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Energizing Change  Through Network Leadership Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowled...
<ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
<ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul>...
Everyone is talking about networks National Innovation Networks Formal Networks Entrepreneurial Networks Ego Networks Regi...
A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2008 Fischbowl 2007
… that becomes quickly outdated …. 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education T...
<ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMcfrLYDm2U </li></ul><ul><li>How are...
Human capacity cannot keep up… Cohen & Levinthal 1989 Growth Time Information and knowledge Human  absorptive capacity
Yet, the world is “shrinking” family local colleagues friends old colleagues colleagues at other offices Just a click away...
<ul><li>Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Small Worl...
<ul><li>” No one knows everything,  </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something,  </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides i...
<ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul>...
What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties <ul><li>Ties/Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, trust, team, sit ...
Swedish hip hop artists Liljeros 2006 ?? Timbuktu
Networks of firms Dahlin 2007 Nocom Ericsson Telia Nokia TietoEnator
Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 R&D organization Informal organization
Individuals within a firm Mattsson 2004 < 1 yr 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs > 15 yrs Time at firm
Central connectors within one location Bottleneck   Teigland 1998 Surprise!! Stockholm
Boundary spanners between locations Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from  Stockholm Teigl...
Proximal collaboration <ul><li>When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than onc...
Communication still occurs within formal silos <ul><li>US-based MNC with 30 product divisions </li></ul><ul><li>30,328 peo...
Trust & reciprocity are essential for knowledge exchange in networks
… and most importantly, management  cannot mandate  social relationships John Eva Hans Miguel Paul Jan Lars Pia Anna Nils ...
Peripheral players between organizations San Francisco Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Teigland 1998 ...
Dual loyalties Loyalty Loyalty Organization Professional network Teigland 2003
Increasing job turnover Time Number of jobs in lifetime Estimated time at one organization in Silicon Valley: ~18 months C...
Individuals make  choices   about how they use their knowledge… <ul><li>Knowledge resides in the minds of individuals </li...
Individuals between business firms  SEB Ray-Adams & Sandberg 2000 Interlocking directorates of  Sweden’s 110 largest firms...
But……. <ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations wi...
<ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and power? </li></ul>Power: Access to and control over resources
How does informal power arise? Krebs 2004 Node 16 gains informal power, weakening the boss Node 15’s power…
How does informal power arise? … and now N16’s informal power is greater than the boss N15’s formal power Krebs 2004
Your network position is related to power  <ul><li>Betweenness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control  over what flows in the netwo...
<ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and performance? </li></ul>
Two individuals with the same number of contacts… B A
… but with very different access to resources B A
Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages <ul><li>More rapid promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater career mobility </li...
Performance differs based on one’s network Firm A Low on-time High Creative  High on-time Low  creative  Teigland 2003 Hig...
When you hire someone,…  … ..you “hire” his or her network.
The strength of weak ties Network A’s knowledge  Network D’s knowledge  Network B’s knowledge  Network C’s knowledge  Gran...
Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Section 1 Section 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over...
More social get-togethers and coffee  breaks  are  not  the solution
“ Managing” networks in your organization  Before After Anklam & Welch 2005 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Imp...
Changing the physical layout Cross, Parise, Weiss 2006 <ul><ul><li>Open-space environment led to impromptu meetings and co...
Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000
Hewlett-Packard (1990s) <ul><li>Networking activities  recognized and rewarded  at individual and unit levels </li></ul><u...
Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#
Organizational response Linear, process-based organization Integrated collaboration networks  Sub7 HQ Sub10 Sub9 Sub8 Sub1...
<ul><li>Profitable  growth  through higher  efficiency and innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing the waste of valuab...
IBM – A company reinventing itself <ul><li>$98 bln in sales 2007  </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 355,000 employees </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>“ Leading by values  is very different …..It is  empowering  .. Rather than burden our people with excessive contr...
IBM’s Atlas shows the social network of a topic and how to get to someone Poole 2008
<ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
Myths and reality checks about networks <ul><li>I already know what is going on in my network  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T...
So, what does this mean for you? <ul><li>An actor’s position in a social network, i.e., social capital, determines in part...
