Going global:  Internationalization strategies Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowledgen...
What is globalization? <ul><li>A process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization...
Why globalization?  <ul><li>The information age in which we live allows both large and small businesses to thrive on a glo...
Global supply chains - Dell Susanto Surrounding every Dell factory are supplier logistic centers owned by the different su...
International production network – Boeing 787 Networked internationalization is at the core of the production process  - C...
Patterns of internationalization   Trading   Global industries   industries --aerospace   --automobiles --military hardwar...
You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! The Radio Model Adapted from Sölvell
W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
Why internationalize? <ul><li>To build global  efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefiting from differences in factor cost...
Forces for worldwide innovation and learning <ul><li>Increasing pace of technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Shortenin...
<ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =pMcfrLYDm2U </li></ul><ul><li>Which...
But…. <ul><li>Not every firm is ready to internationalize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prematurely venturing outside borders may ...
W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
Where? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 192 member states in UN !!! ? Wikipedia
PESTEL – What characterizes the national environment? Johnson & Scholes 1997 Political Environmental Technological Legal S...
1. Which of these are the most important at the present time? 2. Which of these will be the most important in the next few...
How far is the distance from the home country? <ul><li>Cultural distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between two cult...
Differences in uncertainty avoidance and power distance Grant 2007
Five dimensions of national culture  <ul><li>Differences in national culture found to result in different organizational a...
Three pillars of institutional profile  <ul><li>Differences in institutional profile found to result in adoption of differ...
Porter’s diamond model
What is the quality of the business environment?  Porter’s  Diamond Model
Is there a cluster to tap into? Haan
A high-technology cluster in Israel <ul><li>Recognized as excellent source of technology innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Larg...
The Boston Life Sciences Cluster – Porter 2005
Nations/regions are trying to attract investment
After this preliminary screening… Which foreign markets warrant further detailed investigation?
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
Industry definition A group of firms producing products that are close substitutes for each other Porter
How big is the profit and who is after it? vs Profit Profit
Five forces of competition SUPPLIERS POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUBSTITUTES BUYERS INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry among existing fir...
Rivalry between established competitors <ul><li>Numerous or equally balanced competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Slow industry g...
Bargaining power of buyers Buyer’s price sensitivity Relative bargaining power <ul><li>What is cost of product as % </li><...
Bargaining power of suppliers Supplier’s price sensitivity Relative bargaining power <ul><li>What is cost of supplies as %...
Threat of substitutes <ul><li>Existence of substitutes places ceiling on prices that can be charged </li></ul><ul><li>Same...
Threat of new entrants <ul><li>High capital requirements </li></ul><ul><li>High economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Stron...
W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
Can you enter from a vantage point? Adapted from Sölvell
What do you bring? <ul><li>RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>TANGIBLE  INTANGIBLE  HUMAN  </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul>...
Functional classification of organizational capabilities FUNCTION CAPABILITY EXAMPLES Corporate Financial management Exxon...
How well can you sustain your advantage? <ul><li>Scarcity: How scarce are your resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Imitability: H...
Leveraging resources and capabilities for success
W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to  WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
Modes of entry choice <ul><li>Exporting  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or indirect sales of services or products in foreign...
A hierarchical model of entry choice modes Adapted from Y. Pan & D. Tse, 2000, The hierarchical model of market entry mode...
Criteria for selecting entry mode  <ul><li>Trade-off  of four critical variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control   -  Abilit...
Assessing trade-offs of entry modes Delfmann
Advantages & disadvantages of entry modes Hill 2000
Advantages & disadvantages of entry modes Hill 2000
Entry Modes - Exporting <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids the often substantial cost of establishing manufacturi...
Entry Mode - Licensing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Receive royalties for granting the rights to intangible proper...
Entry Modes – Turnkey Project <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Means of exporting process technology (chemical, pharma...
Entry Mode - Franchising <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Involves longer term commitment than licensing. Primarily us...
Entry Mode – Joint Ventures <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 50/50 with contributed team of managers to shar...
Entry Mode – Subsidiary  <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>When there is technological competence wholly-owned subsidia...
Greenfield or Acquisition <ul><li>Greenfield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better ability to build organization you want </li></ul...
