Exploring Leadership in Third Industrial Revolution Teigland


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My presentation at "Leadership in Complex Orgnizations" workshop in Oslo Nov 2013 organized by NHH Focus: http://www.nhh.no/no/forskning-og-fagmilj%C3%B8/handlingsprogrammet-nhh-2021/nhh-2021/focus.aspx

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  • Photo source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/philliecasablanca/3344142642/
  • Global collaboratorsPlatforms like ThingiverseInterest-specific groups on, for example, Google +Open Software and Hardware movements – use of SourceForge and GitHubMailing lists – partners not just local
  • http://ez.no/company/news/ez_systems_wins_the_red_herring_global_100Selected as a Red Herring 100 winner is a mark of distinction and high honor. Only 200 companies are chosen as finalists out of a pool of thousands. Of those finalists Red Herring selected 100 companies as winners. To decide on these companies the Red Herring editorial team diligently surveys entrepreneurship around the globe. Technology industry executives, investors, and observers regard the Red Herring 100 lists as invaluable instruments to discover and advocate the promising startups that will lead the next wave of disruption and innovation. Past award winners include Google, Yahoo!, Skype, Netscape, Salesforce.com, and YouTube.
  • Background Image Attribution: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atranman/5016786784/sizes/l/
  • Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • 120,000 tshirts sold each monthThreadless:What came first – the community or the company?RT: presents Threadless, http://www.nickburcher.com/2009/05/threadless-twitter-tees-another-example.html1,530,000 followers on TwitterThe whole business model for Threadless is based on an implicit understanding of how the social web works and gives a great demonstration of how communities can be built and harnessed across an organisation. Identifying online enthusiasts and passion groups and then using social platforms to bring them into the core of a business would appear to be a more powerful way of utilising social opportunities than just running ads on Facebook - but it requires a good deal more commitment. The media aspect of social offers some exciting opportunities for brands, but the potential of the social web can be significantly greater if the power of community is fully realised. In summary, there has to be purpose behind why you use social media. Largest challenge is about changing the mindset though – where create value? Use of social media considerably larger in smaller companies: Inc 100 vs Fortune 100. In these smaller companies, social media being used as a leadership tool as well.
  • The Forge “The world’s first open-source community of car designers and fabricators.” Crowdsourced design and selection process; option to help build your own car.
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/cGAPUCiKe6LI6l5fM4rFqAComputer-generated, persistent spaceThree-dimensional, immersiveenvironmentExperienced by many people at once/interactivity
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/cGAPUCiKe6LI6l5fM4rFqAComputer-generated, persistent spaceThree-dimensional, immersiveenvironmentExperienced by many people at once/interactivity
  • Platforms for unleashing creativity and revolutionizing value creationPersistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments ranging from 2D "cartoon" imagery to more immersive 3D environmentworld exists regardless of whether users logged inUsers can manipulate and/or alter existing content or even create customized content Shared space or co-presencenumerous users, or ‘avatars’, simultaneously participate, interact, and share experiences through gestures, text chat, and voiceSocialization/community formation of in-world social groups such as teams, guilds, clubs, cliques, housemates, neighborhoods, etc the world allowed and encouraged
  • http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/number_of_virtual_world_users_breaks_the_1_billion.phpWhat are the 5 phases of a Hype Cycle?1. "Technology Trigger"The first phase of a Hype Cycle is the "technology trigger" or breakthrough, product launch or other event that generates significant press and interest. 2. "Peak of Inflated Expectations"In the next phase, a frenzy of publicity typically generates over-enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations. There may be some successful applications of a technology, but there are typically more failures. 3. "Trough of Disillusionment"Technologies enter the "trough of disillusionment" because they fail to meet expectations and quickly become unfashionable. Consequently, the press usually abandons the topic and the technology. 