High performers leverage networks  (in top 20% of organization’s HR ratings) <ul><li>Structural – Position themselves at k...
What is Network Leadership? <ul><li>Changing the order of things…  </li></ul><ul><li>By inspiring others to see the possib...
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
Overcoming the forces for stability Forces for stability Forces for change The status quo Burnes 2004, Fiorina 2007 <ul><l...
How to overcome the forces for stability? <ul><li>Create a vision of what can be different </li></ul><ul><li>Engage people...
Higher performers create energy in their interactions with others <ul><li>Those who energize others are higher performers ...
How can you leverage the vision of others? Icon Medialab Teigland 2003 Management’s vision Programmers’ vision Vision <ul>...
Do you know who the informal key opinion makers are in the organization? Teigland 2003 How can you engage these people?
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
Two individuals with the same number of contact but with very different access to resources B A
Structural holes  Advantages of position in information networks   Bill Burt 1992, Baker 2003 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 1 Dept 2 ...
Build relationships with people  at all hierarchical levels Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cro...
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
But……. <ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations wi...
Diversity can be a source of low performance, but also  high performance ! DiStefano 2003
Diversity presents additional challenges  to achieving high performance <ul><li>Surface diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Et...
What are individual’s different motivations?  <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>To improve public services </li></ul><u...
How can you turn conflict into  creative conflict ? ? Teigland & Ruuska 2009
High team performance comes from ongoing processes of positive and negative feedback Other Speaking about other Self Speak...
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
Communicate, communicate, communicate <ul><li>Communicate continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Use at least  two communication  ...
Foster trust to build relationships  Coleman 2006 Practices and discipline  build trust,  not who you are in the formal or...
Create trust through open, balanced communication  <ul><ul><li>Provide open forum for discussion between all interested in...
Accessibility and attention  matter more than physical closeness  <ul><ul><li>“ The frequent interactions with people you ...
Avoid creation of an  “inner circle”  when working in teams <ul><li>Ensure information equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid ...
Develop a  rhythm  in meeting frequency <ul><li>Rhythm determined by frequency and type (eg face-to-face, phone) of meetin...
Heartbeat evidence  <ul><li>Meets face-to-face every six months </li></ul><ul><li>Meets by formal telephone conference eve...
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
PESTEL – Leveraging external pressures for innovation Johnson & Scholes 1997 Political Environmental Technical Legal Socia...
1. What factors are affecting the organization? 2. Which of these are the most important at the present time? 3. Which of ...
External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees...
Problem solutions - The Goldcorp Challenge
Promote an open innovation attitude Not all the smart people work for us.  We need to work with smart people inside and ou...
Develop participation in a  variety  of networks  Strong ties Weak ties Outside organization Inside organization SOCNET
Start your own external network Swedish International Business School Alumni Network  (SIBSAN) Stanford GSB Alumni Club  N...
Go meet someone different or far away Robin and Steve Mahaley from Duke CE in Second Life
Leading through networks  <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li><...
Operational networks of high performers Higher level networks provide “big picture” information, help with decision making...
Develop three forms of networking Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007 Operational Personal Strategic Purpose Getting work done e...
Build relationships before you need them,…. … … while making sure you create value and foster trust.
People understand the game We do have certain individuals who …blast out FYI emails……  I think a lot of it is positioning ...
The positive spiral of social networks tschaut’s photos Contribution Reciprocity Accumulation Value
<ul><li>“ At the core of the 21st century company is the question of participation. At the heart of participation is the m...
Leading and learning Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” - John F. Kennedy Leadership, teaching, and...
<ul><li>“ The rate at which individuals and organizations learn may become the only sustainable competitive advantage, esp...
Thanks and  see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare....
Sources and acknowledgements <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barabási,  Linked: The New Science of Networks . Perseus,...
Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Articles and Research Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Baker, & Parker, “...
