Craftsman Style 101 A Builder’s Guide to Recreating Craftsman in SL
Your Presenter: Troy Vogel <ul><li>Content creator, architect since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Architect of the following proj...
Arts & Crafts in the UK <ul><li>Arts & Crafts movement began in 1860s England with the ideas of the philosopher John Ruski...
Craftsman Style in the US <ul><li>One school believes that Greene and Greene are the pioneers of Craftsman in the US while...
Master Architects of the  Craftsman Style <ul><li>Gustav Stickley </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Gustav Stickley (1858-1942) <ul><li>Stickley brought A&C style to the US and named it “Craftsman” to differentiate from th...
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) <ul><li>Took the A&C and Craftsman styles to the next level by transforming them into the P...
Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957)  Henry Mathers Greene(1870-1954) <ul><li>Hailed by the American Institute of Architects ...
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) <ul><li>Leader of the Glasgow style that evolved from A&C roots. </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Characteristics of Craftsman House I <ul><li>Craftsman Home has refinement of design and quality of construction and finis...
Characteristics of Craftsman House II <ul><li>Interiors emphasize form and function. Space is conservatively and creativel...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior PORCH <ul><li>A wide, unenclosed front porch with overhanging eaves spanni...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FRONT DOORS <ul><li>Glazing – Fitting glass into windows and doors. </li><...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior ROOFLINE <ul><li>Craftsman homes have lower pitch gables.  Frequently the ...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior CHIMNEYS <ul><li>Stone exterior chimneys were present in almost every sing...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FOUNDATION <ul><li>Sloping Foundation </li></ul>
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior WINDOWS <ul><li>Windows of craftsman style homes are often grouped togethe...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior SIDING <ul><li>Common siding materials used are horizontal wood boards and...
Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior LANDSCAPING <ul><li>A Craftsman home should be surrounded by planters, pla...
Craftsman Interiors & Furniture
Victorian Vs. Craftsman Interiors <ul><li>Victorian </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsman Interiors </li></ul>
Mission Furniture Characteristics <ul><li>Carpentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartersawn Solid Oak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Craftsman Furniture Details <ul><li>Quartersawn Oak </li></ul><ul><li>A method of sawing oak so the cut is made parallel t...
Joinery: Mortise & Tenons <ul><li>A signature element of Craftsman construction is tenons – boards whose ends have been cu...
Bookmatching <ul><li>Resawing is a process of splitting thick lumber into thinner boards. Once split, the halves are opene...
Glass Panels In Furniture <ul><li>Glass is incorporated into the furniture to create a sense of lightness and visual impac...
Examples of Stickley Craftsman <ul><li>1914 Denver Craftsman Home </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsman Bungalow Style </li></ul>
Example of Prairie <ul><li>Dana Thomas House </li></ul><ul><li>by Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Dana Thomas House <...
Example of Bungalow <ul><li>The Gamble House </li></ul><ul><li>by Greene & Greene </li></ul><ul><li>Blacker House Entry Ha...
Example of Glasgow Style <ul><li>Hill House </li></ul><ul><li>By Charles Rennie Mackintosh </li></ul><ul><li>House For An ...
References & Resources <ul><li>Online Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Gustav Stickley and the Arts and Crafts Movement  </li><...
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Craftsman 101

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This is a quick presentation I put together briefing builders in Second Life on the history and key characteristics of the Craftsman style.

This presentation will be attended by builders who will compete in a competition to build a craftsman home in Second Life as a part of the Frank Lloyd Wright Museum hosted events in November 2009

