The magna carta

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The magna carta

  1. 1. The Magna Carta By: Eva Szakacs
  2. 2. What Is It? <ul><li>It’s an English charter (document) created to limit the powers of the monarch. It preserved the legal rights of free men in England. This document first passed into law in 1225 but the 1297 version is still on the statute books of England and Wales. (The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, and the Liberties of the Forest.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. When Was It Issued <ul><li>The Magna Carta was originally issued in 1215 but later reissued in the 13 th century. When it was later issued there were modified versions including the most direct challenges to the monarchs authority. (To date) It was the first document forced onto an English King by his feudal barons. They did this to try and limit his powers by law and to protect their privileges. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who Wrote It? <ul><li>The information in the Magna Carta was drafted by Archbishop Stephen Langton and the barons of England. King John signed it on June 15, 1215 but when he signed it, the Magna Carta was called the “Articles of the Barons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Clause 61 <ul><li>The first document of the Magna Carta had a large section which is now referred to as Clause 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Established a committee of 25 barons who could meet and overrule the King’s will at anytime </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a medieval legal practice (distraint). However, it was the first time it was applied to a monarch </li></ul><ul><li>It was a serious challenge to John’s Authority as a ruling demand </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna Carta was a failure in order to prevent war, which was rejected by most of the barons </li></ul><ul><li>The death of King John in 1216, secured the future of the </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Origins <ul><li>At the end of the First Barons War and the Treaty of Lambeth, the Charter of Liberties (carta libertatum) was issued again in the manner of 1216, and amended and issued separately for Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>A section of the original charter was expanded with new material to form a balancing charter </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 charters would be linked </li></ul><ul><li>Carta Libertatum was used by scribes to determine the larger and more important charter of common liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Carta Libertatum became the Magna Carta </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The Magna Carta was first written in Latin </li></ul><ul><li>A big part of the Charter was copied almost word for word from the Charter of Liberties </li></ul><ul><li>The Charter went through a lot of different issues, but the ones that were included in the Runnymede charter had been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Some clauses formed an extra Charter in 1217 (the Charter of the Forest) </li></ul><ul><li>The 1215 Charter wasn’t numbered or divided into separate </li></ul><ul><li>paragraphs </li></ul>
  8. 9. Nineteenth Century … <ul><li>This century would see the start of the repeal of many clauses of the Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>These clauses were either outdated or had been replaced by later legislation </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna Carta was believed to be the major step in the shaping of the English people </li></ul><ul><li>Also believed that the Barons at Runnymede were people </li></ul><ul><li>“ Magna Charter was therefore the chief cause of Democracy in England, and thus a Good Thing for everyone (except the common people)”. </li></ul><ul><li>– Stellar and Yeatman </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Popularity thought of as the document that was forced upon King John </li></ul><ul><li>It was reissued by monarchs but without the most direct challenges, and without the provisions that were intended to right immediate wrongs instead of make long term constitutional changes </li></ul><ul><li>The 1297 version forms part of the English law </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta can be used to refer to any several related 13 th century documents </li></ul><ul><li>Some people thought that King John and the barons signed it </li></ul><ul><li>On the original version there were no signatures; just a single seal placed by the King </li></ul><ul><li>“ Data per manum mostram” show that the document was personally given by the king’s hand. </li></ul><ul><li>After the seal was placed, the king and the barons followed common law </li></ul><ul><li>The King didn’t sign his seal neither did the barons </li></ul>
  10. 11. THE END

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