Fischbowl 2007 ”Did you know? 3000 new books published daily One week’s issues of New York Times is more information than a person had access to during lifetime in 18th century. The amount of new information produced in number of bytes this year is more than was produced in the past 5000 years
The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years. It’s predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010.
Cohen, WM och Levinthal, D A, Absorptive Capacity: A new Perspective on Learning and Innovation, Working paper, Carnegie Mellon University and University of Pennsylvania, October 1989 Figur 3. Gapet mellan tillväxten av ny kunskap respektive tillväxten av människans förmåga att absorbera kunskapen. (Fritt efter Robert Junks anförande vid framtidsseminarium i Salzburg1989)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk&feature=PlayList&p=079F3CFE9701D083&index=0 Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace , 1997 My example of how this presentation was made. Asked a question on Socnet and received many good answers with people’s presentations and links to interesting sources Clay shirky – here comes everybody Previously – one to one but enable groups, and one to many but not enable two way communication, now have many to many conversations
Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. “ Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967 Back ground Example who ever you take that average is six step
Ency picture from www.versandantiquariat-schmitz.de/Lexika-Brit... http://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/architectures-for-conversation-ii-what-communities-of-practice-can-mean-for-information-architecture-5733.pdf An essential difference between britannica and wikipedia is >>britannica is a one-way medium, handed down from authorities, >> While wikipedia is conversational. It fulfills more of what human beings want in their daily life. That’s not to say that wikipedia is better than britannica, or that the old way is evil or irrelevant. It’s just to say that technology has tapped into a latent need people have to be part of conversations.
GoldCorp ... a mining company, 50 years old. Geologists couldn't tell him where the gold was. The CEO was ready to shut down the company. Heard about Linux ... and embraced the principles. Took his geological data, published it on the Internet, and held a contest on the Internet called the &quot;GoldCorp Challenge&quot;. Offered $500K for those who could find the gold. Found $3.4 billion of gold. Value jumped from $90 million to $10 billion. Wikipedia…The Canadian gold mining group Goldcorp made 400 megabytes of geological survey data on its Red Lake, Ontario property available to the public over the internet. They offered a $575,000 prize to anyone who could analyse the data and suggest places where gold could be found. The company claims that the contest produced 110 targets, over 80% of which proved productive; yielding 8 million ounces of gold, worth more than $3 billion.
I always like to put things into perspective. The theme of today’s event is that of seeing opportunities in the midst of the financial crisis and I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are experiencing now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18 th and 19 th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking. experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18 th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19 th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Other notes Notes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in History A crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to come Transformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocation Rationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of production Shifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as well International crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s 1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways 1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumption Waves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and services It is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts! When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machinery Reallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisis Development of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changes Diffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
CNRS – isabelle berrebi Speaker notes: And that is exactly what we are seeing now. Here on this chart you can see the distribution of the population (US figures). On the right of the red line are the “digital immigrants” or those who did not grow up with digital technology such as the computer and the internet, while on the left of the red line we see the “digital natives” or those who have grown up with the internet always there. I would just like to say that I am not wild about this categorization, especially since I belong to the baby boomers but I see myself more of a digital native – I used to visit the university computer center with my father in the early 1970s, but I think that it works as a generalization to help explain the changes we are seeing. The interesting thing is that this new generation of workers is huge and is even larger than the babyboomers and in fact in the US, 56 mln are old enough to be employees with 7 million already managers. Those that are 38 and younger are the gamers and those that are 28 years and younger are the net-generation and we now have a new generation that is entering the workforce that has grown up with mobile phones. These generations have a different outlook on work, learning, and play. On the right hand side, we have individuals with a high degree of company loyalty and in which there was a clear line between work and one’s personal or social life and play was something to be done only in one’s free time. However, in these new generations we have individuals who are more loyal to their peers and their professions – choosing to mix their working life with their personal life while also not seeing such a clear line between work and play. And anyway, who ever said that we cannot combine work and play? Next slide Other notes The new generation is huge - 90 million people in USA alone Larger than baby boomers 81% of US business population ≤ age 34 are gamers 56 million old enough to be employees 7 million already managers Points: we are looking at a wave of Digital Natives that are already in our workforce. That design of learning will in large part be for some portion of these 90 million americans, not to mention the internationals. 