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Energizing Change Through Network Leadership

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  • Great to see so many people interested in networks. I came from Stanford where networking is part of everyday of life Started my PhD research over ten years ago and one of first things I did was to look at the knowledge flows between the r&amp;D units of three multinationals, HP, Ericsson, and Xerox. At beginning of knowledge management era and companies investing heavily in KM, these companies no exception. Found that top management invested heavily in different intranet applications, thinking understood how individuals worked. So for example, patent, then spoke with one of scientists and found that on one hand did not even access the intranet this application, nahh, just went next door to ask colleague who working with this. Much easier, faster, and better information. This got me started on my journey of looking into networks. Very much management not understanding the way work gets done and now with knowledge work, thinking can manage knowledge in same way managed physical resources of organization. But not the case… So here today to talk about networks
  • Transcript of "Energizing Change Through Network Leadership"

    1. 1. Energizing Change Through Network Leadership Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland 1-
    2. 2. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    3. 3. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    4. 4. Everyone is talking about networks National Innovation Networks Formal Networks Entrepreneurial Networks Ego Networks Regional Networks Infrastructure Networks Social Networks FAS.research Electronic Networks Informal Networks Networks of Practice Networked organization
    5. 5. A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2008 Fischbowl 2007
    6. 6. … that becomes quickly outdated …. 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education Third year of education
    7. 7. <ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMcfrLYDm2U </li></ul><ul><li>How are these trends affecting you and your organization? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Human capacity cannot keep up… Cohen & Levinthal 1989 Growth Time Information and knowledge Human absorptive capacity
    9. 9. Yet, the world is “shrinking” family local colleagues friends old colleagues colleagues at other offices Just a click away… virtual communities local networks old classmates avatars business contacts social media contacts referrals
    10. 10. <ul><li>Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967 </li></ul>Six degrees of separation
    11. 11. <ul><li>” No one knows everything, </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something, </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides in humanity.” </li></ul>networks Adapted from Lévy 1997
    12. 12. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership through leveraging networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    13. 13. What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties <ul><li>Ties/Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, trust, team, sit by, dislike, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance, customer, investment, etc. </li></ul></ul>Tie <ul><li>Actors/Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams, organizations, etc. </li></ul></ul>Actor
    14. 14. Swedish hip hop artists Liljeros 2006 ?? Timbuktu
    15. 15. Networks of firms Dahlin 2007 Nocom Ericsson Telia Nokia TietoEnator
    16. 16. Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 R&D organization Informal organization
    17. 17. Individuals within a firm Mattsson 2004 < 1 yr 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs > 15 yrs Time at firm
    18. 18. Central connectors within one location Bottleneck  Teigland 1998 Surprise!! Stockholm
    19. 19. Boundary spanners between locations Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from Stockholm Teigland 1998 San Francisco
    20. 20. Proximal collaboration <ul><li>When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. </li></ul>Allen 1984
    21. 21. Communication still occurs within formal silos <ul><li>US-based MNC with 30 product divisions </li></ul><ul><li>30,328 people for 3 months in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>114 mln emails (114 mln) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>68 calendar meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does communication occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast majority is within business unit and functional boundaries, not across them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who are the boundary spanners? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid- to high-level executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales & Marketing executives </li></ul></ul>Kleinbaum et al 2008
    22. 22. Trust & reciprocity are essential for knowledge exchange in networks
    23. 23. … and most importantly, management cannot mandate social relationships John Eva Hans Miguel Paul Jan Lars Pia Anna Nils Bill Erik Mike Al Alex
    24. 24. Peripheral players between organizations San Francisco Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Teigland 1998 Other firms Electronic communities
    25. 25. Dual loyalties Loyalty Loyalty Organization Professional network Teigland 2003
    26. 26. Increasing job turnover Time Number of jobs in lifetime Estimated time at one organization in Silicon Valley: ~18 months CNET 2000
    27. 27. Individuals make choices about how they use their knowledge… <ul><li>Knowledge resides in the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals make own choices about knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share openly for the benefit of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in work practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that an individual’s value is diminished if share knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in external relationships for own benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge leakage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the firm and take knowledge with them </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Individuals between business firms SEB Ray-Adams & Sandberg 2000 Interlocking directorates of Sweden’s 110 largest firms, 2000 ??