4. "Slope of Enlightenment"Although the press may have stopped covering the technology, some businesses continue through the "slope of enlightenment" and experiment to understand the benefits and practical application of the technology. 5. "Plateau of Productivity"A technology reaches the "plateau of productivity" as the benefits of it become widely demonstrated and accepted. The technology becomes increasingly stable and evolves in second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only a niche market.Virtual worlds have reached a stage where new users continue to build, even though the media has moved on to fan the fires of Facebook and Twitter, says Douglas Thompson, CEO of Remedy Communications, a Toronto marketing firm. Second Life says the time spent on the site by users increased 21 percent in 2009. Most paying customers on Second Life are purely social, but it still boasts 1,400 business-related organizations as users. Thompson says traffic on Metanomics, his company’s Second Life video presence, has picked up in the past year, with 50 percent of new users coming from small or medium-size companies. “People no longer ask what an avatar is,” says Thompson. “We can thank Jim Cameron for that.”Read more: Entrepreneurs Doing Business by Avatar - Personal Finance - Employment - SmartMoney.comhttp://www.smartmoney.com/Personal-Finance/Employment/Entrepreneurs-Doing-Business-by-Avatar/#ixzz0pp1H6D7N
  • Hurkommerdet sig att vi identifierarosssåstarkt med avatarer? Frågangår till HenrikEhrsson, professor påKarolinskainstitutet, somforskarikognitivneurovetenskap, somär en blandningavpsykologiochneurofysiologi. Han ärpionjärinomdettaområdeochhansforskningsgruppsresultatharuppmärksammatsinternationellt. – När vi spelardataspelsäger vi ofta: ”Vemär du? Jag är den därgrönagubben.” Detfinns en koppling till vårkropp. När vi kontrolleraravatarensrörelser, får vi en känslaavatt jag är ”den där” och vi börjartalaomatt vi är ”den där”. Vi har en känslaavatt vi styrvårkroppochdärförhar vi känslanatt vi ärvårkropp.– Hjärnanharettmultisensorisktområde, somskapar en inremodellavvårkropp, såatt vi kanhållaredapåkroppennär vi röross. När jag spelar tennis måstehjärnanhållaredavaravar mina armarochbenär. Ochdetmåstegåväldigtsnabbt under en tennismatch, därförharnervcellerna, somfinnsi de härområdena, grovupplösning.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl_ZspsTLls
  • RT: traditional leadership further challenged as we move to a world of web 3.0 or the immersive internet…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ahqjBeknT0
  • http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/866
  • Sharing their way to success through leveraging their social capital to identify and realize opportunitiesStructure vs agency debate can be reconciled in this third organizational form as entrepreneurs develop this "firm" through their social capital building activities while the "firm" then provides a structure for the entrepreneur to build his/her business.  
  • RT: the 3D internet characterized by ….(next slide)
  • As modeling and simulation technology improves, more and more real world items will be successfully designed in collaborative spaces that can be leveraged both by corporations and ad hoc groups. -Cory Ondrejka
  • (1) Enabling people to do things we already know how to do and (2)creating collaborative environments that allow people to develop new ideasand concepts to address unanticipated opportunities or challenges.Productive learning focuses mostly on the individual and on helpingthat individual to adopt a pattern of behavior that improves productivity.Generative learning, by contrast, is a collaborative endeavor. Shared meaningand insights are developed at the group level, and these insights driveenterprise transformation to ensure growth and sustainability. Today, thelearning function is focused primarily on productive learning. As a result,it appears that trainers are more likely to want to maintain the status quo,rather than challenge it.Learning is a far more complicated phenomenon than can ever be limitedto the classroom context. If we convey knowledge about tasks we alreadyknow how to do, we call it productive learning . If we share knowledge abouttasks that are new and different, we call it generative learning . Productivelearning serves largely to maintain the status quo within an enterprise byconveying what is already known, while generative learning involves notonly absorbing existing information but also creating new solutions to unanticipatedproblems. Information age learning requires that individuals andorganizations change the way they think about and act on what is knownand what needs to be known in order to innovate, change, and win.
