ESWC SS 2012 - Tuesday Keynote John Domingue: Services, Semantics and Linked Data

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  • Thanks for the introduction. Thanks for coming. Flavour of the work related to the notion of a Future Internet.
  • The Internet is a network of networks, created in the 60s2 billion usersrevenue to reach €229 billions by 2014
  • 10 lines of code per day because its very hard to get rid of bugs in software
  • The approach we take is based on brokering which I will explain with a metaphor
  • Media: BBC programmes, BBC MUSIC, New York Times, Last FMGeographic: US Census, Airports, GeoNamesPublications: ACM, IEEE, RAE 2001User Generated Content: Flickr,, swdogfood from conferencesGovernment: UK Postcodes, UK Government, Ordnance SurveyLife Sciences: PubMed (medical publications), Gene ontologyCross Domain: DBPedia (semantic data version of wikipedia), Freebase bought by Google; Soon we won’t be able to draw the mapSo here is the latest map of all this semantic data. You can see we have 25 billion machine readable statements here in the areas of:
  • The UK government site, initiated by Gordon Brown in early 2010 when he was Prime Minister, continued under David Cameron. Gordon Brown: closing down 13,000 government websites David Cameron: transparency engagement of citizens
  • Nearly 7000 datasets “UK taxpayers paid for this data so UK citizens and businesses should get it for free”Every UK government department is being pushed to release its data online. Gordon Brown: can close down 13000 government websitesDavid Cameron: increase transparency, engagement
  • So how do we link to this wealth of data?We have our own repository of service descriptions within the cloud. We are the first and still only service repository in this space. The are created using a variety of tools. Note that when creating our descriptions we can rely on existing descriptions in the cloud. In the same way as one web page can point to another to expand a description.
  • As well as creating descriptions within the cloud we support
  • The creation of services which consume and produce semantic data.
  • We also support the management and use of ‘standard’ services
  • Which can produce data for this large semantic cloud
  • Now I come to a first of 3 examples. This one from a recent project. Imagine that you are moving to a new area and you are looking for a house. You would be concerned with
  • Depending on your circumstances
  • Within one of my projects (soa4all) we have developed an iPhone App to support this. Its available in the store and called the soa4all real estate finder
  • Mulberry school and others
  • Services over public data (to the singers in the virtual choir)Service broker is like the conductor. Services are published in our broker. An engine translates between user actions and details of invoking services (each service may have its own idiosyncratic way of being invoked)User interacts with the iPhone Appdiscovery based on user preferences and location -> services are available Services are not fixed (like singers for each performance). adding more for crime statistics also based on public data.
  • SAP 4th largest software producer in the world by revenue Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. 109,000 customers 120 countriesSAP with 12.46B euro of revenue Very much interested in the Internet of the Future
  • Business-to-Business (B2B) Gateways integrate data from back-end systems enabling information exchange across trading partnersPutting software and applications in the cloud (nonlocal machine)Service provider: creates the service – may be a software companyServicehoster: puts it on a machine and makes it available online. Alludes to what is known as the cloudService Gateway: responsible for ensuring interactions between businesses work on a technical level. Connecting many services togetherService Aggregator: puts together external services to support clientsService Broker: a front desk that negotiates with consumersService Channel Maker: create sector specific channels for services e.g. for banking one can have mobile banking, internet banking, retail banking, channels can include a webportal, mobile, other examples, eBay, Amazon services Itunes is an example of a channel (which is SAP software underneath)
  • USDL isthegluebetweentheparts
  • The EU funding agencies under the framework 6 and 7 programmes, my collaborators in these large EU proejcts. All my colleagues in Kmi – there are only a handful of labs in Europe where this type of work could be supported. Kmi has a unique atmosphere for which I am gratefulAlso my colleagues in the Open Media Unit the BBC and ResonanceFinally my staff and postgrads 10 researchers with 8 nationalities none english. Also Harriett and Jacek for there efforts on the slides.