    29. 29. But……. <ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>and not heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and power? </li></ul>Power: Access to and control over resources
    31. 31. How does informal power arise? Krebs 2004 Node 16 gains informal power, weakening the boss Node 15’s power…
    32. 32. How does informal power arise? … and now N16’s informal power is greater than the boss N15’s formal power Krebs 2004
    33. 33. Your network position is related to power <ul><li>Betweenness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often are you on the shortest path between 2 individuals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly can you reach all others in the network? </li></ul></ul>Krebs 2004
    34. 34. <ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and performance? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Two individuals with the same number of contacts… B A
    36. 36. … but with very different access to resources B A
    37. 37. Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages <ul><li>More rapid promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater career mobility </li></ul><ul><li>More adaptable to changing environments </li></ul>Brass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi
    38. 38. Performance differs based on one’s network Firm A Low on-time High Creative High on-time Low creative Teigland 2003 High creative Virtual community Firm B
    39. 39. When you hire someone,… … ..you “hire” his or her network.
    40. 40. The strength of weak ties Network A’s knowledge Network D’s knowledge Network B’s knowledge Network C’s knowledge Granovetter 1973
    41. 41. Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Section 1 Section 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008
    42. 42. More social get-togethers and coffee breaks are not the solution
    43. 43. “ Managing” networks in your organization Before After Anklam & Welch 2005 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness
    44. 44. Changing the physical layout Cross, Parise, Weiss 2006 <ul><ul><li>Open-space environment led to impromptu meetings and connections necessary for new ideas and innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy access to key individuals since no closed offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased knowledge flow of customer and supplier needs since awareness of their visits </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000
    46. 46. Hewlett-Packard (1990s) <ul><li>Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels </li></ul><ul><li>Management support for informal and formal networking activities across internal and external boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practice task group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive socialization : personnel rotation, cross-office teams </li></ul><ul><li>A visionary organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company-wide goal of World’s Best Laboratory </li></ul></ul>Teigland et al 2000
    47. 47. Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#
    48. 48. Organizational response Linear, process-based organization Integrated collaboration networks Sub7 HQ Sub10 Sub9 Sub8 Sub13 Sub11 Sub3 Sub5 Sub4 Sub1 Sub2 Sub6 Sub14 Sub14
    49. 49. <ul><li>Profitable growth through higher efficiency and innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing the waste of valuable resources - avoid reinventing the wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring the use of leading-edge technology and thinking across the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing customer satisfaction through shorter lead-times and consistent behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a competitive cost structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating breakthrough and incremental innovations through combination of technologies and ideas from across and outside the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An attractive workplace that encourages cross-functional co-operation across the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting and retaining key individuals </li></ul></ul>What are the benefits of collaboration networks?
    50. 50. IBM – A company reinventing itself <ul><li>$98 bln in sales 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 355,000 employees </li></ul><ul><li>New values developed by employees in jam sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication to every client's success </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation that matters, for our company and for the world </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>“ Leading by values is very different …..It is empowering .. Rather than burden our people with excessive controls, we are trusting them to make decisions and to act based on values... </li></ul><ul><li>In today's world, where everyone is so interconnected and interdependent …. If we're going to solve the biggest, thorniest and most widespread problems in business and society, we have to innovate in ways that truly matter. And we have to do all this by taking personal responsibility for all of our relationships - with clients, colleagues, partners, investors and the public at large. </li></ul><ul><li>This is IBM's mission as an enterprise, and a goal toward which we hope to work with many others, in our industry and beyond. </li></ul>Samuel Palmisano, IBM Chairman, President, and CEO
    52. 52. IBM’s Atlas shows the social network of a topic and how to get to someone Poole 2008
    53. 53. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some network basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    54. 54. <ul><li>Understanding networks </li></ul><ul><li>Energizing change through network leadership </li></ul>Today’s discussion
    55. 55. Myths and reality checks about networks <ul><li>I already know what is going on in my network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who think they know their network the best are usually the ones who know the least </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We can’t do much to help informal networks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal networks can be “managed” through changing the organizational context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To build networks, you have to communicate more </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networks can be strategically developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. So, what does this mean for you? <ul><li>An actor’s position in a social network, i.e., social capital, determines in part the actor’s opportunities and constraints </li></ul>Casper & Murray 2002 German biotech scientists
