationships thatenables leaders to…• improve flows of knowledge, information andinnovation• build social capital• acknowledge thought leaders and key informationbrokers (and bottlenecks)• target opportunities where increased knowledgeflow will have most impact on bottom line• establish a learning organization /community54Modified from Valente
  • ONA Actions•Identify overly connected people•Bridge invisible network silos•Create awareness of distributedexpertise•Bring in peripheral playersONA Results•24% rise in customer satisfaction•66% reduced cost of poor quality•22% increase in new productrevenue•10% improved operationalproductivityU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaConducting ONA leads to resultsGulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudiArabiaNigeriaGulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudiArabiaNigeriaCross 2010
  • Informal networks in your organization Reflect on your organization.− What informal network would you like to learn more about? What do you think this informal network looks like?− Who are the key players: central connectors, informationbrokers, peripheral players?− What does the overarching network structure look like:core/periphery, cliques, silos, isolates? What do you think needs to be done to improveperformance, e.g., knowledge flows?− How would you like to do this?56
  • Some questions to ask Communication: How often do you talk with thefollowing people regarding (topic x)? Information: Who do you typically seek work-related information from? Problem-solving: Who do you typically turn to forhelp in thinking through a new or challengingproblem? Knowing: How well do you understand this person’sknowledge and skills? Access: Who is generally accessible to you within asufficient amount of time to help solve a problem?57Cross et al 2002
  • Conduct your own ONA1. Uncover strategically important networks− Collaboration generally poor across functional,physical, hierarchical, and organizational lines− Meaningful, actionable relationships, e.g.,information flow, knowledge sharing, trust,decision-making2. Collect and analyze data− E.g., email, survey, interview, observation− Visually map data3. Improve connectedness− Create meaningful feedback sessions58Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysis
  • Analyze and visualize data59http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18
  • 60http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
  • 61Myths and reality checks I already know what is going on in my network Those who think they know their network thebest are usually the ones who know the least We can’t do much to help informal networks Informal networks can be ―managed‖ throughchanging the organizational context To build networks, you have to communicate more Networks can be strategically developedAdapted from Cross et al. 2002
  • Today’s discussionBackground Organizational network analysis Personal network analysis62
  • 63So, what does this mean for you? An actor’s position in a social network, i.e.,social capital, determines in part the actor’sopportunities and constraintsCasper & Murray 2002Germanbiotechscientists
  • Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages•More rapid promotions•Greater career mobility•Higher salaries•More adaptable to changing environmentsBrass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi 64
  • 65―Think about it: everybody you know,everyone you meet, also know about 250people. So every time you cultivate arelationship with one new person, you haveactually expanded your personal inventory by250 people – every single time.‖— Bob Burg, Author and Speaker
  • Develop three forms of networking66Operational Personal StrategicPurpose Getting work doneefficientlyEnhancing personaland professionaldevelopmentDeveloping andachieving futureprioritiesMembers Mostly internalcontacts andfocused on currentdemandsMostly externalcontacts andfocused on currentand future interestsBoth internal andexternal contactsand focused onfutureNetworkattributesDepth throughbuilding strongworkingrelationshipsBreadth throughreaching out tocontacts who canrefer you to othersLeverage throughcreating inside-outside linksIbarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007
  • Build relationships with peopleat all hierarchical levelsLook for complementary skillswhile maintaining a balance!Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006Higher: Help with making decisions,acquiring resources, developing politicalawareness, explaining organizationalactivities beyond local settingEqual: Help brainstorm and providespecific help, support, and neededinformationLower: Provide best sources of technicalinformation and expertise67
  • 68Build relationships before you need themStrongertiesWeakertiesOutsideorganizationInsideorganization
  • Tools to analyze one’s networks Facebook− TouchGraph Facebook Browser http://www.touchgraph.com/facebook LinkedIn− http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/69
  • Analyze your networkshttp://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/network
  • Get active and create awareness!71
  • Track your influencewww.klout.com
  • Avoid creating insular networkshttp://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185# 73
  • In pairs, discuss….. Strategic network development− What is your personal strategic objective for next 1-2 years?− What resources do you need to fulfill this objective?− What resources do your network ties give you access to?− What network ties do you need to strengthen?− How can you help one another make new connections?− How could you use social media to help you develop yourstrategic networks?Resource Network tie Strength Action
  • Today’s discussionBackground Organizational network analysis Personal network analysis75
  • Karinda Rhodeaka Robin Teiglandrobin.teigland@hhs.sewww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandwww.nordicworlds.netRobinTeiglandPhoto: Lindholm, MetroPhoto:NordenskiöldPhoto:LindqvistIf you love knowledge,set it free…