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Reading and Writing

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Teaching reading and writing for EFL young learners.

Teaching reading and writing for EFL young learners.

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  • 1. 興雅國中  林淑媛 Chere Lin
  • 2. … reading and writing …is a beautiful reciprocal arrangement. --Alexandria Ricke, 2003
  • 3. William G. Spady: All students can learn and succeed, but not all on the same day in the same way.
  • 4.
    • Basic Parameters
    • Fun in Reading
    • From Reading to Writing
    • Varieties
    • Accessible Resource
  • 5. 1 Basic Parameters
  • 6. Both are correlative! Basic Parameters Reading Speed Reading Comprehension
  • 7.
    • Enhance Reading Speed
    • Reading Comprehension
    • Integrative Competence
    Basic Parameters
  • 8. Basic Parameters
    • Enhance Reading Speed
    Vocabulary Enrichment Information Extraction Phonics Sight Words Skimming Scanning
  • 9.
    • Enhance Reading Speed
    • Each type of reading has a different rate. An exciting novel is a quicker read than a text in biology.
    • Text books vary in how well they are written. As a consequence some are more difficult to read.
    Basic Parameters
  • 10.
    • Enhance Reading Speed
    • Each semester, time yourself reading a chapter in each of your text books. See how many pages an hour you can read. Once you have an accurate estimate of your reading rate, you can better plan your reading time and studying time.
    • Test your reading speed
    Basic Parameters
  • 11.
    • Search Engine: “ reading speed test ”
    • freereadingtest.com
    • execuread.com
    • learning- systems.ch
    • study- habits.com
    林淑媛  Chere How fast do you read? How fast do you read?
  • 12.
    • Enhance Reading Speed
    • Reading Comprehension
    • Integrative Competence
    Basic Parameters
  • 13.
    • Reading Comprehension
    • OECD: Program for International Student Assessment, PISA
    • reading comprehension Instruction
    • reading strategies
    • extension activities
    Basic Parameters
  • 14.
    • Reading Comprehension
    • OECD: 國際學生評量計劃測量指標 Programme for International Student Assessment , PISA
    • -- PISA 所指的「閱讀能力」,不是一般的讀 寫能力( Literacy ),而是一種 獲得資訊 的能力 。
    • Reading literacy is understanding, using, and reflecting on written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society.
    Basic Parameters
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • Reading Comprehension
    • OECD: 國際學生評量計劃測量指標 Programme for International Student Assessment , PISA
      • 擷取資訊 retrieving information
      • 綜合資訊 forming a broad general understanding
      • 解讀資訊 developing an interpretation
    Basic Parameters
  • 17.
    • Reading Comprehension
    • OECD: 國際學生評量計劃測量指標 Programme for International Student Assessment , PISA
      • 評價、思考和判斷力 -- reflecting on and evaluating the content of the text -- reflecting on and evaluating the form of the text.
    Basic Parameters
  • 18.
    • Reading Comprehension
    • OECD: 國際學生評量計劃測量指標 Programme for International Student Assessment , PISA
      • 根據 PISA 的定義,這種閱讀能力愈強的人,愈有能力搜集、理解、判斷訊息,以達成個人目標、增進知識、開發潛能,並運用訊息,有效參與現代社會的複雜運作。
    Basic Parameters
  • 19. 從 PISA 的測驗指標,您看到培養學生閱讀能力的教學方向了嗎? Basic Parameters
  • 20. 2 Fun in Reading
  • 21. Fun in Reading
    • Basic Principles
    • Textbook Learning
    • Expanding Activities
  • 22. Fun in Reading
    • Basic Principles
    • contextualization
    • interesting / attractive
    • on a wide range of topics
    • i + 1
    • being a role model of a reader
  • 23.
    • Contextualization
    Basic Principles
    • contextualization
      • too many unfamiliar words?
      • complicated sentence pattern?
      • unfamiliar topics / issues?