    57. 57. High performers leverage networks (in top 20% of organization’s HR ratings) <ul><li>Structural – Position themselves at key points in the network and leverage networks to get things done </li></ul><ul><li>Relational – Invest in relationships that extend expertise and help to avoid learning biases and career traps </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral – Understand and cultivate the value of networks and focus on building high quality relationships, not just big networks </li></ul>Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006
    58. 58. What is Network Leadership? <ul><li>Changing the order of things… </li></ul><ul><li>By inspiring others to see the possibilities and enabling them to act on them… </li></ul><ul><li>While having only a blank business card </li></ul>“ There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.” - Machiavelli
    59. 59. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    60. 60. Overcoming the forces for stability Forces for stability Forces for change The status quo Burnes 2004, Fiorina 2007 <ul><li>Change is almost always resisted </li></ul><ul><li>People are comfortable, afraid of the unknown </li></ul><ul><li>People with power and influence want to keep it that way! </li></ul>
    61. 61. How to overcome the forces for stability? <ul><li>Create a vision of what can be different </li></ul><ul><li>Engage people through participation and find their “passion” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create enough energy to overcome the forces for stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmark within and outside industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find/develop a “red hot” burning issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise existing or develop new standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income, profitability, effectiveness, efficiency, customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul>Adapted from Kotter 1996
    62. 62. Higher performers create energy in their interactions with others <ul><li>Those who energize others are higher performers while those who drain energy are lower performers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get higher commitment from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate others so get resources they need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help others learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they do this? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a compelling vision – see the possibilities and not the roadblocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable others to contribute meaningfully to achieving the vision – allowing them to shape the road </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are trustworthy – honest and not driven by a hidden agenda </li></ul></ul></ul>Cross, Baker, & Parker 2003
    63. 63. How can you leverage the vision of others? Icon Medialab Teigland 2003 Management’s vision Programmers’ vision Vision <ul><li>Best global company </li></ul><ul><li>Best function </li></ul>Values <ul><li>Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Creative problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Creating new solutions </li></ul>
    64. 64. Do you know who the informal key opinion makers are in the organization? Teigland 2003 How can you engage these people?
    65. 65. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    66. 66. Two individuals with the same number of contact but with very different access to resources B A
    67. 67. Structural holes Advantages of position in information networks Bill Burt 1992, Baker 2003 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 1 Dept 2 Barb
    68. 68. Build relationships with people at all hierarchical levels Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006 Higher: Help with making decisions, acquiring resources, developing political awareness, explaining organizational activities beyond local setting Equal: Help brainstorm and provide specific help, support, and needed information Lower: Provide best sources of technical information and expertise
    69. 69. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    70. 70. But……. <ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>and not heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Diversity can be a source of low performance, but also high performance ! DiStefano 2003
    72. 72. Diversity presents additional challenges to achieving high performance <ul><li>Surface diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic background, age, gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural diversity ( difficult to see ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different training/educational and occupational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning histories, i.e., own patterns of information acquisition and use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspectives on analyzing and solving problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Basic researcher vs politician vs salesperson </li></ul></ul></ul>Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    73. 73. What are individual’s different motivations? <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>To improve public services </li></ul><ul><li>Greater public good </li></ul><ul><li>Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>To realize profits </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>“ To publish or perish” </li></ul><ul><li>Quest for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Global academic community </li></ul>THP
    74. 74. How can you turn conflict into creative conflict ? ? Teigland & Ruuska 2009
    75. 75. High team performance comes from ongoing processes of positive and negative feedback Other Speaking about other Self Speaking about oneself or own group Advocacy Arguing for own position High Perf. Pos/Neg: 5.6 Medium Perf. Pos/Neg: 1.9 Low Perf. Pos/Neg: 0.4 Losada & Heaphy 2004 Inquiry Exploring other’s viewpoint Positive – Support, encouragement, appreciation Negative – Disapproval, sarcasm, cynicism
    76. 76. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    77. 77. Communicate, communicate, communicate <ul><li>Communicate continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Use at least two communication channels for important messages </li></ul><ul><li>Link “big picture” with “little picture” </li></ul><ul><li>Balance and respect all individuals’ interests </li></ul>But listen as well!
