Legislature has provided an opportunity for Oregon communities to link land use and transportation planning to create better neighborhoods while reducing GHG emissions. Set Statewide Target: reduce GHG pollution to one-quarter of 1990 levels by 2050. By 2010, stop growth of GHHG pollution By 2020, reduce GHG emissions to 10% below 1990 levels. By 2050, reduce GHG emissions to 75% below 1990 levels. Created Global Warming Commission: Roadmap to 2020 How to reach the interim GHG reduction target from all sources. 6 areas are Energy/Utilities, Industrial Use, Forestry, Agriculture, Materials
Oregon is already feeling the impacts of global climate change. Our region is warming, causing both more and less water in various places. Average annual precipitation has increased, land on the central and northern Oregon coast is being submerged by rising sea level, and the snow pack has declined precipitously. Unhealthy air days are increasing, due to heat-trapping ground-level ozone. Vector-borne diseases, including Lyme disease and West Nile Virus, likely to increase. A 2004 Scientific Consensus Statement indicates these trends will continue Notes  Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs 2003 http://www.worldwatch.org/features/climate/questionsanswers/  OCCRI Climate Assessment Report, 2010.  Physicians for Social Responsibility comprehensive report &quot;Degrees of Danger: Health Effects of Climate Change and Energy in Oregon
Legislature passed two bills to reduce GHG from the transportation sector – cars & light trucks. Three major components: State Transportation Strategy Long-range, multi-modal vision (to 2050) to substantially reduce GHG emissions from the entire transportation sector – freight, rail, air, rivers, autos. Focus on 6 urban areas (Portland, S/K, E/S, Corvallis/Philomath, Rogue Valley, Bend) State Toolkit Helps local jurisdictions identify actions and programs to help reduce GHG emissions from transportation and land use Contains searchable Database of actions and programs with research-backed estimates of GHG emissions reduction potential and cost effectiveness estimates. Provides Case Studies demonstrating implementation actions and programs included in the Database.
So why do we pick on transportation? Because it plays such a huge role in emissions.
And when we look at transportation, it’s easy to pin the blame on other people, on trucks and planes. But the numbers break down further, and we realize that it’s ordinary Oregonians getting around every day that provide the bulk of emissions, as shown in these figures from the Department of Energy.
And the state has focused on these six urban areas because they contribute most of the state’s passenger car emissions. As they grow, their contributions will grow, unless we take action to reverse it. If we can change the way people get around and live in these areas, we can make a huge impact on our overall emissions.
Metro: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cars and light trucks by 20% below 2005 levels by 2035 (per capita)
Climatechangeodot.com OSTI STIP criteria OTP Goal 4 GreenStep TGM Program Research
Moving Cooler: Land-use changes alone have the potential to reduce U.S. transportation emissions 7 to 10 percent below current levels by 2050.
For Notes: Graph shows vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in three types of Portland neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with good transit and mixed use average 9.8 VMT/household/day. Neighborhoods with good transit but no mix of uses average 13.3 VMT/household/day. The rest of the region, with no mix of uses or good transit — mostly characterized by suburban sprawl — averages 21.8 VMT/household/day.
About ¼ of our population does not drive – too old, too young, physical reasons they cannot drive, choice, economic reasons. That will only increase as the population as a whole ages. We do not want people cut-off from their daily needs and isolated in their homes. We all need choice in how we get around.
Would your grandma bike here? Would you be comfortable having your child bike here? How long does it take to get between different services On the bus stop: It’s a great service to the few workers who use it, but how useful is it to help reduce the region’s overall GHG emissions
National Association of Realtors surveys for at least the past decade - over 80% of Americans want to live in communities that allow them to use their car less often.