38 years old and younger – they are the gamers. 28 years old and younger – these are the net-generation, having grown up with the internet always being there. These are people for whom the technology has always been available to provide them with engaging experiences, connections beyond the realm of their home towns to people and information that otherwise would never have been available or accessible.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk Speaker notes: The exciting thing is that the younger people in the workforce have become skilled at using computers and the internet for all kinds of purposes – to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn. An extensive study that was just completed by one of the gurus in this area, danah boyd, found that the digital world really is changing the way that young adults and youths socialize and learn. These younger generations are using these new media to explore their own interests and experiment with self-expression – while at the same time they are developing both technical skills and a new form of social skills – solving complex problems online in virtual teams. How many of you have children who play WoW? Have you thought about what they are really doing? They are developing skills for tomorrow’s work – creating and implementing strategies and making decisions while under pressure – all the time in self-organizing teams in virtual environments with people they might not ever have met face to face. As a result, these individuals are not only used to but expect more freedom and autonomy in their problem-solving activities at work Next slide Other notes creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. Extending friendships online while some developing shared interest communities. Change way that youth socialize and learn - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. – Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. Increased degree of freedom and autonomy Not just receivers of knowledge but creators of knowledge as well danah boyd study ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** We are happy to announce the online release of the findings from our three-year Digital Youth project (http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu ). All of the researchers who have worked on this project will be writing up individual publications, but this report represents a synthesis of the findings across the 22 different case studies. It has been over three years in the making, and is the result of a truly collaborative effort with 28 researchers and research collaborators. This project is part of the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning initiative. http://digitallearning.macfound.org. You can find all the details in the documents linked below, and a summary of our report below. Two-page summary of report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-TwoPageSummary.pdf White paper: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-WhitePaper.pdf Full report: http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/report Press release and video: http://digitallearning.macfound.org/ethnography -------- RESEARCH SUMMARY Over three years, Mimi Ito and her 28-person research team interviewed over 800 youth and young adults and conducted over 5000 hours of online observations as part of the most extensive U.S. study of youth media use to date. They found that social network sites, online games, video-sharing sites, and gadgets such as iPods and mobile phones are now fixtures of youth culture. The research finds today's youth may be coming of age and struggling for autonomy and identity amid new worlds for communication, friendship, play, and self-expression. Many adults worry that children are wasting time online, texting, or playing video games. The researchers explain why youth find these activities compelling and important. The digital world is creating new opportunities for youth to grapple with social norms, explore interests, develop technical skills, and experiment with new forms of self-expression. These activities have captured teens' attention because they provide avenues for extending social worlds, self-directed learning, and independence. MAJOR FINDINGS - Youth use online media to extend friendships and interests. - Most youth use online networks to extend the friendships that they navigate in the familiar contexts of school, religious organizations, sports, and other local activities. They can be always &quot;on,&quot; in constant contact with their friends through private communications like instant messaging or mobile phones, as well as in public ways through social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook. With these &quot;friendship-driven&quot; practices, youth are almost always associating with people they already know in their offline lives. The majority of youth use new media to &quot;hang out&quot; and extend existing friendships in these ways. A smaller number of youth also use the online world to explore interests and find information that goes beyond what they have access to at school or in their local community. Online groups enable youth to connect to peers who share specialized and niche interests of various kinds, whether that is online gaming, creative writing, video editing, or other artistic endeavors. In these interest-driven networks, youth may find new peers outside the boundaries of their local community. They can also find opportunities to publicize and distribute their work to online audiences, and to gain new forms of Visibility and reputation. - Youth engage in peer-based, self-directed learning online. - In both friendship-driven and interest-driven online activity, youth create and navigate new forms of expression and rules for social behavior. By exploring new interests, tinkering, and &quot;messing around&quot; with new forms of media, they acquire various forms of technical and media literacy. Through trial and error, youth add new media skills to their repertoire, such as how to create a video or game, or customize their MySpace page. Teens then share their creations and receive feedback from others online. By its immediacy and breadth of information, the digital world lowers barriers to self-directed learning. Some youth &quot;geek out&quot; and dive into a topic or talent. Contrary to popular images, geeking out is highly social and