    78. 78. Foster trust to build relationships Coleman 2006 Practices and discipline build trust, not who you are in the formal organization
    79. 79. Create trust through open, balanced communication <ul><ul><li>Provide open forum for discussion between all interested individuals, e.g., virtual project space </li></ul></ul>Ruuska & Teigland 2008
    80. 80. Accessibility and attention matter more than physical closeness <ul><ul><li>“ The frequent interactions with people you have here [at headquarters] are often attributed to trust. And over distance you have a complete void there. So you are missing one of your fundamental tools. Somehow you’ve got to overcome that. And that’s where the one-on-one calls come in…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you do with your interaction to make it more personal? </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. Avoid creation of an “inner circle” when working in teams <ul><li>Ensure information equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid informing local team members before distant ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make information open to all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link “big picture” with “little picture” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to those who are distant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid giving more attention to those individuals who are closer geographically or organizationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim to have weekly / bi-weekly one-on-one chats with all team members where concerns can be raised and feedback given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to other connections in your network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t assume anything - silence does not mean people agree/disagree, care/don’t care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly check in and get involvement </li></ul></ul>More difficult in network organizations!!!
    82. 82. Develop a rhythm in meeting frequency <ul><li>Rhythm determined by frequency and type (eg face-to-face, phone) of meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Time between “heartbeats” depends on task (interdependence, complexity, schedule) </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face meetings pump oxygen and blood into the life of the team and its relationships between members - heartbeats </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face meetings do not need to coincide with major decision points! Rhythm is more important. </li></ul>Adapted from Maznevski 2001
    83. 83. Heartbeat evidence <ul><li>Meets face-to-face every six months </li></ul><ul><li>Meets by formal telephone conference every two months </li></ul>1 3 13 9 7 5 11 Maznevski 2001 Month 1 3 13 9 7 5 11 Month <ul><li>No established rhythm of face-to-face meetings </li></ul><ul><li>No rhythm of contact using rich media </li></ul>Ineffective team Effective team
    84. 84. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    85. 85. PESTEL – Leveraging external pressures for innovation Johnson & Scholes 1997 Political Environmental Technical Legal Social Economic Organization
    86. 86. 1. What factors are affecting the organization? 2. Which of these are the most important at the present time? 3. Which of these are the most important in the next few years? <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global, regional, and national political development (administration, political parties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign trade regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes to work and leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes to consumerism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in values/attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work environment conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Green” energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste handling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNP trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest rates & Exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private consumption and disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public finances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy availability and cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending on research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and industry focus of technological effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New discoveries/development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of technology transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates of obsolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New patents and products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in price and competitive legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour market legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product safety and approvals </li></ul></ul>
    87. 87. External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees in your country Co-Workers Friends Large portion of new ideas and formal collaboration relationships come from external contacts You Alex Eyal Your manager Rami’s manager Hila Yaron Yuval Eduardo Ed Muriel Peter Frequent e-mails Infrequent e-mails Web 2.0 Collaboration
    88. 88. Problem solutions - The Goldcorp Challenge
    89. 89. Promote an open innovation attitude Not all the smart people work for us. We need to work with smart people inside and outside the company. The smart people in our field work for us. If you create the most and the best ideas in the industry, you will win. If you make the best use of internal and external ideas, you will win. Closed attitude Open attitude Chesborough 2003
    90. 90. Develop participation in a variety of networks Strong ties Weak ties Outside organization Inside organization SOCNET
    91. 91. Start your own external network Swedish International Business School Alumni Network (SIBSAN) Stanford GSB Alumni Club Nobel Laureates Government Ministers Stanford
    92. 92. Go meet someone different or far away Robin and Steve Mahaley from Duke CE in Second Life
    93. 93. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>
    94. 94. Operational networks of high performers Higher level networks provide “big picture” information, help with decision making, and access to resources External peer networks provide new ideas for process or product innovations as well as new insights Subordinates provide technical information and expertise Internal peer networks provide brainstorming, advice, and support External and internal clients ensure satisfied and profitable relationships Adapted from Cross, Martin, Weiss 2006, Teigland 2003
    95. 95. Develop three forms of networking Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007 Operational Personal Strategic Purpose Getting work done efficiently Enhancing personal and professional development Developing and achieving future priorities Members Mostly internal contacts and focused on current demands Mostly external contacts and focused on current and future interests Both internal and external contacts and focused on future Network attributes Depth through building strong working relationships Breadth through reaching out to contacts who can refer you to others Leverage through creating inside-outside links
    96. 96. Build relationships before you need them,…. … … while making sure you create value and foster trust.