Scale of entry: Commitment and experience <ul><li>Large-scale entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Strategic alliances growing in importance <ul><li>Cooperative agreement involving  mutual dependence  and  shared decision...
Managing strategic alliances <ul><li>Understanding logic of collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying when, where, a...
SUZUKI ISUZU TOYOTA IBC Vehicles Ltd. (U.K.) GM New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI) 10% owned. Co-production 49%ow...
Timing of entry <ul><li>Early entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm enters foreign market before other foreign firms </li></ul>...
Dynamics of internationalization Ongoing assessment of trade-offs and resources and capabilities Ongoing evaluation of nat...
Typical internationalization process <ul><li>Sporadic  exporting  in response to unsolicited requests </li></ul><ul><li>Sy...
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
W W B H Often forgotten Implicit Changed logic over time Often overstated Focus often put here Often forced trial-and-erro...
Activio (www.activio.se) <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate and improve physical activity and in the long t...
Exercise – Help Activio internationalize <ul><li>You are consultants to Activio (www.activio.se) </li></ul><ul><li>In pair...
Internationalization framework  <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barri...
What about recent developments in virtual worlds?
The number of virtual worlds is growing Wonderland Teigland 2008
Second Life – one example of a virtual world <ul><li>Film by Duke CE </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bi5i...
Why should we be interested? <ul><li>Second Life as an example (March 2008): </li></ul><ul><li>~ 50,000  people online at ...
Reaching out to co-create today’s solutions… Philips Design Group Teigland 2008
..and even tomorrow’s solutions Building the house of the future in an HSB competition Teigland 2008
Improving national competitiveness <ul><li>China’s “virtual world where millions will work,  </li></ul><ul><li>communicate...
Sources <ul><li>Ahlstrom, D. & Cook, C., Global Strategy: Entering Foreign Markets, South-Western, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li...
Thanks and  see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare....
Measurement GEB 6365   THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS FIRM OBJECTIVE INFORMATION REQUIREMENT PROBLEM DEFINIT...
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Going Global_Internationalization Strategies

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an overview of some frameworks for organizations interested in internationalization

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  • This slideshow was prepared for a course at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Going Global_Internationalization Strategies

    1. 1. Going global: Internationalization strategies Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland April 2008
    2. 2. What is globalization? <ul><li>A process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions – assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity, and impact – generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction, and the exercise of power </li></ul><ul><li>Held et al, 2003 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why globalization? <ul><li>The information age in which we live allows both large and small businesses to thrive on a global scale. Technologies like the internet, mobile phones, etc. have made our shrinking world even smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingsley 2005 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Global supply chains - Dell Susanto Surrounding every Dell factory are supplier logistic centers owned by the different suppliers of Dell parts - Friedman 2005
    5. 5. International production network – Boeing 787 Networked internationalization is at the core of the production process - Castells 2000
    6. 6. Patterns of internationalization Trading Global industries industries --aerospace --automobiles --military hardware --oil --diamond mining --semiconductors --agriculture --consumer electronics Domestic Multidomestic industries industries --railroads --laundries/dry cleaning --retail banking --hairdressing --hotels - - milk --consulting International trade Foreign direct investment LOW LOW HIGH HIGH Grant 2007
    7. 7. You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! The Radio Model Adapted from Sölvell
    8. 8. W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
    9. 9. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    10. 10. W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
    11. 11. Why internationalize? <ul><li>To build global efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefiting from differences in factor costs – wages, cost of capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding and exploiting potential scale economies - manufacturing, R&D, sales & marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of investments and costs across markets and businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To manage risks through multinational flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different kinds of risks arising from market- or policy-induced changes in comparative advantages of different countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio diversification of risks and creation of options and side bets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To facilitate innovation and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapping into a skill base, eg. technological, organizational, managerial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefiting from experience – cost reduction and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergies and shared learning across different products, markets, or businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following global customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building reputation, changing identity </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Grant 2007
    12. 12. Forces for worldwide innovation and learning <ul><li>Increasing pace of technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Shortening product life-cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Rising R&D costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of multinationals with capability to develop and diffuse innovation globally </li></ul>2-11 Increasing need to develop worldwide organization as a learning system Innovative capability as emerging source of competitive advantage Adapted from Grant 2007
    13. 13. <ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =pMcfrLYDm2U </li></ul><ul><li>Which globalization forces are presented? </li></ul>