  • Liam Dippenaar couldn't catch a ball with both hands. Holding two objects at once was a feat and, though right-handed, the 5-year-old used his left. Born with Ambiotic Band Syndrome, Liam lacks the instrument critical for most tasks: fingers. Thanks to two strangers halfway around the world and the magic of 3D printing, Liam is now able to color and write to his heart's content. Ivan Owen and Richard Van As created Robohand, an open-sourced device built with customized prosthetic fingers. Owen, of Washington state, and Van As, of South Africa, collaborated via the Internet to create the prosthetic. The duo decided to make the design in the public domain to help others who can benefit from the technology.Their journey started in 2011, when Van As came across a video of Owen's costume piece, a robotic hand built for amusement. Van As lost most of the fingers on his right hand in a woodworking accident and cast a net out for those willing to help build a prosthetic. Owen was the only one who agreed. "I had started with the first prototype prior to meeting Ivan. But yes, there were so many obstacles and one of the main ones was contacting people and them just saying, 'No, it can’t be done,'" Van As tells Mashable. Long nights on Skype and a 10-hour time difference took some getting used to, but the two kept the project going through email and file sharing. Owen and Van As initially used a milling machine and spent hours engineering parts until MakerBot donated two Replicator2 Desktop 3D Printers. The donation exponentially cut production time for prototypes. What used to take up to three days to complete can now be done in only 20 minutes. Using OpenSCAD, a free software application, Owen and Van As can exchange files and make changes in minutes. Jenifer Howard, MakerBot's PR director, says the cross-continent collaboration fits perfectly with the company's mission. "We love to see our printers being used for amazing life-changing and life-validating projects like this," Howard says. The two men document their progress on a blog called "Coming up Short Handed." Liam's mother, Yolandi, saw the site and reached out to Van As for help. Liam, who has no fingers on his right hand, received his own Robohand at no cost after several trials and prototypes. "At first it was quite amazing to see the smile on his face when they made the first prototype and he put it on his hand," Yolandi says. "His expression was, 'Oh wow, it’s copying me.'
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhYvDS7q_V8
  • *No central clearing house nor are any financial or other institutions involved in the transactions.*There is a limit to Bitcoin supply (21 million bitcoins) to be reached in 2140. According to Bitcoin supporters, this implies in theory that the system will avoid inflation as well as business cycles stemming from excessive money creation.
  • Jon Matonis, Forbes, Rhetorically, I posed the question: “In fifty years, would you rather own 100 euros, 100 Amazon Coins, or 100 bitcoins?” http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonmatonis/2013/05/20/bitcoin-comes-to-swift/http://gizmodo.com/5994229/this-video-explains-everything-you-need-to-know-about-bitcoin-in-three-minutes
  • I always like to put things into perspective. I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are experiencing now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18th and 19th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking.experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Other notesNotes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in HistoryA crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to comeTransformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocationRationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of productionShifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as wellInternational crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumptionWaves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and servicesIt is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts!When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machineryReallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisisDevelopment of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changesDiffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
  • Abandoned factory in Michigan: http://www.nebraskaweatherphotos.org/july2009photos.htmlOffice building: http://homeasnika.com/office-buildings/
  • Old movie – 2008 – so interesting to see how much already changed since then.
  • http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/866
  • Of original Forbes 100 in 191761 companies ceased to exist by 198718 of remaining 39 underperformed market by 20%Only 2 beat market index (GE & Eastman Kodak)Only 1 (1%) today!Of companies in original S&P 500 in 1957426 companies ceased to exist by 1997Only 12 (2.4%) outperformed S&P 500 index in 1997 Of top 100 companies in Korea in 1955Only 7 still on list in 20041997 crisis destroyed half of 30 largest conglomerates
  • https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130828134917-2293140-overcoming-the-tech-trap-why-the-future-of-business-relevance?_mSplash=1http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Urbanization/Urban_world_The_shifting_global_business_landscape?cid=other-eml-alt-mgi-mck-oth-1310
  • I can’t find the source for this, it would be great if someone could point this out to me.
