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ESWC SS 2013 - Monday Keynote Stefan Decker: From Linked Data to Networked Knowledge
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ESWC SS 2013 - Monday Keynote Stefan Decker: From Linked Data to Networked Knowledge

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  • 1. © Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge From Linked Data to Networked Knowledge Stefan Decker Stefan.Decker@deri.org http://www.StefanDecker.org/
  • 2. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Cave Drawings 30000 BC
  • 3. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Writing: 3200 BC (Sumerian cuneiform)
  • 4. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Printing Press (Gutenberg 1450)
  • 5. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Photography (Daguerre 1839)
  • 6. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Phonograph (Edison 1877)
  • 7. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Movies (Lumiere 1895)
  • 8. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Bush’s camera on the head
  • 9. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge9 Memex “A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility” Posited by Vannevar Bush in “As We May Think” The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945
  • 10. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge10 Sketch of memex
  • 11. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge oNLine System- NLS, 1968 (Doug Engelbart, SRI) “By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.” The Mouse; Word Processing; Data Sharing; Hypertext;
  • 12. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge ARPANET (1969) (John Postel, David Crocker, Vint Cerf)
  • 13. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Xanadu (Ted Nelson ~1960-???) 13
  • 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge World Wide Web (Tim Berners-Lee 1989) WWW (Tim Berners- Lee) “There was a second part of the dream […] we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we re doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together.”
  • 15. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge15 of 46 Making Progress… Memex (Vannevar Bush) A memex is “a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications.” Augmenting Human Intellect (Doug Engelbart) “By "augmenting human intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.” WWW (Tim Berners-Lee) “There was a second part of the dream […] we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we re doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together.”
  • 16. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge A Network of Data and Knowledge n  Interconnected n  Universal n  All encompassing n  assists humans, organisations and systems with problem solving n  enabling innovation and increased productivity ?
  • 17. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge ?
  • 18. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 1.  Scalability: No growth scalability problem (e.g., no back links from HTML pages) 2.  No censorship: no lengthy permission or review process 3.  Positive feedback loop: exploit Metcalf’s Law What enabled the Web?
  • 19. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Metcalfe's law: The value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected members
  • 20. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Metcalfe’s Law 1: Links
  • 21. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Metcalfe’s Law 2
  • 22. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 23. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 1. Scalability. No centralized infrastructure (e.g., a central object repository) required. 2. No censorship. It must be possible to publish data without having to ask for prior permission. 3. Positive feedback loop. Capitalize on Metcalfe’s Law. Requirements for a Data Web
  • 24. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Enabling Metcalfe’s Law 1.  Global Object Identity. 2.  Composability: The value of data can be increased if it can be combined with other data. Composability has a number of consequences: 1.  schema-less. ( Combined data originating from difference sources unlikely to conform to a schema) 2.  self-describing 3.  “object centric”. In order to integrate information about different entities data must be related to these entities. 4.  graph-based. The composition of multiple object-centric data sources results in a graph in the general case.
  • 25. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Observations •  The relational model does not fulfill these requirements (not composable, no global object id) •  XML is not object centric and not composable. •  Graph based data formats are composable •  RDF fulfills these requirements. •  Claim: Any data format that fulfills the requirements is “more or less” isomorphic to RDF.
  • 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 26 of 46 The usual two Ingredients 1.  RDF – Resource Description Framework Graph based Data – nodes and arcs ¨  Identifies objects (URIs) ¨  Interlink information (Relationships) 2.  Vocabularies (Ontologies) ¨  provide shared understanding of a domain ¨  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way ¨  give an exploitable meaning to the data
  • 27. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Open Data cloud - domains Over 200 open data sets with more than 25 billion facts, interlinked by 400 million typed links, doubling every 10 month! http://lod-cloud.net/ Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Media Government Geo Publications User-generated Life sciences Cross-domain US government UK government BBC New York Times LinkedGeoData 27 BestBuy Overstock.com Facebook
  • 28. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Do we really need Ontologies? (as we have them right now) Provocative?
  • 29. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Anything wrong with this picture?
  • 30. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Wasn’t the Web about sharing?
  • 31. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Could modeling not be easy? Animal? Mammal? Whale? Class? Instance? Argh!!!
  • 32. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge n  Differentiation in Classes and Instances is difficult: no single way to abstract the world (observe Upper Ontology wars…..aehm…discussions!) n  Choices between Instances and Classes done at design cause usability issues (different treatment in applications) (animal-mammal-whale) n  Ontologies cement power structures (prevent information sharing) n  Sharing is only top-down Issues with Ontologies
  • 33. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge n  Predecessor: Frame Representation Systems n  “Prototypes: KRL, RLL, and JOSIE employ prototype frames to represent information about a typical instance of a class as opposed to the class itself and as opposed to actual instances of the class.” [Karp, 1993] n  AFAIK: Formalisation classes as subsets and instances as elements [Hayes, 1979]. n  Formalization of Frame Systems (Description Logic) picked up on [Hayes, 1979] and left out alternatives How did classes/ instances happen?