    14. 14. But…. <ul><li>Not every firm is ready to internationalize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prematurely venturing outside borders may harm overall firm performance, especially for smaller firms with small margin for error </li></ul></ul>• Long-term investment • High ambitions - risk • Commitment - exit barriers Adapted from Sölvell
    15. 15. W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
    16. 16. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    17. 17. Where? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 192 member states in UN !!! ? Wikipedia
    18. 18. PESTEL – What characterizes the national environment? Johnson & Scholes 1997 Political Environmental Technological Legal Social Economic National environment
    19. 19. 1. Which of these are the most important at the present time? 2. Which of these will be the most important in the next few years? <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global, regional, and national political development (administration, political parties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign trade regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour market politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes to work and leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes to consumerism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in values/attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work environment conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Green” energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste handling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNP trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest rates & exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private consumption and disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public finances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy availability and cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending on research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and industry focus of technological effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New discoveries/development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of technology transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates of obsolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New patents and products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in price and competitive legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour market legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product safety and approvals </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. How far is the distance from the home country? <ul><li>Cultural distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between two cultures along some identifiable dimensions, eg such as power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of similarity or dissimilarity between regulatory, normative, and cognitive institutions of two countries </li></ul></ul>Grant 2007
    21. 21. Differences in uncertainty avoidance and power distance Grant 2007
    22. 22. Five dimensions of national culture <ul><li>Differences in national culture found to result in different organizational and administrative practices and employee expectations (Kogut & Singh 1988, Zander 1997, Straub 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree that less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree that individuals are integrated into strong cohesive groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree that values are characterized by assertiveness and competitiveness vs modesty and caring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D egree that individuals feel comfortable with ambiguity, uncertainty, unstructured situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree that individuals deal with virtue regardless of truth (thrift and perseverance) vs tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting “face” </li></ul></ul></ul>Hofstede 1980, 2003
    23. 23. Three pillars of institutional profile <ul><li>Differences in institutional profile found to result in adoption of different organizational and administrative practices (Kostova & Roth 2002, Busenitz et al. 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government policies and legal system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widely shared social knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>Note: Cross-cultural management researchers are divided as to whether national culture and institutional profile are distinct. Scott 1995
    24. 24. Porter’s diamond model
    25. 25. What is the quality of the business environment? Porter’s Diamond Model
    26. 26. Is there a cluster to tap into? Haan
    27. 27. A high-technology cluster in Israel <ul><li>Recognized as excellent source of technology innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Largest concentration of high-tech companies outside US </li></ul><ul><li>Created category leaders in various industries </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous concentration of global technology leaders </li></ul>Haan
    28. 28. The Boston Life Sciences Cluster – Porter 2005
    29. 29. Nations/regions are trying to attract investment
    30. 30. After this preliminary screening… Which foreign markets warrant further detailed investigation?
    31. 31. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    32. 32. Industry definition A group of firms producing products that are close substitutes for each other Porter
    33. 33. How big is the profit and who is after it? vs Profit Profit
    34. 34. Five forces of competition SUPPLIERS POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUBSTITUTES BUYERS INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry among existing firms Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of new entrants Threat of substitutes Porter
    35. 35. Rivalry between established competitors <ul><li>Numerous or equally balanced competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Slow industry growth </li></ul><ul><li>High fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of differentiation or switching costs </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity augmented in large increments </li></ul><ul><li>High strategic stakes </li></ul><ul><li>High exit barriers </li></ul>What makes competitors “fight” harder? Porter
    36. 36. Bargaining power of buyers Buyer’s price sensitivity Relative bargaining power <ul><li>What is cost of product as % </li></ul><ul><li>of buyer’s total costs? </li></ul><ul><li>How differentiated is the </li></ul><ul><li>purchased item? </li></ul><ul><li>How intense is competition between buyers? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is the item to quality of the buyer’s own output? </li></ul><ul><li>What are size and concentration of buyers relative to sellers? </li></ul><ul><li>What are buyer’s switching costs? </li></ul><ul><li>What is buyer’s information? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ability to backward integrate? </li></ul>Porter Who decides the price?