  • 1. Services, Semantics and Linked Data John Domingue Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University & STI International
  • 2. Agenda • • • • • • • • Software and Services A Short History of Semantic Web Services Linked Data Effect Rise of REST Linked Data and Services Example Applications Current and Future W3C work Summary
  • 4. Software • Slow to produce! – 10 lines of code per day • Code is ubiquitous – Car has 2 million lines of code (8,000 Person Years) – Windows XP 45 million lines of code (180,000 Person Years) • Reusability is important
  • 5. Service (economic) • Intangible commodity – Consulting, childcare, educational • Tertiary sector of the economy – Provision of value-adding services – Complementing • secondary sector manufacturing and • primary sector: agriculture, fishing, mining … – 63% of Global GDP $44 trillion
  • 6. Service (computational)
  • 7. Web Service Usage Process • Deployment – create and publish Web service description • Discovery – determine usable services for a task • Composition – combine services to achieve a goal • Selection – choose most appropriate service • Mediation – solve mismatches (data, protocol, process) that hamper interoperation • Execution – invoke Web services following programmatic conventions
  • 8. Web Service Execution Support • Monitoring – control the execution process • Compensation – provide transactional support and undo or mitigate unwanted effects • Replacement – facilitate the substitution of services by equivalent ones • Auditing – verify that service execution occurred in the expected way
  • 9. WSDL
  • 10. WSDL Simplified Web service Operation 1 + Operation 2 . . . Operation N input output input output input output
  • 12. OWL-S Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, University of Southampton
  • 13. Service Profile (partial)
  • 14. Class Hierarchies of Services name provider avgResponseTime? … ServiceProfile ProductProviding Service InfoService informationProduct+ physicalProduct+ manufacturer+ deliveryRegion* deliveryProvider* deliveryType PhysicalProduct Service FeeBased feeBasis+ paymentMethod+ ActionService physicalProduct+ Manufacturing Repair physicalProduct+ Tie in with UNSPSC, etc. Transportation DL Basis for matchmaking Multiple profiles; multiple hierarchies transportationMode+ geographicRegion+
  • 15. WSMO Top-level Elements ( Objectives that a client may have when consulting a Web Service Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities 15
  • 16. WSMO – the Web service element - complete item description - quality aspects - Web Service Management - Advertising of Web Service - Support for WS Discovery Non-functional Properties Capability DC + QoS + Version + financial functional description client-service interaction interface for consuming WS - external visible behavior - communication structure - ‘grounding’ Web Service Implementation (not of interest in Web Service Description) Choreography --- Service Interfaces --- WS WS WS Orchestration realization of functionality by aggregation - functional decomposition - WS composition
  • 17. Semantic Web Service Broker Client Services
  • 18. Orchestration Definition Flight Request VTA provides if hotel = Ø flight.arrivaltime = hotel.arrivaltime Capability Chor. Interf. VTA WS ‘Trip Booking’ if flight = Ø Hotel Request flight information Book Flight Book Hotel hotel information process (control + data flow) of goals
  • 19. Runtime Orchestration Capability flight request Flight Request VTA provides avaiable flights Capability Hotel Request VTA WS ‘Trip Booking’ Flight WS Orch. .. if hotel = Ø book request Chor. Interf. Interface (Chor.) 1) get request 2) provide offer 3) receive selection 4) send confirmation hotel request avaiable hotels if flight = Ø Book Flight booking confirmation Interface (Chor.) 1) get request 2) provide offer 3) receive selection 4) send confirmation book request booking confirmation Book Hotel process (control + data flow) between “states” + communication behavior of orchestrating Web Service Capability Hotel WS Orch. ..
  • 21. 25 Billion Statements Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.
  • 22. How?
  • 23. Applications
  • 24. RISE OF REST
  • 25. RESTful Service • Lightweight compared to SOAP/WSDL • Use HTTP methods explicitly (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) • Stateless • Expose directory structure-like URIs • Data transfer using XML, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), or both.