  • Exploring Leadership in Third Industrial Revolution Teigland

    1. 1. What are they doing?
    2. 2. Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 Informal organization 3
    3. 3. ”No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in networks humanity.” Six degrees of separation - Milgram, 1967 Image: Krebs, http://orgnet.com/email.gif Adapted from Lévy 1997
    4. 4. Creation > curation
    5. 5. Open source values of sharing
    6. 6. eZ Systems founded on open source philosophy Connecting people who share a passion for something they do so that they can collaborate, share ideas, learn, and create knowledge
    7. 7. 350+ 105 emp Partners 15,000+ Customers in 130 countries 43,900+ Community members • Content management software, #1 in media industry • 105 employees in 9 countries (US, Europe & Asia) • 250,000 sites in 170 countries • Customers: UN, FT, WSJ, Vogue, Hitachi, 3M, BMW http://academia.edu/2846771/Are_we_in_this_together_Exploring_private-collective_knowledge_communities
    8. 8. eZ’s platform for building identity and competence throughout its ecosystem eZ Software development team
    9. 9. Private-collective Community Driven by both parties sharing experiences and co-creating value of network 11/21/2
    10. 10. But how to balance needs of community with needs of firm in a value co-creation model? Research in progress Teigland et al 2013
    11. 11. Here comes the “Immersive Internet” O’Driscoll, 2009
    12. 12. How many usually think of virtual worlds…
    13. 13. Building skills in virtual environments My CV •Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe •Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure •Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication
    14. 14. What are Virtual Worlds? •Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments •Shared socialization spaces with interactive content •Economic activity and transactions
    15. 15. VWs moving out of “Gartner hype cycle” trough May 2006 July 2007 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1447613 Virtual worlds today
    16. 16.  Overview − − − − EU funded, 3 year multilateral and transversal network (LLP EACEA, KA3 (ICT)) December 2011 – December 2014 Project Leader: University of Hull (Darren Mundy, Luisa Panichi) 19 partners from Austria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, UK  Network Aims −Collect good practice examples in teaching and learning in virtual worlds from different subjects and national and local contexts − Facilitate transfer of core knowledge to new contexts − Provide framework for creation of pan-European virtual-world university  Expected Outcomes − Increased number of experts in virtual world education − Policy for long-term sustainability of network and its outcomes − Model for knowledge transfer − Range of dissemination events More information: http://www.euroversity.eu/
    17. 17. Leadership training Learning virtual teaming skills http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQa6vyG8Dkg
    18. 18. Recent advances in global collaboration Protonsphere by Protonmedia integrated with MS Office
    19. 19. Accelerating innovation to meet global needs Integrating users in development process Teigland et al. 2010 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kMNWBU1Yb8
    20. 20. VWs offer significant affordances Teigland et al 2010
    21. 21. “Clearly, if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.” Castronova, 2006
    22. 22. US$ 635,000 for a virtual asteroid! •US$ 500,000 profit in 5 years by Jon “Neverdie” Jacobs •Entropia Universe with GDP >US$ 440 mln http://blogs.forbes.com/oliverchiang/2010/11/13/meet-the-man-whojust-made-a-cool-half-million-from-the-sale-of-virtual-property/
    23. 23. DJs Event builders MODELLING SCHOOLS MODELLING AGENCIES Photo studio makers Photographers Modelling furniture Poses and animations Top models Virtual fashion ecosystem Clothes/ shoes Accessories Furniture Shop builders Hair MAGAZINES Skins Body shapes Viachka, Giovacchini, Teigland, Lindqvist 2011
    24. 24. Peacetrain: A VW organization “Employees” “F2F Meetings” Teigland, JVWR, 2010 “Senior Management” $$
    25. 25. OpenSimulator: A value-creation ecosystem USD 5.5mln in development costs Academic Entrepreneur Hobbyist Large Firm Non-profit Local Public Federal Public Research Inst SME Employee Periphery Teigland, Di Gangi, & Yetis 2012
    26. 26. OpenSimulator Community Conference September 2013
    27. 27. “Open Entrepreneurship” Entrepreneurs openly engaging in social capital building activities through freely contributing intellectual property and other resources with purpose of pursuing self business-related interests while enabling pursuit of mutual goals of community. Teigland, Di Gangi, & Yetis 2012
    28. 28. Only a matter of time…. O’Driscoll 2009
    29. 29. ≈1.4 bln VW accounts under age 16 290 mln 220 mln >200 mln 42 mln (and 12 mln bought) 290 mln http://www.slideshare.net/nicmitham/kzero-universe-q1-2012
    30. 30. Developing international entrepreneurs?
