http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/eslEUR460312006 Ley sobre organizaciones de la sociedad civil (2006). El presidente Putin firmó la nueva ley sobre organizaciones de la sociedad civil el 10 de enero de 2006, y la ley entró en vigor tres meses después. Aunque el presidente afirma que su objetivo es aportar orden, y no restricciones, a las actividades de las ONG, Amnistía Internacional considera que, por el contrario, esta ley menoscaba su labor al conferir a las autoridades mayores facultades de supervisión de la financiación y de las actividades de las ONG rusas y extranjeras. La experiencia hasta la fecha es que la ley es indebidamente onerosa al desviar recursos de programas fundamentales, al tiempo que emplea un marco regulador que puede aplicarse de forma arbitraria, y contiene disposiciones clave que carecen de una definición legal precisa y sanciones desproporcionadas. En las reuniones mantenidas, el presidente Putin reafirmó su oposición absoluta a la financiación extranjera de quienes realizan &quot;actividades políticas&quot; en la Federación Rusa. No obstante, la ley no ofrece ninguna definición legal clara de &quot;actividad política&quot;. A Amnistía Internacional y a otras entidades les sigue preocupando que la imprecisión con que se enmarca esta cuestión deja la puerta abierta a que las ONG que critican las políticas de derechos humanos del gobierno estén en conflicto con las restricciones y la aplicación de la ley. http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=23033 Ley contra el extremismo (2007). Putin promulga la nueva ley sobre el extremismo: Reporteros sin fronteras teme que se haga una utilización liberticida El 26 de julio de 2007, el Presidente de la República, Vladimir Putin, ha dado su acuerdo a la entrada en vigor de las enmiendas a la nueva legislación, aprobadas en el Parlamento el 11 de julio de 2007, que establecen una intensificación de la lucha contra el “extremismo”. “ Reporteros sin Fronteras lamenta vivamente la firma del texto en su estado actual. Esperamos que sea modificado y, en este sentido, nos hemos dirigido por escrito al Presidente de la República”, ha declarado la organización de defensa de la libertad de prensa. 24.07.2007 Una ley que prevé intensificar la lucha contra “el extremismo” podría poner en peligro la libertad de expresión Reporteros sin Fronteras está preocupada porque, el 11 de julio de 2007, el Parlamento aprobó, en segunda lectura, el proyecto de ley que prevé una intensificación de la lucha contra el “extremismo”. La organización de defensa de la libertad de prensa ha escrito al Presidente de la República, Vladimir Putin, pidiéndole que se oponga a la entrada en vigor de la ley, en su redacción actual. En su último discurso a la nación, que tuvo lugar el 26 de abril ante ambas cámaras reunidas, el Jefe del Estado exhortó a los parlamentarios a mostrarse inflexibles en la lucha contra el “extremismo”. “ La lucha contra el extremismo es necesaria y legítima, sin embargo no debe obstaculizar la libertad de los medios de comunicación, ni de los ciudadanos. Pero, la definición que en este proyecto de ley se da del extremismo menciona trece situaciones de contornos muy vagos. Ahora se castigará “la financiación” y “organización” de actos “extremistas”, “incluidos los cometidos a través de textos impresos (...), relaciones telefónicas u otros medios de información”, y también el “apoyo público”, “la ayuda” o “el llamamiento” al “extremismo”. Cuando se acercan las elecciones legislativas de diciembre de 2007, y las presidenciales de marzo de 2008, es indispensable definir con mayor claridad esas nociones. En caso contrario, se podría, por ejemplo, cerrar una radio simplemente porque un oyente hubiera hecho en el aire manifestaciones consideradas extremistas”, ha escrito Reporteros sin Fronteras. “ Por otra parte, los servicios secretos podrán escuchar libremente conversaciones telefónicas de personas sospechosas de extremismo. Se les ha dado manga ancha para hacerlo, sin tener en cuenta el respeto de la vida de los ciudadanos. Finalmente, está prohibida la difusión de informaciones acerca de algunas asociaciones u organizaciones no gubernamentales, a las que se les ha restringido la actividad en virtud de la ley del 25 de julio de 2002 de lucha contra el extremismo”. “ En marzo de 2006 nuestra organización ya denunció las numerosas presiones que padecen los sitios informativos independientes, en nombre de la lucha contra el extremismo. Los servicios de seguridad censuraron algunos de ellos, durante varios días”, ha añadido la organización.