    •  on the use of the context in reading
    •  build up the background knowledge
  • 24. 1 圖文生活題—圖片與文意理解的轉化能力 (convert) 95-1-38  從上下文推敲字意圖表 … it has a big head, but doesn’t have a body. … 38. What may Mola Mola look like? Offer Sufficient Information
  • 25. 2 高階思考— 綜合理解能力 91-2-39-37 John Keats is one of the greatest English poets. He was born in London in 1795 and started studying to be a doctor when he was only fifteen. But after he finished his studies, he gave up the idea of becoming a doctor and decided to be a poet. In this poem Keats showed his love for this world even in his bad health. Keats died at the young age of twenty-five, but both the poet and his poems will always be remembered. Offer Sufficient Information
  • 26. 2 高階思考— 綜合理解能力 91-2-39-37 John Keats is one of the greatest English poets....to be a doctor... decided to be a poet. In this poem Keats showed his love for this world even in his bad health. ... both the poet and his poems will always be remembered. 37. What can we conclude from the reading? (A) Life could be short but art is long. (B) Everyone should learn to read poems. (C) Being a doctor is better than being a poet. (D) A poet usually becomes famous after he dies. Offer Sufficient Information
  • 27. 3 理解上下文意,猜字意 92-2-42-45 Wonderland is the hometown of minifishers . Because the winter there is cold, they go to warmer places for the winter and go back home the next spring to have their babies. Every year, hundreds of minifishers visit Starland. They stay there with their families for several months. They usually sleep during the day time and wake up in the evening to look for food. Small fish are their favorite. … Offer Sufficient Information
  • 28. 3 理解上下文意,猜字意 92-2-42-45 … Minifishers were first found in Startland one hundred years ago. Now Srartland has become their most important stopping place for the winter. But this could change soon because people in Startland are thinking of building factories near the minifishers’ winter home. Minifishers are sky and do not easily change the way they live. Can we do something to help these friends from the sky? Though making money is important, people in Startland should know the lives of other animals are important, too. Let’s work together to help them. Offer Sufficient Information
  • 29. 3 理解上下文意,猜字意 92-2-42-45 42. What may a minifsher be? (A) A factory worker. (B) A food vendor. (C) A fish. (D) A bird. Offer Sufficient Information
  • 30. 99-1-36-38 Alice: … Did you try the Dandelion Seat there? It’s so popular that people have to wait for over an hour to get a ride. Jerry: You mean those flower-like umbrellas that fly high in the sky? Alice: Yes. … Offer Sufficient Information 3 理解上下文意,猜字意
  • 31. Offer Sufficient Information
    • 理解上下文意,猜字意
    9-1-37 37. What may the Dandelion Seat look like? (A) (B) (C) (D)  flower-like umbrellas that fly high in the sky
  • 32. 某國中八年級上學期第二次段考 Every spring evening, when grass and bushes are spotted with fireflies’ shine everywhere over the field, many young parents start taking their children to the hills or riversides to find them. Children are interested in seeing the brightness from the insects’ bodies in the night. The beautiful scene attracts them a lot! But do you have any idea that fireflies are useful in the world of medicine and science? They have a special chemical inside them that makes their bodies shine like fire at night. The chemical can be removed from them and used for medical tests. Don’ts
  • 33. 某國中八年級上學期第二次段考 word bank : bush: 灌木 spot: 斑點 shine: 光輝 field: 田野 hill: 小山 riverside: 河岸 brightness: 光亮 insect: 昆蟲 scene: 景致 attract: 吸引 chemical: 化學成分 remove: 取走 medical: 醫學上 96 words / 13 new words Don’ts
  • 34.  Cloze Test -- 文章長度與空格數要成比例 Don’ts
  • 35.
    • Contextualization
    Basic Principles
    • contextualization
      • -- build up the background knowledge
  • 36. Keep in Mind
    • 過多的生難字詞拖慢閱讀速度、流暢度。
    • 不要以為給中文就可以了。 語言轉化( language transfer )也要花一些時間
    • 流暢度受阻,影響理解
    • 特別是克漏字選擇,更不該挖得語意無法連貫。
    • 議題偏離生活背景知識,需在閱讀前給予說明或 提供相關資訊。
  • 37. Fun in Reading
    • Basic Principles
    • Reading Strategies
    • Expanding Activities
  • 38. Fun in Reading
    • Expanding Activities
    • 剪報書卡
    • 長篇閱讀準備
    • 小說導讀
    • 讀者劇場
    • 思考訓練
    • 網路搜尋
    • 趣味英語閱讀社 / 趣味英語社
  • 39. Fun in Reading
    • Expanding Activities
    • 剪報書卡
    • -- 以圖帶文
    • -- 圖文題 進階  圖片減少,文字增多
  • 40.  Fun in Reading 2 長篇閱讀準備
    • Expanding Activities
  • 41. Fun in Reading 2 長篇閱讀準備 -- 利用 Amazon -- 結合部落格 -- 利用基測題  Free reading
    • Expanding Activities
    英語閱讀指導學習單
  • 42. Fun in Reading 3 小說導讀 reading enrichment -- Amelia Bedelia — pun  Put the lights out.  Dress the chicken.  Call the rolls.  Plant the bulbs.