    37. 37. Bargaining power of suppliers Supplier’s price sensitivity Relative bargaining power <ul><li>What is cost of supplies as % of total supplier’s sales? </li></ul><ul><li>How differentiated is the supplied item? </li></ul><ul><li>How intense is competition between suppliers? </li></ul><ul><li>What are size and concentration of sellers relative to buyers? </li></ul><ul><li>What is supplier’s information? </li></ul><ul><li>What is supplier’s ability to forward integrate? </li></ul>Porter Who decides the price?
    38. 38. Threat of substitutes <ul><li>Existence of substitutes places ceiling on prices that can be charged </li></ul><ul><li>Same function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train/plane/car/ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better price-performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books/videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record-players/CD-players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security guards / electronic alarm systems </li></ul></ul>Point A ? Porter How “easy” is it to switch? Point B
    39. 39. Threat of new entrants <ul><li>High capital requirements </li></ul><ul><li>High economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Strong customer loyalties </li></ul><ul><li>High switching costs </li></ul><ul><li>High product differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to distribution channels </li></ul><ul><li>High legal/regulatory barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Large cost disadvantages independent of scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Proprietary technology, raw materials, location, learning curve, government subsidies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong retaliation by industry participants </li></ul>What keeps new competitors out - barriers to entry? Porter
    40. 40. W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
    41. 41. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    42. 42. Can you enter from a vantage point? Adapted from Sölvell
    43. 43. What do you bring? <ul><li>RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>TANGIBLE INTANGIBLE HUMAN </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>Management Systems Organization Structure ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITIES <ul><li>Skills/know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for communication & collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>Grant 2007
    44. 44. Functional classification of organizational capabilities FUNCTION CAPABILITY EXAMPLES Corporate Financial management ExxonMobil, GE management Strategic control IBM, Samsung Coordinating business units BP, P&G Managing acquisitions Citigroup, Cisco MIS Speed and responsiveness through Wal-Mart, Dell, rapid information transfer Capital One R&D Research capability Merck, IBM Development of innovative new products Apple, 3M Manufacturing Efficient volume manufacturing Briggs & Stratton Continuous Improvement Nucor, Harley-D Flexibility Zara, Four Seasons Design Design capability Apple, Nokia Marketing Brand management P&G, LVMH, Coke Quality reputation Johnson & Johnson Responsiveness to market trends MTV, L’Oreal Sales, distribution Sales responsiveness PepsiCo, Pfizer & service Efficiency and speed of distribution LL Bean, Dell Customer Service Singapore Airlines Caterpillar Grant 2007
    45. 45. How well can you sustain your advantage? <ul><li>Scarcity: How scarce are your resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Imitability: How easy is it to imitate your resources and capabilities? </li></ul><ul><li>Bundled: How easy is it to identify your resources and capabilities? </li></ul>Adapted from Grant 2007
    46. 46. Leveraging resources and capabilities for success
    47. 47. W HY? Ask yourself four basic questions H OW? B RING? W HERE? You are listening to WWBH , Kiss FM! Adapted from Sölvell
    48. 48. Modes of entry choice <ul><li>Exporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or indirect sales of services or products in foreign market from home market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement where firm (licensor) grants to independent foreign firm (licensee) rights of intangible assets (patents, trade secrets, know-how, trade marks, or company name) to produce firm's product or service in their country for negotiated fee - normally royalty payments on number of units sold. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Franchising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized form of licensing in which firm (franchisor) licenses business system as well as other property rights to franchisee. Franchisor licenses way of organizing and conducting a business under its trade name and in return, the franchisor receives fees, running royalties, and other compensations from franchisee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turnkey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm agrees to handle every detail of project for foreign client, including training of personnel, and at completion “hands over key” to foreign client. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint venture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International firm shares in ownership of an enterprise in target country. Most commonly, international firm agrees to share capital and other resources with another local firm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wholly owned subsidiary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm acquires 100 percent of firm or sets up own through greenfield. </li></ul></ul>Hill 2000
    49. 49. A hierarchical model of entry choice modes Adapted from Y. Pan & D. Tse, 2000, The hierarchical model of market entry modes (p. 538), Journal of International Business Studies , 31: 535–554. Commitment
    50. 50. Criteria for selecting entry mode <ul><li>Trade-off of four critical variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control - Ability to influence systems, methods, and decisions in operation of target market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer risk - Possibility that firm specific advantages in know-how will be expropriated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource intensity (cost) - Amount of dedicated assets, eg management, marketing, provision of technical support, and human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning - Ability to gain foreign market knowledge, eg customer preferences, techniques of foreign operation, ways of doing business, legal rules, etc. </li></ul></ul>Delfman Delfmann
    51. 51. Assessing trade-offs of entry modes Delfmann
    52. 52. Advantages & disadvantages of entry modes Hill 2000
    53. 53. Advantages & disadvantages of entry modes Hill 2000
