ONR DI Present Oct 2011
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ONR DI Present Oct 2011

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Presentation on the state-of-the-art of Galfenol Technology. Prepared in October, 2011.

Presentation on the state-of-the-art of Galfenol Technology. Prepared in October, 2011.

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ONR DI Present Oct 2011 ONR DI Present Oct 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Galfenol Technologies at Galfenol Research Initiatives ETREMA Products Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐State‐of‐the‐Art & Future DirectionEric Summers, VP & Chief Materials Engineer 1
  • • Special thanks to ONR for their support of Galfenol  Research• Acknowledgements: • NSWC – Carderock, Magnetic Materials Group including Art Clark Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ • Ames Laboratory, Dr. Tom Lograsso • Galfenol MURI members lead by Dr. Alison Flatau • Kanazawa University, Dr. Toshiyuki Ueno • All other researchers who have contributed to our body of  knowledge• Remember:  Clark AE, Restorff JB, Wun‐Fogle M, Lograsso  2 TA, Schlagel DL (2000) IEEE Trans Magn 36:3238
  • Presentation Topics• Galfenol processing techniques• Properties• Future direction of Galfenol  Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ technology• Galfenol technology roadmap• Commercialization 3
  • Magnetostriction vs. Composition (single crystal) 450 Fe 100‐xGa x 400 H = 15 kOe Fe1-xGa(0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) 3503/2 λ100 (x 10 ‐6) 300 • ETREMA’s efforts have Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ focused on the first 250 magnetostrictive peak between 15 at% Ga and 20 at% Ga 200 • Galfenol alloys available at this 150 compositional range 100 Furnace Cooled Quenched 50 Directionally Solidified (Unannealed) Quenched in Brine Furnace Cooled, Multi‐phase 0 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 x Single crystal data courtesy of NSWC Carderock Magnetic Materials Group
  • Galfenol Alloy Feedstock• Various feedstock alloys and  shapes produced• Bottom pour unit with 2 kg  capacity – chill cast into  various mold geometries Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐• Equipment limits capacity  that can be produced FSZM Bridgman Rolling Ingot 5
  • Primary Production MethodAdvanced Bridgman Process• Directional solidification  method• Strong <100> texture• Primary composition = 18.4  Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ at% Ga (nominal) • Other compositions around 1st peak can be produced• Typical geometry:  24 mm dia x  250 mm length• Current equipment limits rod  sizes that can be produced Photo of Galfenol being produced via Bridgman Process • Labor intensive 6
  • As‐Cast Feedstock Alloy EBSD Comparison Bridgman Rod ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives 7 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Typical Quasi-static Curves• As‐grown Bridgman rod; Fe – 18.4 at% Ga nominal composition Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Strain vs. Magnetic Field Flux Density vs. Magnetic Field 8
  • Comparison to Terfenol-D• Less field required to reach  • Larger saturation flux density saturation • Higher permeability• Larger pre‐stresses necessary • Less hysteresis Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Strain vs. Magnetic Field Flux Density vs. Magnetic Field 9
  • Galfenol Properties• Typical properties of polycrystalline Galfenol (Fe81.6Ga18.4)• As‐grown material via Bridgman Process Saturation Strain 200 – 250 ppm at 48 MPa applied compressive load Piezomagnetic Constant, d33 15 – 30 nm/A, lower values at larger stresses Saturating Magnetic Field 100 – 250 Oe, value depends upon stress applied with larger stresses Galfenol Research Initiatives  requiring high magnetic fields to reach saturation Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Saturation Magnetic Flux Density 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Permeability, μr 75 – 100, lower values at larger stresses Coercivity, Hc 10 Oe Hysteresis (major loop) 1000 J/m3 Curie Temp. ≈ 950 K Density 7800 kg/m3 Hard Young’s Modulus 75 GPa Soft Young’s Modulus ≈ 40 GPa Tensile Strength ≈ 350 MPa 10 Elongation ≈ 1%
  • Galfenol LaminationBenefits Material Permeability Resistivity• Mechanical robustness (μr) (ρ)• High permeability Galfenol 75-100 8.5x10-7 Ω·m • efficient magnetic circuit Terfenol 2-10 6.0x10-7 Ω·m• Low magnetic hysteresis  Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ • ~10x less than Terfenol‐D  Critical Skin Depth w ith Frequency 100000 Terfenol-D GalfenolDisadvantages 10000 Frequency, Hz• Eddy current losses• Critical skin depth (20 kHz) 1000 • δGalfenol = 0.38mm (0.015”) • δTerfenol = 1.23mm (0.048”) 11• ¼ λsat 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Critical Skin Depth, m m
  • Galfenol Rolling• Viable high volume, low cost production method• Highly textured microstructure; (110)<001> ║ RD (Goss)• Large grains• Large magnetostrictions measured in individual sheet  samples; > 250 ppm Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐• Typical sheet dimensions:  11” length x 3” width x 0.014” thick • Investigating methods to produce thinner sheets• Lab‐scale process – very labor intensive 12
  • Rolled Sheet Stacks• Nominal Ga content:  18  at%• Multi‐stage rolling to 0.36  mm (0.014”) Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐• Textured sheets via HT RD• Sample sectioning RD • 10 mm x 15 mm ND TD• Laminated sheet stack  assembly • 20 laminates/stack with  ~35 µm (0.0015”) bond line 13