engaged, although usually not driven primarily by local friendships. Youth turn instead to specialized knowledge groups of both teens and adults from around the country or world, with the goal of improving their craft and gaining reputation among expert peers. While adults participate, they are not automatically the resident experts by virtue of their age. Geeking out in many respects erases the traditional markers of status and authority. New media allow for a degree of freedom and autonomy for youth that is less apparent in a classroom setting. Youth respect one another's authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self-directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented by set, predefined goals. IMPLICATIONS New media forms have altered how youth socialize and learn, and raise a new set of issues that educators, parents, and policymakers should consider. -Adults should facilitate young people's engagement with digital media. Contrary to adult perceptions, while hanging out online, youth are picking up basic social and technical skills they need to fully participate in contemporary society. Erecting barriers to participation deprives teens of access to these forms of learning. Participation in the digital age means more than being able to access serious online information and culture. Youth could benefit from educators being more open to forms of experimentation and social exploration that are generally not characteristic of educational institutions. Because of the diversity of digital media, it is problematic to develop a standardized set of benchmarks against which to measure young people's technical and new media literacy. Friendship-driven and interest-driven online participation have very different kinds of social connotations. For example, whereas friendship-driven activities centers upon peer culture, adult participation is more welcomed in the latter more &quot;geeky&quot; forms of learning. In addition, the content, behavior, and skills that youth value are highly variable depending on what kinds of social groups they associate with. In interest-driven participation, adults have an important role to play. Youth using new media often learn from their peers, not teachers or adults. Yet adults can still have tremendous influence in setting learning goals, particularly on the interest-driven side where adult hobbyists function as role models and more experienced peers. To stay relevant in the 21st century, education institutions need to keep pace with the rapid changes introduced by digital media. Youths' participation in this networked world suggests new ways of thinking about the role of education. What, the authors ask, would it mean to really exploit the potential of the learning opportunities available through online resources and networks? What would it mean to reach beyond traditional education and civic institutions and enlist the help of others in young people's learning? Rather than assuming that education is primarily about preparing for jobs and careers, they question what it would mean to think of it as a process guiding youths' participation in public life more generally. _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send an email message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the line UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.
Speaker notes As a result, we are seeing significant pressure being put on traditional forms of organizing. On the left is what we are used to thinking about when we speak about organizations. A formal organization - a hierarchy in which information and knowledge goes up and down through the formal lines of an organization. Work tasks are broken down and coordinated through formal processes. However, research has shown that the large majority of work is actually done through informal networks – some say even 80% in knowledge-intensive organizations which is what we see on the right hand side. Here we have mapped the informal or social organization within one organization we were researching - how many of you have seen one of these sociograms or network diagrams before? This is what my research focuses on – investigating knowledge flows through social networks. In this diagram you can see the dots or nodes are individuals and the lines are the knowledge flows between these individuals. Organizations, especially in the US, are increasingly conducting network analyses to better understand the knowledge flows in their organizations and with the help of these diagrams and network analyses, they are strategically developing the organization’s networks to improve the creation and transfer of knowledge within their organizations. And this is becoming of increasing importance to understand and leverage these informal or social networks as the digital natives continue to enter the workforce – bringing with them their way of solving problems, organizing and learning. Next slide Other notes Org on the left is Built around the expert – put the expert in the box But in this new social organization – Large majority of work done through informal networks, some even say approx 80%. Important to understand both these worlds and how relate to one another… Suggests that as much as 90% of information that people take action on comes from people in their own network – Cross dissertation experts are all over the place and you need to find where the expertise lies in the org and how to connect these individuals
Refer to social networks here Began with Jacob Levy Moreno in the 1930s in attempt to quantify social relationships. Based on matrix algebra. Advanced statistics… Nodes can be people, departments, or organizations Networks consist of links that form a structure Links between nodes have different purposes , e.g., task or general advice, expertise, strategic information, navigating the organization (procedures, know-who, etc.) Links can be one or two directional Links can be both formal and informal Links can have different strengths
Back to performance. Interesting results here as well. Similar to intra-organizational networks. See creative performance but interesting to see other Why do you think so? Someone who interested in developing first solution, being seen as guru. Helping others all time with problems. Prestige. Also, difficulty of knowledge, applying external knowledge to own organization’s problems. Have to maintain connections. Interesting example of company that hired one of these gurus. Guy who fired bc all time working on someone else’s problems.