    54. 54. Entry Modes - Exporting <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids the often substantial cost of establishing manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>May help firm achieve experience curve & location economies </li></ul><ul><li>Firm may manufacture in centralized location & export to other national markets to realize scale economies from global sales volume (Sony/TV, Matsushita/VCR, Samsung/Chips) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Not appropriate if lower cost manufacturing locations </li></ul><ul><li>High transport costs can make exporting uneconomical especially bulk products </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff barriers can make exporting uneconomical </li></ul><ul><li>If firm delegates marketing, sales & service to another company they may have divided loyalties because they carry competing products or are a large MNE (Diebold) </li></ul><ul><li>Can set up wholly owned subsidiaries to handle local marketing & sales -> can exercise tight control while reaping cost advantage of manufacturing in a single location </li></ul>Burke
    55. 55. Entry Mode - Licensing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Receive royalties for granting the rights to intangible property to licensee for specified period (patents, inventions, formulas, processes, designs, copyrights, trademarks) </li></ul><ul><li>Licensee puts up most of the capital to get the operations going – mitigates development cost & risk </li></ul><ul><li>Allows firm to participate where there are barriers to investment (Fuji-Xerox) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently used when firm possesses intangible property but does not want to develop the business application itself (Coco-Cola/clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily used by manufacturing firms </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Does not give firm tight control over manufacturing, marketing & strategy to realize experience curve & location economies </li></ul><ul><li>Does not allow firm to coordinate strategic moves across countries by using profits earned in one country for competitive attacks in another </li></ul><ul><li>Firms can lose control over the competitive advantage of their technological know-how. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-licensing can mitigate risk by holding each other hostage for misuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firms can reduce risk by forming a joint venture with each party taking equity stakes </li></ul></ul>Burke
    56. 56. Entry Modes – Turnkey Project <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Means of exporting process technology (chemical, pharmaceutical, petroleum, mining) </li></ul><ul><li>Know-how to assemble & run technologically complex process is valuable asset – earn economic benefit from asset </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy useful where governments restrict FDI - less risky than conventional FDI </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Firm has no long term interest in the country – can take minority equity interest in company </li></ul><ul><li>Firm may inadvertently create a competitor (middle east oil refineries) </li></ul><ul><li>If firm’s process technology is a source of competitive advantage, then selling technology is also selling competitive advantage to potential competitors </li></ul>Burke
    57. 57. Entry Mode - Franchising <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Involves longer term commitment than licensing. Primarily used by service firms (McDonalds) </li></ul><ul><li>Franchiser sells intangible property (trademark) & insists franchisee agrees to abide by strict business rules (location, methods, design, staffing, supply chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Royalty payments that are some percentage of franchisee’s revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Firm relieved of many costs & risks of opening new market. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>No manufacturing so no location economies & experience curve </li></ul><ul><li>May inhibit the ability to take profits out of one country to support competitive attacks in another </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of worldwide reputation if no quality control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm can set up “master franchise” in each country – subsidiary which is JV (McDonalds & local firm) </li></ul></ul>Burke
    58. 58. Entry Mode – Joint Ventures <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 50/50 with contributed team of managers to share operating control </li></ul><ul><li>Firm benefits from local partner’s knowledge of competitive conditions, culture, language, political system & business system </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing market development costs & risks with local partner </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries, political considerations make JVs the only feasible entry mode </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of giving away your technology to a partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold majority ownership for more control in venture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall-off technology that is central to your core competency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not give firm control over subsidiaries that it might need to realize experience curve or location economies </li></ul><ul><li>Global strategic coordination – firm use JV for checking competitor market share and limiting cash available for invading other markets (TI & Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared ownership can lead to conflicts & battles for control if goals/objectives change or they take different views on strategy </li></ul>Burke
    59. 59. Entry Mode – Subsidiary <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>When there is technological competence wholly-owned subsidiary reduces risk over losing control </li></ul><ul><li>Give firm tight control over operations in country -> engage in strategic coordination with profits </li></ul><ul><li>Can realize location & experience curve economies – centrally determined decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Most costly method of market entry </li></ul><ul><li>Risk associated with learning to do business in a new culture </li></ul>Burke
    60. 60. Greenfield or Acquisition <ul><li>Greenfield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better ability to build organization you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to establish own culture & operating routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have revenue & profit history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower to establish – need to understand how to do business in that country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50%-80% of FDI is acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick to execute – rapidly build presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisitions can preempt competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying known revenue & profit stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to marry divergent corporate cultures </li></ul></ul>Burke