    • Expanding Activities
  • 43. Fun in Reading 3 小說導讀 reading enrichment -- 閱讀難道都要寫心得嗎?
    • Expanding Activities
  • 44. Fun in Reading 4 讀者劇場 Reader’s Theater, RT -- Sound and Tone Expression  Story Telling  Reader’s Theater
    • Expanding Activities
  • 45. Fun in Reading 5 思考訓練 -- Action Maze -- Cinderella
    • Expanding Activities
  • 46. Fun in Reading
    • Expanding Activities
    • 網路搜尋
      • 網路改編段考題
      • 段考後閱讀原文一週後再出十題當小考 可以看原文應考。
      • 再設計成閱讀學習單
  • 47. Fun in Reading
    • Expanding Activities
    7 趣味英語閱讀社 / 趣味英語社
  • 48. 3 Reading  Writing
  • 49.
    • Overview of My Instruction
    • vocabulary enrichment
    • process of scaffolding
    • reading and writing strategies
    • graphic organization
    • drama involved
    • information technology integration
    From Reading to Writing
  • 50.
    • Basic Principles
    • Scaffolding
    • Textbooks Content Assisted
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
  • 51.
    • Basic Principles
    • 4 skills integrated
    • contextualization
    • scaffolding
    • fluency  accuracy
    • variety
    •  Writing ability is not isolated.
    From Reading to Writing
  • 52.
    • 全國碩博士論文網文獻
    • 過去十餘年來,英文寫作教學理論與實務已 漸從成品導向式教學轉為 過程導向式教學 。
    • product-oriented  process-oriented
    • 許多高中英語教師在進行寫作教學時,仍使 用教師中心,成品導向的寫作教學法。…只 注重成品,教學重心在文稿本身,眼前的作 品即代表學生當時的實際寫作能力。
    From Reading to Writing
    • Basic Principles
  • 53.
    • 全國碩博士論文網文獻
    • Braddock 等人 (1963) 在研究學生寫綽過程 時發現,寫作是個複雜、反覆迂迴及具創造 性的過程。
    • Flower & Hayes (1981) :寫作環境、寫作 過程、作者長期記憶交互作用…除了要幫助 學生審題、取材、構思、組織想法、轉譯成 文字、形成初稿之外,更要教導學生透過寫 作來進行評估及修改。
    From Reading to Writing
    • Basic Principles
  • 54.
    • 全國碩博士論文網文獻
    • 陳玉美 (1998) :從開始到完稿,同學和老師 皆可提供意見幫忙修改…透過這些階段性草 稿,老師可瞭解學生思考、學習過程,學生 也可自接二連三的修改中,發現自己的優缺 點,進而增進寫作能力,提升作品品質。
    From Reading to Writing
    • Basic Principles
  • 55.
    • fluency  accuracy
      • let creativity fly high and free
      • error tolerance / error treatment
      • acceptable expressions
      • peer-revising
      • metacognition
    From Reading to Writing
    • Basic Principles
  • 56.
    • Basic Principles
    • Scaffolding
    • Textbooks Content Assisted
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
  • 57.
    • Scaffolding
    From Reading to Writing
    • vocabulary enhancement
    • from words to a sentence
    • from sentences to a short paragraph
    • communication while writing
  • 58. From Reading to Writing
    • vocabulary enhancement
      • phonics  vocabulary enhancement
      • learning "chunks", not individual words
      • read and write
    •  words  phrases / chunks  sentence
    • Scaffolding
  • 59. From Reading to Writing
    • vocabulary enhancement
      • phonics  vocabulary enhancement
    • Scaffolding
  • 60. From Reading to Writing
    • from words to a sentence
    • Scaffolding!
    •  words  phrases / chunks  sentence
    • Scaffolding
  • 61. From Reading to Writing
    • from words to a sentence
      • dictation
      • substitution drills
      • sentence expanding / combining
      • dialogue / conversation
      • translation and grammar
      • reading and writing
    • Scaffolding
  • 62. From Reading to Writing
    • from words to a sentence
      • dictation
    • Scaffolding
    聽寫很重要
  • 63. From Reading to Writing
    • from words to a sentence
      • sentence expanding / combining
    Home > Subjects > Writing > Early Childhood Writing
    • Scaffolding
    abcteach.com
  • 64. From Reading to Writing
    • Scaffolding
    • from words to a sentence
      • reading and writing
  • 65.
    • from sentences to a short paragraph
      • sentence expanding / combining
      • sentence arrangement
    From Reading to Writing
    • Scaffolding
    Kizclub > Stories and Props > level 1 > I Can Kizclub-I Can
  • 66.