  • 34. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge n  Stefan Decker, Dieter Fensel, Frank van Harmelen, Ian Horrocks, Sergey Melnik, Michel C. A. Klein, Jeen Broekstra: Knowledge Representation on the Web. Description Logics 2000: 89-97 n  OIL -> DAML+OIL -> OWL -> OWL 2.0 Note: How did DL & Ontologies/ Classes happen in the Semantic Web?
  • 35. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge © A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz" 3.35 Class- vs. Prototype-based Programming Languages! Class-based: Prototype-based: >  No classes, only objects >  Objects define their own properties and methods >  Objects delegate to their prototype(s) >  Any object can be the prototype of another object Prototype-based languages unify objects and classes From: A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz: Prototype based programming http://www.slidefinder.net/0/03prototypes/03prototypes/10603817 n  Classes share methods and define common properties" n  Inheritance along class chain" n  Instances have exactly the properties and behavior defined by their class" n  Structure typically cannot be changed at runtime"
  • 36. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge > JavaScript, > Self, > NewtonScript, > Omega, Cecil, Examples From: A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz: Prototype based programming http://www.slidefinder.net/0/03prototypes/03prototypes/10603817
  • 37. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge How it could look like: (Horizontal Information Sharing) Enabling Metcalfs Law!
  • 38. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge You can have Ontologies as well…
  • 39. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Object foaf:Agent weblog URL twitterID String Object foaf:Person hasPrototype foaf:Agent fromSource: http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Agent knows foaf:Agent age [0…120] gender {Male, Female} ishuman yes Object deri:Stefan hasPrototype foaf:person fromSource: http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Person weblog http://blog.stefandecker.org twitterID stefanjdecker age 44 gender Male FOAF as Prototypes
  • 40. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge n  Delegation vs. Copying (deep, shallow) ¨  When to delegate (freshness) ¨  When to copy (access too slow, unsecure, unreliable) ¨  Caching, update strategies? n  Determining object boundaries (e.g., via a scope- relationship between URIs). E.g., deri:stefan isScopeOf deri:address. Automatically possible? n  Object modification – non monotonicity? n  Referencing an object (URI & Source!) n  Specialization: Exact semantics? Challenges/Design
  • 41. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge n  Knowledge Representation Constructs (Specialisation) n  Logic based Formalisation of Prototypes n  Reasoning (e.g., with Rules) n  Complexity n  Large Scale Storage, Querying n  Collaboration facilities Research Agenda
  • 42. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Get the car out of the mud…
  • 43. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Linked Open Data cloud - domains Over 200 open data sets with more than 25 billion facts, interlinked by 400 million typed links, doubling every 10 month! http://lod-cloud.net/ Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Media Government Geo Publications User-generated Life sciences Cross-domain US government UK government BBC New York Times LinkedGeoData 43 BestBuy Overstock.com Facebook
  • 44. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Problem Statement Cisplatin Cisplatin Cisplatin: ~ €500 per injection High Toxicity Low Quality of Life
  • 45. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Methodology – Combining Open and Private Data Uniprot Entrez Gene BioMart KEGG Pathway What are the proteins in the p53 pathway What is the sequence for those proteins? What genes encode for those proteins? How to translate identifiers? mirBase What is the sequence of those microRNA? MicroCosm Targets What microRNA target those genes? p5317 proteins 7 proteins 155 Genes 817 microRNA 20 000 Genes Linked Data Filtering Between 500K and a few billion triples… Schema is at least 10 tables per dataset! “Classic data integration = 2 months per data source…
  • 46. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Networked  Data   Management   Abstrac4on,   Reasoning,   Analy4cs     Visualisa4on,   Collabora4on,   Exploita4on    
  • 47. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Enabling an iterative exploration process Transform , Integrate Gather Explore Analyse Understand
  • 48. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Knowledge Pipeline •  Global Data •  Flexible Integration Linked Data •  Liquid Processing •  Flexible •  Extensible Big Data HADOOP •  Visualisation •  Analytics •  Collaboration •  Exploitation Knowledge Discovery •  Scalability •  Parallel Processing •  Fast Access FGCP Cloud PaaS
  • 49. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Example Find all topics in publications relevant to “neoplasm” and clinical trials relevant to the publications topics!
  • 50. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Workflow Publications Find all topics in publications related to Neoplasm (e.g., “Neoplasm Metastasis”) Topics Find all Clinical Trials related to the identified topics Clinical Trials
  • 51. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 52. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Enabling an iterative exploration process Transform, Integrate Gather Explore Analyse Understand
  • 53. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge A Network of Knowledge n  enabling innovation and increased productivity n  Interconnected n  Universal n  All encompassing n  assists humans, organisations and systems with problem solving Linked Data • Search • Collaboration • Text Mining • Science • Commercialization`