Here I would like to show the results of a study in the construction industry with colleague, Andy Schenkel. This illustrates how two departments can have completely different informal networks and connectedness. The one to left did not meet the structural properties of a community, while the one to the right did . As you can visually see D epartment 1 is disconnected no clear core or periphery not particularly dense In contrast, D epartment 2 is well connected has a core with numbers 77 and 82 forming it and a periphery it also appears to be dense
Source: https://webapp.comm.virginia.edu/NetworkRoundtable/Portals/0/NR04-05/Networks_and_Organizational_Change.pdf There is a structured way of going about ”managing” informal networks. Today share with you some of the findings from my research and from the gurus in the US. Identify informal network where effective collaboration and kn sharing has sig impact on organization’s operations and strategy. So many networks out there but you don’t need to understand all of them. Good for up to 50 individuals, then should look at sub-networks Simple, 10-15 minutes to do, make list of people and ask all to characterize relationship with one another Make sure think through sensitivity of issues, do pretest Uncover networks Identify which networks are important to understand E.g., product development, merger integration Collect network data E.g., observe, interview people, conduct questionnaire Ask appropriate questions, e.g., advice, trust, innovation Analyze the causes of fragmented networks Leadership style, office layout, virtual work, politics, knowledge sharing attitudes, workflow processes, job descriptions Improve connectedness and u nplug bottlenecks Reevaluate formal structure, e.g., team desi gn, roles Rethink work processes Reassign tasks, rotate individuals, s hift responsibilities Are central connectors hoarding info? Is unit too isolated? Are boundary spanners talking with right people? Is unit losing technical expertise? Think about how design teams or redesign jobs, rotating people also. Restaff teams to override hoarding connectors. One organization conducted analysis and restaffed teams combining members of both networks. If overloaded, can implement mailing lists, discussion boards to try to reduce workload on central connector Shift responsibilities, Put in mailing list, discussion boards, socnet example
According to Alexa Site Rankings (US-based): 1.) Google 3.) Facebook 4.) YouTube 5.) MySpace 8.) Wikipedia 18.) Flickr 28.) Apple 43.) LinkedIn 57.) Dell 75.) Twitter According to Alexa Site Rankings (World Rankings): 1.) Google 3.) YouTube 5.) Facebook 7.) Wikipedia 9.) MySpace 33.) Flickr 62.) Apple 141.) LinkedIn 157.) Dell 235.) Twitter
http://www.protonmedia.com/ www.qwaq.com VOIP Chatrooms Wikis, blogs Social networking avatars
Speaker notes So, in closing, what does all this mean? Been a very short presentation, but in the midst of this financial crisis, my belief that those organizations that are able to strategically develop their networks - both inside and outside of the organization as well as that learn to leverage the new social media will be those that are able to win the war for talent as well as to innovate for competitive advantage. However, I think the real key to this lies in one’s mindset related to knowledge. In order to really reap the opportunities provided, companies must cultivate an open knowledge sharing culture in which those that live by the old adage, Knowledge is power, are not rewarded. Knowledge cannot be used up – rather it grows as others learn about it and contribute to it. One must think about how to create awareness of one’s efforts. Rather better to live by this saying, if you love knowledge, then set it free. Has to do with networks that in order to receive knowledge, one must create value and give in relationships Next slide Other notes N etworking – player in space of new technology as well – SSE for adventure into SL “ Knowledge is power” “ Birds of a feather, flock together” (“Lika barn leka bäst”) “ Not-invented-here”
This ‘telephone’ has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is of no value to us.” Western Union internal memo, 1876.