    • Basic Principles
    • Scaffolding
    • Textbook Content Assisted
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
  • 67. From Reading to Writing
    • Textbook Content Assisted
    • translation and grammar
    • conversation
    • scaffolding
  • 68. From Reading to Writing
    • translation and grammar
    •  basic principles
      • based on the previous knowledge
      • listening and speaking
      • oral despondence anteceding
      • learning by chunks
      • comparing 1st & 2nd language
      • acceptable expressions
    • Textbook Content Assisted
  • 69.
    • translation and grammar
      • reciting sentences in the textbook
      • sentence revising / combining / scrambling
      • question and answer
      • translation variation
      • logical thinking
    From Reading to Writing
    • Textbook Content Assisted
  • 70. … writing should be primarily a means of communication. --Raimes (1985) From Reading to Writing
  • 71. From Reading to Writing
    • conversation
      • guiding the communication
      • revising dialogue in the textbook
    • Textbook Content Assisted
    Create a Dialogue
  • 72. From Reading to Writing
    • scaffolding
      • teaching plan
      • graphic organization
      • conversation with students
      • apply textbook contents
    • Textbook Content Assisted
  • 73. From Reading to Writing
    • scaffolding
      • graphic organization
      • -- building up the whole picture of the ideas
    • Textbook Content Assisted
    Graphic Organization
  • 74. From Reading to Writing
    • scaffolding
      • teaching plan
      • conversation with students
      • apply textbook contents
    • Textbook Content Assisted
    comparison
  • 75.
    • Basic Principles
    • Scaffolding
    • Textbooks Content Assisted
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
  • 76.
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
    • topic writing
    • peer-editing / peer-revising
    • writing scripts
    Role-play 學習單
  • 77.
    • Expanding Activities
    From Reading to Writing
    • topic writing
      • applying textbook sentence structures
      • guiding writing
  • 78. Much of the dialog and content that would go into a conference can be realized in the form of written comments on the students' compositions, conversing with the teacher in the classroom, and in peer editing . -- David Martin Basic Principles  Conversation
  • 79. 4 Varieties
  • 80.
    • Integrative Learning
    • Multimedia Integrated
    • Drama In EFL Education
    • Project-based Learning
    Varieties
  • 81.
    • Integrative Learning
    • integrative reading and writing activities
    • expanding textbook learning content 
    Varieties
  • 82.
    • Multimedia Integrated
    • guiding writing
    • PowerPoint
    • webpage
    • blog
    Varieties
  • 83.
    • Multimedia Integrated
    • guiding writing
      • think and write
      • applying sentence structure
      • topic writing
    Varieties
  • 84.
    • Drama In EFL Education
    Varieties
    • revise a reading material to a script
    • picture books
    • RT readers’ theater
    • role-play
    • one-minute monologue
    • oral test
    • CF
    picture books Role-play Oral test Advertisement monologue
  • 85.
    • revise a reading material to a script
    • picture books
    • RT
    • role-play
    • Drama In EFL Education
    Expanding Activities
  • 86.
    • peer collaboration
    • multimedia integrated
    • global view
    Varieties
    • Project-based Learning
  • 87.
    • 3 global view
      • “ My School, Your School” Project
      • IEARN: Magic Moment
    Varieties
    • Project-based Learning
  • 88. Findings
    • Age and Cognition
    • 沒有足夠的生活經驗,寫不出東西
    • 七年級多實體具像的描述、或表達
    • 九年級可抽象題目、論說文
    • 教科書內容的確提供基本寫作訓練基礎
  • 89. 5 Accessible Resource
  • 90.
    • Reading Resource
    Accessible Resource
    • 網路資源
    • Search Engine: “ reading for kids”
      • 線上圖書
      • 生活討論
      • 閱讀指導
  • 91.
    • Reading Resource
    • 網路資源
      • 線上圖書
    Accessible Resource Maryland U. Kids club---I can Taipei Public Library
  • 92.
    • Reading Resource
    • 網路資源
      • 生活討論
    Accessible Resource Action Maze
  • 93. Accessible Resource
    • Writing Resource
    • 網路資源
    • Search Engine: “ writing for kids”
      • 學習單下載
      • 跨國文化理解
  • 94. Accessible Resource
    • Writing Resource
    • 網路資源
    • 學習單下載
    • 跨國文化理解
    abcteach handwriting for kids TEFL Word Puzzlemaker Kids on the Net IEARN Internet Keypal Exchanges
  • 95. 歡迎常聯絡 林淑媛  Chere Lin 臺北市興雅國中英語科教師 (02)-2723-2771 [email_address] http://www.chere.idv.tw