  • d33 = 20 nm/A λsat = 215 ppm µr = 85 Msat = 1.3 T Stack Characterization ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives 14 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Galfenol Machining Examples ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives 15 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Welding & ForgingLaser welding courtesy of DRDC Atlantic ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives  16 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Stress Annealing at ETREMA• Stress annealing process builds in a compressive stress into  the Galfenol sample (referred to as an ‘uniaxial anisotropy’) • Result:  full magnetostrictive performance without an extrinsic compressive  stress applied • Good magnetostrictive performance out into tension Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ • Maximum built‐in stress achieved = 64 MPa • Typical  = 45 MPa• Process can be tailored for a certain stress range• ETREMA has successfully stress annealed Galfenol alloys from  15 at% to 18.4 at% Ga • Including ternary alloys containing aluminum• Current equipment limits length of a stress annealed  17 specimen to 125 mm
  • Test data courtesy NSWC – Carderock Magnetic Materials Group Galfenol in Tension ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives  18 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • TECHNOLOGYFUTURE DIRECTION OF GALFENOL ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives  19 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Magnetic Field Annealing• Magnetic field annealing (FA)  processes under investigation at  ETREMA • Results consistent with efforts  accomplished under MURI Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐• Finalizing process parameters• Currently, small experimental  setup available for field annealing  samples • 6.35 mm dia x 50 mm length,  typical FA geometry 20 3” x 3” x 6” chamber for FA
  • Corner Stress Test Results Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ 21Test data courtesy NSWC – Carderock Magnetic Materials Group
  • Strain vs. Magnetic Field Annealing Field vs. Stress Flux Density vs. Magnetic Field ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ Galfenol Research Initiatives 22 Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011
  • Temperature Effects Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐FA sample, 200°C (not shown)‐755 hrs exposure, < 5% drop in λsat measured 23
  • Elevated Temperature Properties• Inquiries into designing Galfenol actuators that can operate  under extreme conditions; such as elevated temperature• Magnetic property characterization at elevated temperatures• Quasi‐static testing up to 400°C Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐• λ and B versus H, d33 and μr to be studied 24
  • Fe-Ga-Al/Fe-Al Alloys• Reduction in alloy cost critical for  acceptance in commercial  applications• Today’s Ga market price:  $800 ‐ $1000/ kg • Purchased at significant quantities (50  kg lots) Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ • Prices trending up• M.D. Brooks, E. Summers, R. Meloy, J.  Mosley, “Aluminum additions in  polycrystalline iron‐gallium (Galfenol)  alloys,” Proc. SPIE 6929, 69291T  (2008) • Focus on small diameter, 6.35mm,  FSZM samples • Fe80.6‐81.6Ga9.8‐13.8Al4.9‐9.8 • Difficulty achieving consistent texture 25• Scale‐up to Advance Bridgman stage,  evaluate properties
  • Galfenol Wire Fabrication• Part of a Phase II SBIR effort on  energy harvesting• Develop wire fabrication  processing for Galfenol alloys Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ • ETREMA/Ames Lab Photos of the 0.014” diameter wire produced of the Fe90Ga10• Several continuous feet of wire  produced; 10 at% Ga• Early on in process  After drawing development• Transition partner identified  and interested in scaling‐up  process if demand exists After HT 26
  • Galfenol (a non-REE smart technology)• Supply of Terbium and Dysprosium potentially a problem in the  foreseeable future• Gallium does not have the same supply risk Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ 27Figures copied from US Dept. of Energy, “Critical Materials Strategy – December 2010”, p. 8
  • Galfenol Technology Roadmap 6.1 (Basic  Galfenol Discovery Research) Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐6.2 (Advanced  Processes  Properties  Established Characterized Research)6.3 (Technology  Actuators Energy  Multifunctional  Harvesters/Sensors Structures Development) 28
  • Applications DevelopmentETREMA• Significant interest in using Galfenol for energy harvesting• Medical device tool in early development stage (actuator)• Very low frequency sources for US Navy Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ In all cases…costs to produce must be lowered • Reduce raw material costs • Scale‐up production 29
  • Technology Commercialization• Current processing technologies nearing a cross‐road  • Alloying, Bridgman, Rolling, Stress Annealing, etc… • Only capable of producing small quantities• Process scale‐up absolutely necessary to meet commercial  Galfenol Research Initiatives  Meeting, Oct. 27, 2011 ETREMA Proprietary Information ‐ application quantity and pricing requirements• Scale‐up will require investment in equipment and  infrastructure ($) • Difficult to obtain $$$ in today’s low‐risk economic environment• End‐users must be open to negotiating and executing Supply  Agreements 30