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Language, Culture, and Software

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Language, Culture, and Software, Uta Seewald-Heeg, (ESUG 2004, Koethen)

Language, Culture, and Software, Uta Seewald-Heeg, (ESUG 2004, Koethen)

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    Language, Culture, and Software Language, Culture, and Software Presentation Transcript

    • Language, Culture, and Software Uta Seewald-Heeg ESUG 2004 Hochschule Anhalt (FH), Köthen 9 September 2004
    • Language ? tree Baum arbre дерево albero
    • Language after Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) concept image acoustique Baum signifié signifiant
    • Language •• System of signs System of signs •• By convention By convention
    • Structural Differences between Languages château castle dt. Schloss fr. serrure lock Mensch Mann Ehemann homme mari époux
    • Communication Knowledge Knowledge Medium Relation Sender Message Channel Receiver Content Language Language Culture Culture
    • Culture Culture Culture lat. colere, to build on, to cultivate, to foster lat. colere, to build on, to cultivate, to foster
    • Culture •• Theory for interpreting the world and Theory for interpreting the world and knowing how to behave knowing how to behave [Gudykunst & Kim 1984:13] [Gudykunst & Kim 1984:13] •• Ideals, values, and assumptions about life Ideals, values, and assumptions about life that are widely shared among people and that are widely shared among people and luck that guide specific behaviours that guide specific behaviours wealth creativity [Brislin 1993] [Brislin 1993] generosity honesty vicious unclean parasitic spread disease steal food
    • Different traditions – different expectations
    • Different traditions – different expectations
    • Different traditions – different expectations
    • Language and Culture •• Language is the dominant sign of any Language is the dominant sign of any culture. culture. •• The language of any group is directly The language of any group is directly connected to the world view of the group. connected to the world view of the group. •• Humboldt: "Die Verschiedenheit der Humboldt: "Die Verschiedenheit der Sprachen ist nicht eine Verschiedenheit Sprachen ist nicht eine Verschiedenheit an Schällen und Zeichen, sondern eine an Schällen und Zeichen, sondern eine Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten." Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten."
    • Languages and Cultures C1 C7 C2 D I F C6 C3 C4 C5
    • Language and Culture
    • Globalization and Cultural Differences •• Globalization Globalization – We are connected, interchanged, – We are connected, interchanged, denationalized denationalized – Influence on the national cultures – Influence on the national cultures – The world is interconnected – The world is interconnected – Flow of information has only very limited – Flow of information has only very limited borders borders [Stephan Dahl , ,http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004] [Stephan Dahl http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004]
    • Globalization and Cultural Differences •• Despite Globalization Despite Globalization – We are not the same – We are not the same – Some people still refuse to become world citizens – Some people still refuse to become world citizens – Somehow the British are still British, and the – Somehow the British are still British, and the Germans still Germans Germans still Germans – We still speak different languages – We still speak different languages [Stephan Dahl , , http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004] [Stephan Dahl http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004]
    • Software
    • Software as communication •• Software is communication Software is communication – Communication with a machine (HCI) – Communication with a machine (HCI) – Communication between the client, the software – Communication between the client, the software architect, the software engineer, and the coder architect, the software engineer, and the coder •• Software must be readable Software must be readable •• Software must be understandable Software must be understandable Knowledge Medium Knowledge Relation Sender Message Channel Receiver Content Language Language
    • Software Quality Characteristics Source:
    • Users •• Basic activities: Basic activities: – Knowing – Knowing – Changing – Changing – Managing – Managing •• Types of users: Types of users: – naive – naive – uninitiated – uninitiated – expert – expert Anthony A. Aaby 2004-01-21, http://cs.wwc.edu/~aabyan/FAS/book/node120.html ] Anthony A. Aaby 2004-01-21, http://cs.wwc.edu/~aabyan/FAS/book/node120.html ]
    • Users •• want to maximize their efficiency and want to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness effectiveness •• differ in perceptual and psychomotor abilities differ in perceptual and psychomotor abilities •• speak different languages speak different languages •• Values of the users drive user interface design Values of the users drive user interface design activities activities – Human Centred Design – Human Centred Design (DIN EN ISO 13407) (DIN EN ISO 13407)