    97. 97. People understand the game We do have certain individuals who …blast out FYI emails…… I think a lot of it is positioning within the organization….. I would say that 99% of those emails/articles are irrelevant…. are deleted. If I find something interesting …… I would send it to relevant people, but I certainly wouldn’t send it to everyone. Whelan, Teigland, & Donnellan 2008 R&D Scientist
    98. 98. The positive spiral of social networks tschaut’s photos Contribution Reciprocity Accumulation Value
    99. 99. <ul><li>“ At the core of the 21st century company is the question of participation. At the heart of participation is the mind and spirit of the knowledge worker....” </li></ul><ul><li>John Seely Brown & Estee Solomon Gray, “The People are the Company” Fast Company Issue 01, October 1995 http://www.fastcompany.com/online/01/people.html </li></ul>
    100. 100. Leading and learning Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” - John F. Kennedy Leadership, teaching, and learning are inextricably interlinked. - Jack Welch
    101. 101. <ul><li>“ The rate at which individuals and organizations learn may become the only sustainable competitive advantage, especially in knowledge-intensive industries.” </li></ul>Ray Stata, Chairman Analog Devices
    102. 102. Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland
    103. 103. Sources and acknowledgements <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks . Perseus, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burt, Structural Holes, 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castells, The Rise of the Network Society . Blackwell, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross & Parker, The Hidden Power of Social Networks . Harvard Business School, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gladwell, The Tipping Point . Abacus, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Social Network Analysis . Sage, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teigland, Knowledge Networking , SSE, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teten & Allen, The Virtual Handshake . American Management Assoc., 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homepages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wayne Baker, webuser.bus.umich.edu/wayneb/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Bird, people.bu.edu/sbird </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Borgatti, www.socialnetworkanalysis.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rob Cross, www.robcross.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Network for Social Network Analysis http://www.insna.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Krackhardt, www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/krack/index.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valdis Krebs, www.orgnet.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fredrik Liljeros, www.sociology.su.se/home/Liljeros/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Mahaley, www.dukece.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Moody, www.soc.duke.edu/~jmoody77/presentations/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giancarlo Oriani, www.informalorg.eu (In Italian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barry Wellman, www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/ </li></ul></ul>
    104. 104. Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Articles and Research Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Baker, & Parker, “What creates energy in organizations?”, Sloan Management Review , Summer 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Parise, & Weiss, “Driving Strategic Change with a Network Perspective”, Network Roundtable working paper, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kleinbaum, Stuart, Tushman, Communication (and Coordination?) in a Modern, Complex Organization, HBS working paper, http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/09-004.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ibarra & Hunter, “How Leaders Create and Use Networks”, HBR, 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleman, D. Virtual Team Spaces, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connaughton, SL & Daly, JA, “Leading from Afar: Strategies for Effectively Leading Virtual Teams” in Virtual Collaborative Teams: Process, Technologies, & Practice (S. H. Godar & S. P. Ferris, Eds.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipnack, J. & Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology . John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 1997. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maznevski, M. High performance from global virtual teams, 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruuska, I. & Teigland, R. 2009 (Forthcoming). “Ensuring Project Success through Collective Competence and Conflict Management in Public-private Partnerships: A Case Study of a Swedish Triple Helix e-government Initiative”. International Journal of Project Management . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schermerhorn, Jr., J., Management , 2004. </li></ul></ul>
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