Wikipedia.org Ken Olsen was replaced by Robert Palmer as the company's president. Digital's board of directors also granted Palmer the title of chief executive officer (&quot;CEO&quot;), a title that had never been used during Digital's 35-year existence. Palmer had joined DEC in 1985 to run Semiconductor Engineering and Manufacturing. His relentless campaign to be CEO, and success with the Alpha microprocessor family, made him a candidate to succeed Olsen. At the same time a more modern logo was designed. However, Palmer was unable to stem the tide of red ink. More rounds of layoffs ensued and many of DEC's assets were spun off:Worldwide training was spun off to form an independent/new company called Global Knowledge Network.Their database product, Rdb, was sold to Oracle.The DLT tape technology was sold to Quantum Corporation in 1994.Text terminal business (VT100 and its successors) was sold in August 1995 to Boundless Technologies.In March 1997, DEC's CORBA-based product, ObjectBroker, and its messaging software, MessageQ, was sold to BEA Systems, Inc.In May 1997, DEC sued Intel for allegedly infringing on its Alpha patents in designing the Pentium chips. As part of a settlement, DEC's chip business was sold to Intel. This included DEC's StrongARM implementation of the ARM computer architecture, which Intel sold as the XScale processors commonly used in Pocket PCs.In 1997, the printer business was sold to GENICOM (now TallyGenicom), which then produced models bearing the Digital logo.At about the same time, the networking business was sold to Cabletron Systems, and subsequently spun off as Digital Network Products Group.The DECtalk and DECvoice voice products were spun off, and eventually arrived at Fonix.The rights to the PDP-11 line and several PDP-11 operating systems were sold to Mentec in 1994.Eventually, on January 26, 1998, what remained of the company (including Digital's multivendor global services organization and customer support centers) was sold to Compaq, which was acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 2002. Hewlett-Packard now sells what were formerly Digital's StorageWorks disk/tape products, as a result of the Compaq acquisition.The Digital logo survived for a while after the company ceased to exist, as the logo of Digital GlobalSoft, an IT services company in India (which was a 51 percent subsidiary of DEC). Digital GlobalSoft was later renamed &quot;HP GlobalSoft&quot; (also known as the &quot;HP Global Delivery India Center&quot; or HP GDIC) and no longer uses the Digital logo.The digital.com and DEC.com domain names are now owned by Hewlett-Packard and redirect to their US website.The Digital Federal Credit Union (DCU), which was chartered in 1979 for employees of DEC, is now open to essentially everyone, with over 700 different sponsors, including the companies that acquired pieces of DEC.