    • Software Localization Adaptation, i.e. translation of software Adaptation, i.e. translation of software products or Web-sites to a local products or Web-sites to a local market market – with linguistic characteristics – with linguistic characteristics – with cultural characteristics – with cultural characteristics – with desired look-and-feel – with desired look-and-feel – with special technological methods and – with special technological methods and tools tools
    • Graphical User Interface Visual Design Elements • Dialog boxes – Specification of options – Often as register cards • Menus – Menus with elliptic elements (…) lead to dialog boxes • Strings – Error messages, questions etc. – Difficult translation, no context information • Icons
    • Linguistic Adaptation !
    • Quality of Localization
    • Adaptation of Shortcuts
    • Localizing Software •• Globalization (G11N) Globalization (G11N) •• Internationalization (I18N) Internationalization (I18N) •• Localization (L10N) Localization (L10N)
    • Internationalization Development of a cultural model – Comparison of the similarities and differences of two or more cultures – Use of international variables • Categories organizing cultural data • Cultural data – reflection of national, corporate cultures, cultures of international markets – Useful to assess the degree of localization
    • Examples of Cultural Variables Political •Trade issues •Legal issues •Political tradition and symbolism Economic •Wealth perception •Overall economic status Social Organization •Importance of age •Business etiquette •Family and social interaction •Discrimination and prejudice •Popular culture Religious/Spiritual •Significance of religion/spirituality •Taboos: Food, behaviors and relationships Educational •Literacy •Common body of knowledge •Learning style Linguistic •The target language •Official national language •Text orientation •Writing style Technological •Level of technology
    • Internationalization •• Dates and date formats Dates and date formats •• Currency and currency formats Currency and currency formats •• Number formatting Number formatting •• Units of measure Units of measure •• Time, time zone and time formats Time, time zone and time formats •• Graphics Graphics •• Colours Colours •• Text directionality Text directionality •• Writing styles Writing styles •• Technology (electrical outlets, computer keyboards, Technology (electrical outlets, computer keyboards, printer page-size capabilities) printer page-size capabilities) •• Page size Page size •• Forms of address and titles Forms of address and titles •• Geographic references Geographic references •• Legal information (warranties, copyrights, patents, Legal information (warranties, copyrights, patents, trademarks, health and safety-related information) trademarks, health and safety-related information) •• Wrapping Wrapping
    • Colours Good luck? Bad luck?
    • Date Formats 10. März 2004 10. März 2004 10.03.2004 10.03.2004 German (DIN 5008, 2001) 10/03/2004 10/03/2004 10/03/2004 10/03/2004 10-03-2004 10-03-2004 French 10 mars 2004 10 mars 2004 03/10/2004 03/10/2004 March 10, 2004 American March 10, 2004 10 March 2004 10 March 2004 EU 2004-03-10 2004-03-10 (ISO 8601 / EN 28601, 1992)
    • Localizing Graphics ? Netscape ? MS Internet Explorer table MS Word Tisch
    • Localizing Graphics Netscape MS Internet Explorer table MS Word Tabelle ♪ ? Notiz
    • Adaptation of writing systems Navigation bar Navigation bar Text string Text string from left to right from left to right Dates Dates
    • Localization of Product Names (Localisation Faux Pas ed. by Localisation Research Centre) • Mist Stick Clairol curling iron • Silver Mist Rolls Royce car • Irish Mist Irish alcoholic beverage Mist (German ) "manure".
    • VW-Lok Localization Tool for VisualWorks Smalltalk Applications •• Localization Tool for VisualWorks didn‘t Localization Tool for VisualWorks didn‘t exist so far exist so far •• Objectives: Objectives: – Development of a tool that satisfies the – Development of a tool that satisfies the special characteristics of the programming special characteristics of the programming environment environment – Development of a user interface that satisfies – Development of a user interface that satisfies the demands of a localizer the demands of a localizer – Creation of an experimental platform for – Creation of an experimental platform for research in the field of localization research in the field of localization
    • VW-LOK Localisation Tool for Visualworks Smalltalk
    • Conclusion ge Cu ua ltu ng re La Software •• Language and culture are crucial for Language and culture are crucial for – software design – software design – succesful use of software – succesful use of software •• Software developers should be aware of Software developers should be aware of linguistic and cultural differences linguistic and cultural differences •• Bachelor course in Information Management // Bachelor course in Information Management Software Localization at Anhalt University Software Localization at Anhalt University – Multidisciplinarity – Multidisciplinarity Software- lokalisierung Informationsmanagem Informations- systeme