Guidelines for Writing
How to write a text correctly
Types of Composition
When you write a composition you need to understand the type of
writing required. These are the main ...
Letters
• Letters are written to a person, i.e., a
friend or to a group of people.
 
• Letters follow a format:
address, g...
Letters
• Letters also include emails.
• They can be formal or
informal.
All letters should include:
• Address and date
• An appropriate 
greeting (Dear Sir,
/Madam, /Lucy, )• An introduction wit...
All letters should include:
•A main body, in chich you write
about the specific topics of the
letter in detail
• A conclus...
Articles
They are found in magazines and
newspapers
Types of articles
• Descriptions
• Narratives or stories
• Reviews discussing a film,
book, etc.
• News reports
Types of articles
•Discursive essays:
o For and against
o Opinion essays
Types of articles
• Reports:
o Assessment reports,
evaluating someone
or something
o Proposals reports:
discussing
suggest...
Understanding rubrics
To plan your composition you
need to understand the rubric
i. e. the composition
instructions:
Understanding rubrics
• The imaginary situation
you will write about
• The imaginary reader
who is going to read
your piec...
HERE'S AN EXAMPLE OF RUBRIC
You work for a travel magazine. Your editor
has asked you to write an ARTICLE
discussing the p...
Brainstorming for ideas
• Write down any ideas, words and phrases
that you can think of which relate to the
specific topic...
Planning the layout of your composition
Your ideas should be organised
into paragraphs. The layout of
most types of writin...
Introduction:
• The first paragraph is a short
paragraph whose purpose is to
give the reader a general idea of
the subject...
Main body:
• The main body usually consists of 2
or more paragraphs and its
purpouse is to develop points
related to the s...
Conclusion:
• It’s a short final paragraph in
which you can sumarise the
main idea of the subject,
restate your opinion in...
19
Writing paragraphs
• Each paragraph has to refer to one single topic
• Don’t write about unrelated topics in the same
p...
20
Topic sentences
• Topic sentences are sentences that summarize
the content of a paragraph. They appear at the
beginning...
21
Topic sentences: example
“These days, in the UK at least, the nature of
childhood has changed dramatically. Firstly
fam...
Linking words and phrases
They make your writing more
interesting to the reader, and they
can be used to:
Linking words and phrases
• show time
• list points or show sequence
• add more points
• show cause or effect
• give examp...
24
Other cohesion mechanisms
Apart from linking words and expressions, there are
other methods to obtain cohesion:
• Expla...
Correcting your essay
Before handing it in, make sure:
• You have used complete 
sentences and that the
words are in the c...
Correcting your essay
Before handing it in, make sure:
• There are no spelling
mistakes
• You have used the correct
punctu...
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Guidelines For Writing 2013

  1. 1. Guidelines for Writing How to write a text correctly
  2. 2. Types of Composition When you write a composition you need to understand the type of writing required. These are the main types: Letters Articles Reports
  3. 3. Letters • Letters are written to a person, i.e., a friend or to a group of people.   • Letters follow a format: address, greeting, opening paragraph, etc.
  4. 4. Letters • Letters also include emails. • They can be formal or informal.
  5. 5. All letters should include: • Address and date • An appropriate  greeting (Dear Sir, /Madam, /Lucy, )• An introduction with opening remarks and reason for writing.
  6. 6. All letters should include: •A main body, in chich you write about the specific topics of the letter in detail • A conclusion, in which you write your closing remarks• An appropriate ending (Yours faithfully, love,
  7. 7. Articles They are found in magazines and newspapers
  8. 8. Types of articles • Descriptions • Narratives or stories • Reviews discussing a film, book, etc. • News reports
  9. 9. Types of articles •Discursive essays: o For and against o Opinion essays
  10. 10. Types of articles • Reports: o Assessment reports, evaluating someone or something o Proposals reports: discussing suggestions or decisions about
  11. 11. Understanding rubrics To plan your composition you need to understand the rubric i. e. the composition instructions:
  12. 12. Understanding rubrics • The imaginary situation you will write about • The imaginary reader who is going to read your piece of writing • The type of writing • The specific topics you should write about
  13. 13. HERE'S AN EXAMPLE OF RUBRIC You work for a travel magazine. Your editor has asked you to write an ARTICLE discussing the pros and cons of air travel, including factors such as cost and convenience. 1. Situation 2. Reader 3. TYPE OF WRITING 4. Specific topics
  14. 14. Brainstorming for ideas • Write down any ideas, words and phrases that you can think of which relate to the specific topics of your composition. • Group your ideas, crossing out any irrelevant ones, and put them into a logical order. • Check that your ideas are relevant to the topic/s in the rubric.
  15. 15. Planning the layout of your composition Your ideas should be organised into paragraphs. The layout of most types of writing consists of three parts: • an introduction, • a main body • and a conclusion.
  16. 16. Introduction: • The first paragraph is a short paragraph whose purpose is to give the reader a general idea of the subject of the composition. • It should attract the reader's attention so that he/she wants to continue reading.
  17. 17. Main body: • The main body usually consists of 2 or more paragraphs and its purpouse is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. • Each paragraph should deal with points related to the same topic. • Whenever you discuss a new topic, you should begin a new paragraph.
  18. 18. Conclusion: • It’s a short final paragraph in which you can sumarise the main idea of the subject, restate your opinion in different words, make general comments, express your feelings. • The conclusion is not a
  19. 19. 19 Writing paragraphs • Each paragraph has to refer to one single topic • Don’t write about unrelated topics in the same paragraph • Use topic sentences
  20. 20. 20 Topic sentences • Topic sentences are sentences that summarize the content of a paragraph. They appear at the beginning of the paragraph and help to explain what you are going to talk about and link with the previous paragraph or introduction:
  21. 21. 21 Topic sentences: example “These days, in the UK at least, the nature of childhood has changed dramatically. Firstly families are smaller, and there are far more only children. It is common for both parents…” New English File Advanced, Student’s book, page 32.
  22. 22. Linking words and phrases They make your writing more interesting to the reader, and they can be used to:
  23. 23. Linking words and phrases • show time • list points or show sequence • add more points • show cause or effect • give examples • show contrast • include a conclusion
  24. 24. 24 Other cohesion mechanisms Apart from linking words and expressions, there are other methods to obtain cohesion: • Explaning in the introduction the topics that are going to be mentioned. • Making references from one paragraph to the other. • Using lots of words, synonyms that are related to the topic (if we are talking about contamination, use as many related expressions as you can).
  25. 25. Correcting your essay Before handing it in, make sure: • You have used complete  sentences and that the words are in the correct order • You have used the correct grammar • You do not repeat the
  26. 26. Correcting your essay Before handing it in, make sure: • There are no spelling mistakes • You have used the correct punctuation
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