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Craftsman 101

  1. 1. Craftsman Style 101 A Builder’s Guide to Recreating Craftsman in SL
  2. 2. Your Presenter: Troy Vogel <ul><li>Content creator, architect since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Architect of the following projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odaesan House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costa Del Mar House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas State University Virtual Campus: Bobcat Village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Church of Christ of Koinonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission Home Store Island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Furniture builder for the Mission Home Store </li></ul>
  3. 3. Arts & Crafts in the UK <ul><li>Arts & Crafts movement began in 1860s England with the ideas of the philosopher John Ruskin and designer and poet William Morris. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion against Victorian industrialized production, poor working conditions and lack of respect for workmanship. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical and then current industrial designs were both disregarding function and needs of residents of the spaces. This required a return to a more human centric approach to design & architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated a return to the Gothic architectural style </li></ul><ul><li>Good products, and fine craftsmanship should be available to all – especially the working class. This will help them regain the dignity they lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Machines should not impose design rules, design rules should impose how machines are used – wisely: use machines for drudgery work and blend in handcrafting for fine work & finishing. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Craftsman Style in the US <ul><li>One school believes that Greene and Greene are the pioneers of Craftsman in the US while another believes that A&C came over to the US around 1890-1920s titled as Craftsman by Gustav Stickley. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement later was also referred to as the Mission after an article published in a newspaper about Gustav where he referred to one of his designs “in a Spanish Mission in Southern California.” </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Mission at the time meant Spanish Colonial and the juxtaposition of the Mission name used for Craftsman created much confusion then and even now amongst collectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Hand crafted furniture, vases, and goods but everything must have a function. NO Victorian clutter in the house! </li></ul><ul><li>Quarter sawn oak and best natural materials used. </li></ul><ul><li>Embellishments and decorations are restrained and/or functional (contrast to Victorian). </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate wood joinery: mortise & tenons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Master Architects of the Craftsman Style <ul><li>Gustav Stickley </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Greene & Greene </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Rennie Mackintosh </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gustav Stickley (1858-1942) <ul><li>Stickley brought A&C style to the US and named it “Craftsman” to differentiate from the UK A&C. </li></ul><ul><li>Later it was also called Mission Style: “furniture must fill its mission of usefulness as we as it possibly can” </li></ul><ul><li>Stickley published the “Craftsman” magazine that had detailed drawings meant to inspire people to build their own pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Stickley designed at least 241 homes and published over 221 plans between 1901 and 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two Stickley companies today both descendents of the original Gustav Stickley. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) <ul><li>Took the A&C and Craftsman styles to the next level by transforming them into the Prairie style. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited the basic principles of the A&C and Craftsman movements and took them to extremes while making them his own. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses adorned with Asian, Mayan influenced touches. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with building materials. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957) Henry Mathers Greene(1870-1954) <ul><li>Hailed by the American Institute of Architects as “formulators of a new and native architecture.” </li></ul><ul><li>Greene & Greene designed houses and furnishings a century ago that established a new paradigm for the art of architecture in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of their work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing on the skills of outstanding craftsmen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High art aesthetics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beautiful and functional spaces. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) <ul><li>Leader of the Glasgow style that evolved from A&C roots. </li></ul><ul><li>His influences were Industrial Modernism and Asian. </li></ul><ul><li>However his work was far from most of the modernists of his era and reflected a level of ornament that was more reminiscent of Art Nouveau. </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Macdonald, his wife’s, contribution to interior decors of his building should not be overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>The principles that guided A&C and Craftsman also guided CRM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance for family space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local materials & labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality furnishings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows & light very important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art should be in everything, it should surround people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishings should be sparse and functional, homes should be uncluttered. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Craftsman House I <ul><li>Craftsman Home has refinement of design and quality of construction and finish. </li></ul><ul><li>It is often site related and placed to advantage using the site. </li></ul><ul><li>The house is built with materials found on the site, and/or natural materials native to the region. </li></ul><ul><li>The house designs rely on exposed structural elements for decorative details. The variety of natural materials provide textures for light to play on . </li></ul><ul><li>Voids, in the form of recessed porches and entrance ways, and terraces and pergolas, create visual interest. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Craftsman House II <ul><li>Interiors emphasize form and function. Space is conservatively and creatively used for living, with design elements utilizing wood and built-in spaces such as inglenooks, benches and cabinets. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceilings are lower than Victorian though not as low as Prairie style that followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Light fixtures and hardware relate as design elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian influence is felt in many of the details such as the pitch of the roofline being quite low. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior PORCH <ul><li>A wide, unenclosed front porch with overhanging eaves spanning the full or partial width of the home is a recognizable feature of the craftsman style. Porches are often framed by substantial columns, often square or tapered and extending all the way to the ground. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FRONT DOORS <ul><li>Glazing – Fitting glass into windows and doors. </li></ul><ul><li>Paneled door – A door with one or more recessed panels. </li></ul><ul><li>Batten door – A door constructed by nailing boards together in various ways. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior ROOFLINE <ul><li>Craftsman homes have lower pitch gables. Frequently the brackets supporting the roof are visible. Decorative Beams & rafters real or false are exposed. Multiple roof planes were common. Tile and slate as well as shingles were favored. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior CHIMNEYS <ul><li>Stone exterior chimneys were present in almost every single Craftsman home. Some of the earlier versions used mix of materials such as: stone at bottom becoming brick toward the top. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior FOUNDATION <ul><li>Sloping Foundation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior WINDOWS <ul><li>Windows of craftsman style homes are often grouped together in horizontal sets. Windows typically have noticeable frames and may be double-hung or fixed, with some homes adorned with a stained glass window. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior SIDING <ul><li>Common siding materials used are horizontal wood boards and wood shingles or shakes. Ground floor and upper floors often had different materials: clapboard/shingle over stone. Stucco was also commonly used. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Characteristics of the Craftsman House Exterior LANDSCAPING <ul><li>A Craftsman home should be surrounded by planters, plant beds, and carefully selected location appropriate plants native to the area. The house should appear in harmony with its surroundings. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Craftsman Interiors & Furniture
  21. 21. Victorian Vs. Craftsman Interiors <ul><li>Victorian </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsman Interiors </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mission Furniture Characteristics <ul><li>Carpentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartersawn Solid Oak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadralinear Posts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joinery: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mortise & Tenons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue & Groove Joints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blind Dovetailed Crossrails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book Matched Door Panels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of Art Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics </li></ul>
  23. 23. Craftsman Furniture Details <ul><li>Quartersawn Oak </li></ul><ul><li>A method of sawing oak so the cut is made parallel to the wood's medullar rays instead of across. This special cut yields a limited quantity of top grade boards featuring ray flake, the decorative wavy pattern prominent in quartersawn wood. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Joinery: Mortise & Tenons <ul><li>A signature element of Craftsman construction is tenons – boards whose ends have been cut for insertion into a mortise. </li></ul><ul><li>A blind tenon is concealed within the mortise. A through tenon projects beyond the depth of the mortise. </li></ul><ul><li>A keyed tenon projects beyond the mortise and is slotted with a wedge-shaped block. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bookmatching <ul><li>Resawing is a process of splitting thick lumber into thinner boards. Once split, the halves are opened like a book revealing identical grain. This time consuming and labor intensive process assures beautifully grained door panels on all pieces. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Glass Panels In Furniture <ul><li>Glass is incorporated into the furniture to create a sense of lightness and visual impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Art glass is used in windows to play with light and give interiors additional color / design without cluttering the space. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Examples of Stickley Craftsman <ul><li>1914 Denver Craftsman Home </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsman Bungalow Style </li></ul>
  28. 28. Example of Prairie <ul><li>Dana Thomas House </li></ul><ul><li>by Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Dana Thomas House </li></ul><ul><li>by Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul>
  29. 29. Example of Bungalow <ul><li>The Gamble House </li></ul><ul><li>by Greene & Greene </li></ul><ul><li>Blacker House Entry Hall </li></ul><ul><li>By Greene & Greene </li></ul>
  30. 30. Example of Glasgow Style <ul><li>Hill House </li></ul><ul><li>By Charles Rennie Mackintosh </li></ul><ul><li>House For An Art Lover </li></ul><ul><li>By Charles Rennie Mackintosh </li></ul>
  31. 31. References & Resources <ul><li>Online Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Gustav Stickley and the Arts and Crafts Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Stickley Museum at Craftsman Farms </li></ul><ul><li>Stickley Furniture Company </li></ul><ul><li>Blog Post: What’s up with this Mission vs. Craftsman vs. Arts & Crafts Stuff? </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent Mortise & Tenon Article on Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsman Style Guide (must read) </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Rust and Kitty Turgeon, Arts & Crafts , (New York, NY: Sterling Publishing, 1997) ISBN: 1-56799-363-X </li></ul><ul><li>Robert W Lang, Shop Drawing for Craftsman Interiors , (Bethel CT: Cambium Press, 2004) ISBN 1-892836-16-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Robin Langley and David Rago, The Arts & Crafts Movement , (New York,NY: Barnes & Noble) 2003 ISBN: 0-7607-4222-7 </li></ul>

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