Random source: http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/report/HealthSprawl8.03.pdf 1 st bullet (walking less): McCann, Barbara. and B. Delille, “Mean Streets 2000,” Surface Transportation Policy Project http://www.transact.org/PDFs/ms2000/ms2000.pdf; in Center for Clean Air Policy, Cost-Effective GHG Reductions through Smart Growth & Improved Transportation Choices , June 2009 3rd bullet (Asthma in kids):The Center for Health and Global Environment Harvard Medical School, Paul R Epstein and Christine Rodgers, “INSIDE THE GREENHOUSE: The impacts of CO2 and climate change on public health on the inner city,” May 2004 . For more asthma info: http://public.health.oregon.gov/DiseasesConditions/ChronicDisease/Asthma/Pages/burdenrpt.aspx 2 nd bullet (obesity): CDC, Adolescent and School Health, http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm. Adult obesity: Atlantic Cities, The True Cost of Unwalkable Streets, March 2012, http://www.theatlanticcities.com/commute/2012/03/true-cost-unwalkable-streets/1616/ State if from OECD 4 th bullet (EPA factoid): EPA [need to find this stat – was in Oregonian ]
Quote: Dr. Howard Frumkin, MD, director of the National Center for Environmental Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Author of Making Healthy Places -1 st bullet: Archives of Internal Medicine, October 12, 2009, cited in Toronto Globe & Mail, October 13, 20 2nd bullet: Nurses Health Study, Harvard University, Brigham & Women’s Hospital -3 rd bullet: World Diabetes Foundation, 2011. Another factoid: Walking 2.5 hours/week plus good eating reduces risk of developing diabetes by 58% in overweight adults - New England Journal of Medicine, 2002. -4 th bullet: Kids, Research Quarterly for Exercise & sport, 2011; college, NYU current research; adults - Nurses Health Study and many others 5 th bullet (bus passes and weight loss): The Urban Environemtn & Weight Loss in New York City, 2007, http://www.ajhpcontents.org/doi/abs/10.4278/0890-1171-21.4s.326; Free Bus Passes, Use of Public Transit, and Obesity in Older people in England, 2012, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health One study found that people who live in neighborhoods that support healthy diets and physical activity - through sidewalks and a mix of uses like schools and grocery stores easily accessible by walking or bicycling - were 38 per cent less likely to get diabetes than those who live in neighborhoods without those attributes - where biking and walking is not an option. [ Archives of Internal Medicine, October 12, 2009, cited in Toronto Globe & Mail, October 13, 2009. ] new study from the Seattle Children’s Research Institute that looked at GIS data from neighborhoods in San Diego and Seattle (via Walkonomics ). The headline of their press release? &quot;Zip Code as Important as Genetic Code in Childhood Obesity.&quot; Kids that lived in neighborhoods that were poorer in physical activity and nutrition environment had the highest rates of obesity – almost 16 percent – in the study. This figure is similar to the national average. On the flip side, only eight percent of children were obese in neighborhoods where physical activity and nutrition environments were positive. The study found that children who lived in the healthier neighborhoods had a 59 percent lower chance of being obese. And childhood obesity is linked to myriad health complications in later life, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
 Portland’s Green Dividend, Joe Cortright, Impresa, 2007  ($8000 figure) &quot;Freedom from Oil&quot;, Livable Communities task Force; US House of Representatives, June 2011  $859/month) Depreciated cost, gas, insurance, maintenance, parking.  (Portland area) American Public Transportation Association, Transit Savings Report , reported in The Oregonian, July 15, 2011.  (Heating & Cooling)Ewing et al., Chapter 7 (2008)  (Water) U.S. EPA. Growing towards More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development, Infrastructure, Cost-Effective GHG Reductions through Smart Growth & Improved Transportation Choices Center for Clean Air Policy June 2009 12
 (25% reduction) Center for Clean Air Policy 2009. (Low density & fire & police) http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_74-a.pdf; cited in Metro Draft Climate Strategy Toolbox. July 18, 2011.  (Sprawl consumes…) American Journal of Public Health, Burchell and Mukherji 2003; cited in Metro Draft Climate Strategy Toolbox . July 18, 2011.  (Health care savings)Thomas Gotschi (a Swiss epidemiologist), in Journal of Physical Activity and Health , 2011. Reported in Portland Tribune , March 3, 2011.
 Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure: A National Study of Employment Impacts ; by Garrett-Peltier, Heidi; Univ. of Massachusetts, Political Economy Research Institute, June 20, 2011  Smart Growth America, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/2011/08/18/transportation-projects-will-stimulate-new-jobs/ Historically, 31%; the ARRA stimulus package, 70%. Repair creates 16% more jobs than new roads building.
COOL COMMUNITIESBuilding Better Communities in the Metro Area Mary Kyle McCurdy 1000 Friends of Oregon Charbonneau May 3, 2012
COOL COMMUNITIES Oregon’s Commitment to Healthy Communities• Legislature has provided an opportunity for healthier communities and reduced greenhouse gas pollution: – Statewide targets • 2010: Stop all growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution. • 2020: Reduce GHG pollution to 90% of 1990 levels. • 2050: Reduce GHG pollution to 25% of 1990 levels Source: Global Warming Commission
COOL COMMUNITIES WHY? In Oregon, climate change means:– Warmer and drier summers—more unhealthy air days– Longer pollen season—asthma and allergies– Increased incidence and intensity of heat-related illnesses and vector-borne diseases– Wildfire increase in all Oregon forest types– More extreme precipitation events– Quality & availability of water threatened– Frequency & magnitude of coastal flooding increases, displacing people– Food supply threatened: less water, increased and new pests, changing growing seasons, increased energy costs– Adverse economic impacts: increased food costs, infrastructure damage, increased energy costs.
COOL COMMUNITIESOregon’s Transport/Climate Strategy Three Components: • State Transportation Strategy • Targets for Six Urban Areas – Cars and light trucks – Required for Portland, optional for others. • Online Toolkit for Action – Recommended actions and programs for local governments – Searchable database of actions and programs that work Image source: whiteearth.org
COOL COMMUNITIES Why Transportation?• Transportation: 1/3 of GHG emissions in US.• Higher in Oregon• Reducing transportation-related emissions is key to meeting our targets. (Source: Oregon Department of Energy, 2008)
COOL COMMUNITIES The Biggest Transportation Culprit: Us.• Passenger travel by cars and light trucks: 60% of Oregon transportation- related emissions.• We will not succeed unless we provide other options for getting around. (Source: Oregon Department of Energy, 2008)
COOL COMMUNITIES The Biggest Transportation Culprit: Us. (especially urban areas)• Urban regions: 56% of household transportation emissions in Oregon Source: DLCD Target Rulemaking Advisory Committee
COOL COMMUNITIESSetting the Targets Image Source: Metro, “Understanding our Land Use and Transportation Choices”, 2012.
COOL COMMUNITIES The Opportunity“Climate Smart Communities” also means Better Communities in the Metro area:• Saves farm land• High-quality housing options for all• Amenities within walkable distance• Healthier residents• Thriving local economies• Reliable transportation choices Image Source: Oregon State University
COOL COMMUNITIES The Land Use –Transportation Connection The Potential• Providing neighborhoods where people can walk, bike, or take a bus to the store, school, doctor’s office, and other daily services can reduce annual GHG emission by 24 % by 2050.• Residents of the country’s most walkable areas drive 26 % fewer miles per day than those living in the most sprawling areas.• Portland area: Residents drive 20 % fewer miles than in other major U.S. metropolitan areas because we have walkable neighborhoods with things nearby that you want and need to walk to. Image source: Villebois Village Center
COOL COMMUNITIESThe Land Use ConnectionWell-designed, transit-accessible neighborhoods in thePortland region have 55 percent less automobile usethan sprawling residential areas. Source : Todd Littman, Center for Real Estate Quarterly, Spring 2011
COOL COMMUNITIES Choice—In How We Get Around• Transit• Sidewalks• Bikeways• Carpooling• Carsharing Images (clockwise from top): Trimet; Dana Tims, The Oregonian; Ecotrope, OPB
COOL COMMUNITIES More Than Bike Lanes & Bus Stops Bus stop near Black Butte Ranch, US 20 McLoughlin Blvd.: Bike lanes, but can you spot the biker?Image Sources: Bob Ellis, The Oregonian (left); Greg Holmes (right)