Speaker notes Just to give you an example, I try to practice what I preach and I put all my presentations on a site called slideshare.net and make them downloadable. I have one presentation based on my research on networks that has received almost 18 000 hits and it has been downloaded several thousand times by people all over the world. It has been used as course material in France and in articles and I have been contacted by people from places as far away as South Africa, Canada, Dubai, and India for interviews and for teaching opportunities. Also, through Second Life I have met some fascinating people and one of my closest colleagues now is Steve Mahaley, aka Ace Carson, who is the Director of Learning Technology at Duke Corporate Education. Steve is in the audience here…. So, in closing, I would like to say that I am now in your networks, and it would be fantastic if some of you were interested in participating in a research project or if you were just curious about learning more about virtual worlds. SSE has an island here and the idea was to create a playing ground where companies could experiment and play with virtual worlds. So, feel free to contact me online or inworld! Thank you! End
IFL Consortia Sep09 Teigland
<ul><li>Leveraging Networks and Social Media for Improved Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robin Teigland, aka </li></ul><ul><li>Karinda Rhode </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm School of Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor </li></ul><ul><li>www.knowledenetworking.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.slideshare.net/eteigland </li></ul>Photo: H. Lundholm, Metro September 8, 2009 ww.ifl.se
"...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the change inside, the end is near...." Jack Welch…
A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2009 Fischbowl 2007
… that becomes quickly outdated …. 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education Third year of education
<ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpEnFwiqdx8&feature=fvst </li></ul><ul><li>How are these trends affecting you and your organization? </li></ul>
Human capacity cannot keep up… Cohen & Levinthal 1989 Growth Time Information and knowledge Human absorptive capacity
<ul><li>” No one knows everything, </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something, </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides in humanity.” </li></ul>networks Adapted from Lévy 1997
6 degrees of separation <ul><li>Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Small World Phenomenon” </li></ul><ul><li>by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967 </li></ul>
The wisdom of the crowds Closed Expensive Complex Accurate Open Inexpensive Simple Close enough Hinton 2007
Leveraging external resources to find solutions and solve unsolved problems
Transparency: There is nowhere to hide… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8XxcOj3Seo Fortune, Rey 2008
Traditional media vs social media http://adultaddstrengths.com/2008/11/05/obama-vs-mccain-social-media/
History tends to repeat itself…. Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics Late 18 th C Late 19 th C Late 20 th C Schön 2008 Third industrial revolution?
A new workforce is appearing… Mahaley 2008, Merrill Lynch 1999, Beck and Wade, Prensky “ Digital Immigrants” “ Digital Natives” Company loyalty Work ≠ Personal Learning=Behind the desk Professional loyalty Work = Personal Learning=Fun and games
Using the social web to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn
Building skills in virtual environments <ul><li>My CV </li></ul><ul><li>Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication </li></ul>
Digital natives <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk </li></ul>
Increasing pressure on “traditional” organizations Formal organization/ Hierarchy Teigland et al. 2005 Social organization / Heterarchy
What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties <ul><li>Ties/Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, trust, team, sit by, dislike, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance, customer, investment, etc. </li></ul></ul>Tie <ul><li>Actors/Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams, organizations, etc. </li></ul></ul>Actor
Two individuals/organizations with the same number of contacts… B A
… but with very different access to resources B A
Network dynamics impact creativity and innovation Firm A Low on-time High Creative High on-time Low creative Teigland 2003 High creative Virtual community Firm B
Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Section 1 Section 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008
Some leadership challenges! <ul><li>When employees are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is sticky within the firm, but flows easily across organizational boundaries within networks of practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous – we tend to develop relations with people like ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the diversity of team members, the higher the potential for conflict and poor results. </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting and retaining talent </li></ul>Allen 1984, Burt 1992, Brown & Duguid 2002, Marsden 1987, Ruuska & Teigland 2009, Teigland 2003
“ Managing” networks in your organization Before After Anklam & Welch 2005 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness
Web 2.0/3.0 and social media help overcome these challenges <ul><li>Finding and connecting with people internally and externally </li></ul><ul><li>Building communities </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information & knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems & finding solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning informally </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming diversity challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through creating collective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language and norms </li></ul></ul>
Serena Software: Strengthening internal and external relationships through Facebook <ul><li>#1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup </li></ul><ul><li>96 of Fortune 100 as customers </li></ul><ul><li>800 employees in 18 countries across globe </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook Fridays: One hour every Friday on Facebook to find fun and connect with co-workers, customers, family, and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Average employee age: 46 </li></ul><ul><li>27 year old Silicon Valley company </li></ul><ul><li>>90% of employees on FB </li></ul>
From organization-generated content (OGC) to user-generated content (UGC) Content created by a user to be used by a user Shifting sources of value Content created by an organization to sell to a user Di Gangi 2008
Are there any benefits from social media, or is it all hype? <ul><li>Among the clients surveyed by Select Minds, corporate social networking resulted in: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity Contributions: Increase in productivity by an average of 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Retention Contributions: Increase in retention by an average of 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in New Business: Increase new business by an average of 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Rehiring Former Employees: On average, rehires made through their Corporate Social Networking program…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>become fully productive 49% faster than all experienced hires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>became Star Performers (66%), versus 26% of experienced hires </li></ul></ul>Select Minds 2008: "Corporate Social Networking: Increasing the Density of Workplace Connections to Power Business Performance"
Companies are turning to virtual worlds to improve skills and facilitate innovation <ul><li>Public and completely private virtual business worlds (immernets) to recruit, train, collaborate, and innovate </li></ul><ul><li>Accenture, Cisco, IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Motorola, Novartis, Philips, Sun, Unilever, ….. </li></ul>
HSB: creating tomorrow’s solution while attracting employees and customers today Building the house of the future in a competition with architecture students HSB: One of Sweden’s largest real estate management companies
Improving virtual teaming and cross-cultural skills Task: To build a bridge in your virtual team Designed by Duke CE and Stockholm School of Economics
Our innovation workshops bring together users from across the globe
Sessions introducing VWs NY HRPS March 11, 2009 Do you want to learn more?