    61. 61. Scale of entry: Commitment and experience <ul><li>Large-scale entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration of strategic commitment to certain markets, which both assures local customers and suppliers and deters potential entrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale entry limits strategic flexibility elsewhere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entrants must incur sizable losses if the large-scale entry “bet” turns out to be wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Small-scale entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less costly if entry is unsuccessful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization learns through hands-on experience in host countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of strong strategic commitment, which may lead to difficulties in building market share and capturing first mover advantages </li></ul></ul></ul>Ahlstrom & Cook
    62. 62. Strategic alliances growing in importance <ul><li>Cooperative agreement involving mutual dependence and shared decision making between potential or actual competing organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple forms including JVs, R&D collaborations, piggy backing, sourcing relationships, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differ from traditional JVs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly between firms in industrialized nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on creation of new products and technologies rather than distribution of existing ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising R&D costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening product life cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing market entry barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing need for global scale economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding importance of global standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty in technological developments </li></ul></ul>GEB 6365
    63. 63. Managing strategic alliances <ul><li>Understanding logic of collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying when, where, and why to collaborate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually one of several options for pursuing a strategic goal (eg product exchange, learning, market positioning) - never an end in itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to collaboration: self-sufficiency, buying inputs or skills, full acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing how to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary needs and resources/capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structuring alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing organizational forms that provide incentives for success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts vs. equity relationships </li></ul></ul>GEB 6365
    64. 64. SUZUKI ISUZU TOYOTA IBC Vehicles Ltd. (U.K.) GM New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI) 10% owned. Co-production 49%owned. Co-production 40% investment 60% owned 50% owned 50% owned (Makes vans in UK) (Makes cars in US) SAAB 50% owned FIAT 20% owned (2000-5). Collaboration on technology and components FUJI 20% owned; joint production DAEWOO 50.9% owned; technical & production collaboration AVTOVAZ Russian JV to produce cars SAIC JV to produce cars in China General Motors ’ alliances with competitors Grant 2007
    65. 65. Timing of entry <ul><li>Early entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm enters foreign market before other foreign firms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First mover advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to preempt rivals & capture demand by establishing strong brand name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build sales volume and ride down experience curve with cost advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create switching cost that tie customers into products & services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First mover disadvantages - Pioneering costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time & effort in learning rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes due to ignorance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability of being foreigner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of promoting & establishing product – educating customers (KFC in China -> benefit to McDonald’s) </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Delfmann
    66. 66. Dynamics of internationalization Ongoing assessment of trade-offs and resources and capabilities Ongoing evaluation of national and industry environments Decision to increase internationalization involvement
    67. 67. Typical internationalization process <ul><li>Sporadic exporting in response to unsolicited requests </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic exporting </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing to a foreign company </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a wholly owned sales subsidiary </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring existing foreign operations </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing foreign manufacturing and/or R&D </li></ul>Fey 2008
    68. 68. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    69. 69. W W B H Often forgotten Implicit Changed logic over time Often overstated Focus often put here Often forced trial-and-error Don´t forget 5 forces analysis! Lessons Adapted from Sölvell
    70. 70. Activio (www.activio.se) <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate and improve physical activity and in the long term contribute to an increased wellbeing of today’s society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops, manufactures, and markets heart-rate measurement systems for sports and health industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems in fitness centers, schools, professional sports clubs (eg Real Madrid and FC Barcelona) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health and fitness, physiology, technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home country Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In use in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom, Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey, Dubai </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Exercise – Help Activio internationalize <ul><li>You are consultants to Activio (www.activio.se) </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs, develop preliminary recommendations for Activio’s management </li></ul>Should Activio enter India? And if so, how?