  • 26. RESTful Service Takeup 1876 APIs 4736 Mashups
  • 27. REST vs SOAP API Searches
  • 29. Linked Open Services
  • 30. MicroWSMO & WSMO-Lite 37
  • 31. WSDL
  • 32. SAWSDL But: no predefined semantics! 39
  • 33. WSMO-Lite in WSDL 40
  • 34. MicroWSMO • Built on top of hRESTS which introduces the service model structure on Web pages – service (+ label) – operations (+ address, method) – input, output • MicroWSMO extends hRESTS –model, lifting, lowering • Applies WSMO-Lite semantics 41
  • 35. MicroWSMO
  • 36. MicroWSMO
  • 37. MicroWSMO Service Parameter Input Operation
  • 38. MicroWSMO Service Parameter Input Operation
  • 39. Minimal Service Model 46
  • 40. Service Template RDF-based domain ontology hasInput e.g., RDFS/WSML-core, OWL/WSML-DL, WSML-Rule hasOutput Service Template hasFunctionalCategory RDFS/WSML-Core taxonomy e.g., ServiceFinder hasPreference hasRequirement RDFS/WSML-Core preference model e.g., WSMO Pref, U-Sevilla hasContextualSens. RDF-based context ontology e.g., RDFS/WSML-core, OWL/WSML-DL, WSML-Rule WSMO-Lite annotation e.g., Condition, Effect WSML Flight/Rule logical expression 47
  • 41. Deployment Analysis & Monitoring Invocation Discovery Process Editor Process Modeling Process Execution Service Annotation Service Lifecycle
  • 42. Resource-Orientation (ROSM) HTTP * supports basedOn collects 1 2 * 1. requestURIParameter requestBodyParameter requestHeaderParameter 2. hasBody 49
  • 44. Example 1: House Hunting …
  • 45. … public transport …
  • 46. … schools
  • 47. Behind the Scenes Public Data and Services Service Broker publishing Real estate discovery Train stations Bus stops Schools Invocation Engine invocation
  • 49. The Future Internet – Enabler for Global Business Networks Transport Logistic …. eEnergy Urban Management Manufacturing Internet of the Future Internet of Services Suppliers Internet of Things Manufacture r Governments Wholesalers Carriers © SAP 2010 / Consumers Retailers Cloud Computing Network of the Future
  • 50. The Internet of Services – Global Service Delivery Supply Chain Cloud Services B2B Gateways SaaS, On-Demand Enterprise Suites Service Delivery Framework Service Provider Service Hoster Service Gateway Business Process Platform Service Aggregator Service Broker Service Channel Maker Service-Oriented Architecture A Single Market for Services Business Process Outsourcing © SAP 2010 / Service Marketplaces Multi-Enterprise Business process platforms
  • 51. The Internet of Services – Unified Service Description Language (USDL)  Service Transformation stands for a value-driven, smooth and effective provision of services along the Global Service Delivery Supply Chain  Service Transformation implies that Services are being  Described considering business, operational and legal requirements  Maintained, extended and assembled where needed  Applying a common notation named USDL Service Provider © SAP 2010 / Service Hoster Service Gateway Service Aggregator Service Broker Service Channel Maker
  • 52. W3C USDL Incubator
  • 53. This group is based on the idea of combining two Web-related concepts to help solve some of the long-standing challenges involved in building and combining software: 1. RDF, the Resource Description Framework…. RDF is the basis for Linked Data and the Semantic Web. 2. With RESTful APIs and RESTful Web Services, …. The Linked Data Platform is envisioned as an enterprise-ready collection of standard techniques and services based on using RESTful APIs and the W3C Semantic Web stack
  • 54. Summary • Web services successful history in corporate settings – Supporting reuse of software components • Semantic Web services – Lots of research – Takeup limited • New trends – RESTful services – Linked Data portals/applications • Manage applications which make use of these trends • Fit to the goals, needs and contexts of users
  • 55. Acknowledgements