So, what does all this mean? <ul><li>Organizations have to develop their networks globally - both inside and out </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to leverage social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To win the war for talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To innovate for competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to develop their employees’ network leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to cultivate an open, knowledge sharing culture </li></ul>I f you love knowledge, set it free …
Management cannot mandate social relationships My company has blocked my computer from accessing most of the social media sites. But I feel so cut off from my network. So, now I just connect through my phone.
“ I think there’s a world market for maybe five computers.” Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943 “ There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977 “ Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895
All the things right, but not the right thing!
Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland Photo by H. Lindholm, Metro
Interested in a tour? Stepping into the Internet: A tour of Second Life
Sources and acknowledgements <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks . Perseus, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burt, Structural Holes, 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castells, The Rise of the Network Society . Blackwell, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross & Parker, The Hidden Power of Social Networks . Harvard Business School, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gladwell, The Tipping Point . Abacus, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Social Network Analysis . Sage, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teigland, Knowledge Networking , SSE, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teten & Allen, The Virtual Handshake . American Management Assoc., 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homepages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wayne Baker, webuser.bus.umich.edu/wayneb/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Bird, people.bu.edu/sbird </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Borgatti, www.socialnetworkanalysis.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rob Cross, www.robcross.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Network for Social Network Analysis http://www.insna.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Krackhardt, www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/krack/index.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valdis Krebs, www.orgnet.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fredrik Liljeros, www.sociology.su.se/home/Liljeros/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Mahaley, www.dukece.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Moody, www.soc.duke.edu/~jmoody77/presentations/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giancarlo Oriani, www.informalorg.eu (In Italian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barry Wellman, www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/ </li></ul></ul>
Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Articles and Research Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Baker, & Parker, “What creates energy in organizations?”, Sloan Management Review , Summer 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Parise, & Weiss, “Driving Strategic Change with a Network Perspective”, Network Roundtable working paper, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kleinbaum, Stuart, Tushman, Communication (and Coordination?) in a Modern, Complex Organization, HBS working paper, http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/09-004.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ibarra & Hunter, “How Leaders Create and Use Networks”, HBR, 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleman, D. Virtual Team Spaces, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connaughton, SL & Daly, JA, “Leading from Afar: Strategies for Effectively Leading Virtual Teams” in Virtual Collaborative Teams: Process, Technologies, & Practice (S. H. Godar & S. P. Ferris, Eds.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipnack, J. & Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology . John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 1997. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maznevski, M. High performance from global virtual teams, 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruuska, I. & Teigland, R. 2009 (Forthcoming). “Ensuring Project Success through Collective Competence and Conflict Management in Public-private Partnerships: A Case Study of a Swedish Triple Helix e-government Initiative”. International Journal of Project Management . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schermerhorn, Jr., J., Management , 2004. </li></ul></ul>
Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gurteen, Online Information 2007: KM goes Social, http://www.slideshare.net/dgurteen/km-goes-social-194717 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poole, IBM: Web 2.0 goes to work, http://www.slideshare.net/jward5519/ibm-web-2-0-goes-to-work-presentation’ </li></ul></ul>