    72. 72. Internationalization framework <ul><li>INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among firms </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute products/services </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>& CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>General management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster conditions </li></ul>WWBH
    73. 73. What about recent developments in virtual worlds?
    74. 74. The number of virtual worlds is growing Wonderland Teigland 2008
    75. 75. Second Life – one example of a virtual world <ul><li>Film by Duke CE </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bi5i3UwVvbg </li></ul>Teigland 2008
    76. 76. Why should we be interested? <ul><li>Second Life as an example (March 2008): </li></ul><ul><li>~ 50,000 people online at any one time </li></ul><ul><li>~ 1,350,000 people logged on during past 60 days </li></ul><ul><li>~ 1,500,000 USD spent every day on virtual goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>> Numerous multinationals going virtual </li></ul>Teigland 2008
    77. 77. Reaching out to co-create today’s solutions… Philips Design Group Teigland 2008
    78. 78. ..and even tomorrow’s solutions Building the house of the future in an HSB competition Teigland 2008
    79. 79. Improving national competitiveness <ul><li>China’s “virtual world where millions will work, </li></ul><ul><li>communicate, and be in love” </li></ul><ul><li>7 mln local + 150 mln overseas Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Five virtual banking licenses auctioned for $404,000 May 2007 </li></ul>Financial Times , June 2007 Teigland 2008
    80. 80. Sources <ul><li>Ahlstrom, D. & Cook, C., Global Strategy: Entering Foreign Markets, South-Western, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Burke, Chapter 12: Entering Foreign Markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: Developing Strategic Capabilities, McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Delfmann, W. Boundaries of International Business Activities, University of Cologne. </li></ul><ul><li>Fey, C. International Business, Stockholm School of Economics, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>GEB 6365 - INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, EXECUTIVE MBA, The Internationalization Process & Market Entry Strategies, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Gemcom, Triumphs & Tragedies in International Business, WAGON Conference, Perth April 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Grant, R. Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Blackwell, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>McGee, J., Thomas, H. & Wilson, D. Strategy: Analysis and Practice, McGraw-Hill, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Porter, ME. Competitive Strategy, Free Press, 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Porter, ME. What is Strategy? HBR, Nov-Dec, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Sölvell, Ö. The Radio Model, Stockholm School of Economics, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Teigland, R., Fad or Future: What do virtual worlds have to offer?, www.slideshare.net/eteigland/, 2008. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland
    82. 82. Measurement GEB 6365 THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS FIRM OBJECTIVE INFORMATION REQUIREMENT PROBLEM DEFINITION CHOOSE UNIT OF ANALYSIS EXAMINE DATA AVAILABILTY Can Secondary Data be Used? ASSESS VALUE OF RESEARCH RESEARCH DESIGN DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION/ PRESENTATION Firm’s Needs Market Orientation Strategic Orientation Problem Orientation Self Reference Criterion Country Region Global Subgroup/Segments Within Countries Cost/ Benefit Analysis Causal Descriptive Exploratory Data Preparation Data Manipulation T-tests & Cross TAbs Experimental Design & ANOVA Multivariate Techniques Advantages / Disadavantages of Secondary Research Sources of Secondary Data Types of Problems That CAn be Solved Using Secondary Data Frequency & Ease of Use Issues in Primary Data Collection Qualitative Methodsi Surveys Instrument Design Scale Development Sampling Types Sources of Bias Country/ Regional Specific Bias Equivalence Coding Wording Format Construct Sampling Analysis Yes No
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