The scientific revolution


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The scientific revolution

  1. 1. Precursor of Modern Science The ScientificThe Scientific RevolutionRevolution
  2. 2. “They realized that to confine their attentions to terrestrial matters would be to limit the human spirit” -Stephen Hawking, on the masters of the European Renaissance
  3. 3. Symptoms of a Stagnant Europe • Renaissance Europe was overwhelmed with a general doctrinal passivity • Little change to scientific knowledge accrued over the Middle Ages (500-1350 AD) • Lack of experimentation and scientific inquiry; more emphasis placed on Greco-Roman teachings • Catholic Church perpetuated what it called “absolute truths”, which were scientific theorems derived from the work of Aristotle and Ptolemy, through the educational institutions of the time
  4. 4. ““To know thatTo know that we know whatwe know what we know, andwe know, and to know that weto know that we do not knowdo not know what we do notwhat we do not know, that isknow, that is truetrue knowledge.”knowledge.” - Nicolaus- Nicolaus CopernicusCopernicus
  5. 5. Nicolaus CopernicusNicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 • Was the first to postulate heliocentric cosmology, or the idea that the Earth was not located in the center of our Universe • He instead proposed that planets rotated about the Sun • Widely considered to be the founder of Astronomy • Some of the greatest works that Copernicus produced were the treatise De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, 1543) and his manuscript Commentariolus (Little Commentary) • Copernicus was castigated because of his radical ideas, which he lacked the evidence and means to support himself with
  6. 6. “I much prefer the sharpest criticism of a single intelligent man to the thoughtless approval of the masses.” - Johannes Kepler
  7. 7. Johannes KeplerJohannes Kepler Father of Planetary Motion - 1571-1630 • Renowned for his “celestial mechanics”, based upon how he believed that Earth and the other planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits • Made grand contributions to the fields of optics, integral calculus and geometry • Created three laws through which planetary motion could be calculated: – 1st Law of Ellipses – 2nd Law of Equal Areas – 3rd Law of Harmony
  8. 8. “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” - Galileo Galilei
  9. 9. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642  Was an early supporter of experimentation and empiricism  Rose to prominence within the field of mathematics to earn his place at the University of Pisa, where he would make many of his famed scientific discoveries  Made heavy contributions to the fields of physics, creating branches of mechanical engineering like kinematics and dynamics and authoring the Law of Inertia  After observing the orbital patterns of the moons of Jupiter, Galileo became a champion of the Copernican idea of a heliocentric universe  After publishing his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632, Galileo was accused of heresy and was forced to renounce his views. He spent the remainder of his life under house arrest
  10. 10. “It is not enough to have a good mind; the main thing is to use it well.” - Rene Descartes
  11. 11. • Though he was considered a failure of a scientist, Descartes still holds his place as one of the greatest intellectual minds of the Scientific Revolution • Closely associated with the Renaissance philosophical movement, Descartes was an advocate for rationalism and deductive reasoning (Cogito ergo sum) • Perhaps his greatest achievements were in the field of mathematics, where he linked geometry with algebra • Was a pioneer of metaphysics, a branch of cognitive physics focused on the nature of existence and the universe (mind versus matter) • Descartes was one of the most influential figures of this time period; his scientific, mathematic and philosophical achievements became the foundation on which Newton would build on Rene DescartesRene Descartes 1596-16501596-1650
  12. 12. “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” -Sir Isaac Newton
  13. 13. Sir Isaac NewtonSir Isaac Newton • Newton’s contributions to the Scientific Revolution were so diverse and crucial that he is widely considered to be the most important scientist of all time • Combining the teachings of Kepler and Galileo with his own ideas, Newton was able to formally validate the Copernican view of heliocentric cosmology • Newton was fanatically religious; he authored more Biblical texts than he did scientific ones • Newton is perhaps best known for his theories of Universal Gravitation and his Three Laws of Motion • His Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica, often called the Principia, is viewed as the most influential text written during the Scientific Revolution 1642-17271642-1727
  14. 14. “Science is but an image of the truth.” - Francis Bacon
  15. 15. Francis Bacon  One of the greatest contributors to empiricism, the concept that experimentation and gathered experience will equate to knowledge  Had a prolific career as an attorney and civil servant  Bacon was a staunch believer in the empirical method  Through his own reasoning and evaluation of the works of others, Bacon was able to consolidate scientific methodology into the Bacononian Method, or simply the Scientific Method
  16. 16. “All we know is still infinitely less than all that remains unknown.” - William Harvey
  17. 17. William HarveyWilliam Harvey 1473-1543 • The first Western European to detail the function of systemic circulation in the cardiovascular system, the property of blood being pumped through the body by the heart • Through empirical data gathered by dissection, Harvey was able to disprove the previously-accepted Galenical views of human anatomy • His observations included the belief that the blood circulating through our veins and arteries is uniform and consistent • Helped to accurately map out the human physiology
  18. 18. "The whole of science"The whole of science is nothing more thanis nothing more than a refinement of whata refinement of what we once thought waswe once thought was right. Imagine whatright. Imagine what we will all knowwe will all know tomorrow."tomorrow." - Albert Einstein- Albert Einstein
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