    31. 31. Exploring the link between VWs and 3D printing http://www.minecraftprint.com/
    32. 32. Exploitation Exploration Improving existing value creation activities Developing new value creation activities Adapted from March 1991
    33. 33. Where is the Firm? 24x7 Global Internet Collaboration + Open Source + 3D Printing $60,000 $150 Available for free download on http://mashable.com/2013/02/13/robohand/
    34. 34. Bitcoin and its community • • • • Paper by “Satoshi Nakamoto” in 2008 Open source project posted on SourceForge in Jan 2009 Peer-to-peer digital, crypto currency Developed by community of strangers across globe Teigland, Yetis, Larsson 2013
    35. 35. Collective emergent institutional entrepreneurship challenging long-standing institutions E.g., Central Bank ~ Long-standing financial institutions and regulations vs Emergent Collective Institutions E.g., Bitcoin Community ~ Emergent collective of users across globe connected through internet Teigland, Yetis, Larsson, 2013 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2263707
    36. 36. History tends to repeat itself…. Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics Third industrial revolution? Late 18th C Schön 2008 Late 19th C Late 20th C
    37. 37. Convergence of….. People • “Net generation” • 24x7 “mobile” workforce • Social entrepreneurship Open Source • Software • Hardware • Physibles Technology • • • • • Broadband access Mobile hardware ICTs 3D printing Robotics Finance • Microlending/microfinance • Crowdfunding/equity • Digital, non-fiat currencies
    38. 38. From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to … ...the “mobility” of labor? Teigland, JVWR, 2010
    39. 39. Yet many of us are stuck in our old ways …
    40. 40. Take virtual worlds for example……  I’m “afraid” of the technology.  Isn’t a webconference better?  It’s just a game.  Who’s behind that avatar?  I need to meet F2F to trust the person.  Here today, gone tomorrow….  You’re only as good as your technology.  The technology isn’t stable.  Gestures and body language are limited.
    41. 41. "...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the rate of change inside, the end is near...." Jack Welch…
    42. 42. Increasing pace of change  From 1920s to 2010s − Average S&P 500 company lifespan from 67 years to 15 years  From 2000 to 2010 − 40% of Fortune 500 companies replaced  Predictions − In next few years, 70% of Fortune 1000 companies replaced − By 2020, >75% of S&P 500 companies we do not know today − By 2025, >45% of Fortune 500 from emerging markets Fast Company, McKinsey & Inc
    43. 43. The maker movement in Africa iHub – Kenya House4Hack – RSA Woelab – Togo
    44. 44. “Made in Africa” 3D printer (Togo) crowdfunded through Ulele Winner of International Space Apps Challenge http://www.engineering.com/3DPrinting/3DPrintingArticles/ArticleID/5712/E-Waste-3D-Printer-to-Mars.aspx
    45. 45. Leadership moving forward…… Hierarchy Linear, static, processbased organization Adapted from Hedlund 1994 Heterarchy Dynamic, integrated collaboration networks
    46. 46. Published April 2013 http://www.amazon.com/The-Immersive-Internet-Reflections-Entangling/dp/1137283017
    47. 47. If you love knowledge, set it free… Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland robin.teigland@hhs.se www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland www.nordicworlds.net RobinTeigland Photo: Lindholm, Metro Photo: Nordenskiöld Photo: Lindqvist
    48. 48. Interested in learning more?