COOL COMMUNITIESChoices in Living • Neighborhoods with different kinds of housing provide choice for people of all ages and family sizes, for example, from children to empty-nesters. • Neighborhoods with homes near shops and services, connected with sidewalks, make “community.” • It’s where people want to live - over 80% of Americans want to live in communities that allow them to use their car less often. Image source: Trimet
COOL COMMUNITIES Choices That Improve Health• We walk much less than previous generations. From 1975 to 1995, the number of trips U.S. adults made by walking plummeted 42 %, while the annual amount of miles driven rose 4 times more quickly than the population.• Obesity. Childhood obesity tripled in past 30 years; 1/3 of children and adolescents now considered overweight or obese. US #1 in world in overweight and obese adults.• Respiratory Illnesses are increasing. Asthma is at epidemic levels among pre-school children, increasing 160% from 1980 to 1994. Due to higher levels of pollen from temperature changes and vehicle pollution.• Driving – the largest contributor to air pollution in Oregon. Decreasing driving decreases the air pollutants that cause asthma and other respiratory diseases. Providing opportunities to get around by a means other than always driving a car leads to improved air quality and physical health. Image source: Jonathan Maus, BikePortland
COOL COMMUNITIESWalkable Neighborhoods = Healthy people “We have engineered walking and bicycling out of our communities" • People who live in neighborhoods that support healthy diets and physical activity - sidewalks and a mix of uses like schools and grocery stores easily accessible by walking or bicycling - are 38 %less likely to get diabetes than those who live in neighborhoods without those options. • Walking 3+ miles/week reduces risk of coronary event by 35%. • 80% of Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by increasing physical activity and eating healthy. • Physical activity increase cognitive performance in kids, college students, and adults. • Free bus passes have lead to weight loss. Image source: Sean Dreilinger
COOL COMMUNITIES Choices That Save Money For Families• Transportation is the 2nd largest expense for most households, 20%-50% of household expenses• Families living in auto-dependent neighborhoods spend much more on transportation. – Average annual cost of owning a car: $8000 – Portland bus and train commuters save an average of $859 per month by leaving the car at home.• Portland area: Residents travel 20% fewer miles by car than in other major U.S. metropolitan areas. Regional transportation cost savings: $1.1 billion/year.• Homes in compact communities use 20% less energy for heating & cooling than in sprawling communities.• Homes in compact communities use 20-50% less water per capita. Image source: Trimet
COOL COMMUNITIESChoices that Save Money For Communities • 25% reduction in infrastructure costs (sewers, roads, water, etc.) by serving more compact growth patterns, rather than low-density, auto- dominated development patterns. • Low-density development requires more fire and police stations and equipment per capita. • “Sprawl” consumes 21% more raw land, and increases water and sewer costs by 6.6%, local road costs by 9.2%, and housing costs by 8%. • During the next 30 years, Portland area residents could save up to $594 million in health care costs because of the city’s investment in biking. Image source: The Oregonian
COOL COMMUNITIES Choices that Create Jobs• Building bikeways and sidewalks creates more jobs than building new roads. Studies show that for every $1 million spent, bikeways and sidewalks create 10-14 jobs; roads only 7.• Investing in transit creates more jobs than building new roads; from 30% to 70% more jobs per dollar. Image sources: Trimet (top); Jonathan Maus, BikePortland (bottom)
COOL COMMUNITIESChoices that Save Farm Land Image source: Flickr user Desert4wd
COOL COMMUNITIES How You Can Participate• Ask Wilsonville to host a workshop with Metro – open to the public - focused on strategies that work best for Wilsonville and Charbonneau. How can Wilsonville achieve better bus service, more sidewalks, housing choices, etc… Wilsonville Mayor Tim Knapp Metro Councilor Carl Hosticka• Contact Metro yourself to be included in Metro’s Climate Smart Communities events: firstname.lastname@example.org• Sign up for 1000 Friends e-mail list to be kept up to date on Building Better Communities: email@example.com