On April 14, 2010, the Chechen television aired the newsreel on Albert Saaev, a hacker from Moscow, being delivered to Grozny handcuffed. It was boastfully announced that “the Internet-terrorist” was brought to Grozny to conduct investigatory measures with regard to the hackers’ attack at the www.chechnyaTODAY.com, the official web portal of the Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov which was undertaken on June 26, 2009. They forgot to mention that Albert Saaev has already being convicted by Kuzminskiy district court of Moscow on April 1, 2010. Saaev was sentenced to two years of detention in a colony of the general regime and 35000-ruble fine. His partner who helped him launch hackers’ attacks, Oleg Morozov, was sentenced to one year. His sentence was suspended. Albert Saaev was waiting for the sentence to be enforced in the FSB Lefortovo investigatory prison in Moscow. There have been no legal grounds to transport Saaev to Grozny for the alleged purposes of some investigation as the sentence was made with reference to the episode with hackers’ attack at www.chechnyaTODAY.com. The Chechen prosecutor’s office seems to be unaware that it is illegal to try one person for the same crime twice. The only possible explanation why Saaev has been moved to Grozny is Ramzan Kadyrov’s demand to take his revenge on Albert Saaev as a warning against others. Almost immediately I started to get messages from Russia calling to draw attention to Albert Saaev’s plight. The most unexpected call was from Albert Saaev’s cell mate in Lefortovo prison. He happened to be Nikita Tikhonov, a suspect in Stanislaw Markelov and Anastasia Baburova’s murder. I am not going to analyze Tikhonov’s motives or the issue of his guilt or innocence here. What is important is the fact that Tikhonov has managed to send information out of prison on Saaev’s situation explaining it by the friendship they developed in prison. It was how I have got in contact with Albert’s wife, Shakhri. Shakhri is 27. Albert and his family have lived in Moscow for several years. Their daughter was born when Albert was already under investigation. She is five months old now. Shakhri’s first letter said, “My husband was taken to Chechnya for investigation purposes. We all understand perfectly well what Kadyrov and his surrounding understand by investigation. Albert was taken away without notifying his family. He was kept in Lefortovo since 23 September, 2009. I learned about his transfer to Grozny from his relatives in Dagestan who saw the newsreel aired by the Chechen television. I see no other reason in taking him to Chechnya but revenge. His crime was committed outside Chechnya and he has never been there”. Albert Saaev was born in 1982. In Moscow he had his small business dealing computer software, OOO “BIT”. Shakhri confirms that her husband carried out hackers’ attacks against official web pages in Ingushetia, Chechnya and Dagestan, including ingushetia.org, islam.ru, riadagestan.ru. One of Chechen official web portals www.chechnyatoday.com was also hacked. It happened a few days after the attempt at the life of the Ingush president Yunus-Bek Evkurov. Hackers displayed on Kadyrov’s main page a warning that he would share the same fate. The Chechen Information Minister Shamsail Saraliev demanded a criminal investigation into the attack. Unlike numerous cases of death threats disseminated in the Internet against journalists and human rights activists, this time the FSB was fast in delivering the blow against hackers. According to the Kommersant newspaper, the main investigation was carried out by the Chechen branch of the FSB and Bevolex Company which maintains several pro-governmental webpages in Chechnya and Dagestan. Approximately in the same period in June 2009, hackers tried to crush webpages of some official Dagestan media outlets. While investigating another criminal case commenced in Dagestan under articles 272 part 2 (“illegal access to the digital information”) and 273 part 1(“creation and distribution of hackers’ software”) of the Russian Criminal Code, the FSB tracked down Albert Saaev who was known in the net under the nick Hydramni. It became known that Albert Saaev had been previously caught while carrying our hackers’ attacks. In 2005 he was sentenced to one year in colony-settlement by Khasav-Yurt town court (Dagestan) for blocking the webpage of Dagestan News Agency. I called Shakhri on Sunday, April 19. She sounded alarmed as they received worrying information via the lawyer they managed to hire in Chechnya. Visirkhadji Ibragimov informed the family that he still had no access to Albert. Besides, there have appeared indications that the Chechen FSB are going to interrogate all the people connected to Albert intending to bring them all to Chechnya. “What kind of circle they refer to?”, I asked Shakhri. The response was laconic, “Relatives, friends and acquaintances”. It can be unlimited. Shakhri is mostly concerned about Albert’s relatives still living in Dagestani KhasavYurt and two of his friends who were questioned as witnesses at the court trial in Moscow. Magomed Nabiev lives and works in Moscow. Nadir Ismailov lives in the capital of Dagestan, Makhachkala. When I asked Shakhri about Oleg Morozov, she told that he might be still in Moscow but nobody knows where he stays now. He is scared to give any comments. Shakhri’s concern is confirmed by Kadyrov’s official sources, including www.chechnyaToday.com. I came across the article on Albert Saaev’s delivery to Chechnya. It states, “All those who are involved into slander campaign against the Chechen authorities from the Russian territory are already tracked down by the FSB. They arrest is a matter of time. As for those who are based abroad disseminating lies from Europe or Middle East are going to be identified really soon thanks to the cooperation between our law-enforcement agencies and their colleagues abroad.” The web page quotes Shamsail Saraliev, the Chechen minister on foreign affairs, national policy, media and information, as saying, “Consultations are being held on a regular basis. Law-enforcement agencies of Austria, Germany, France, Poland and some other states are actively involved into detention and neutralization of religious extremists based on their land”. I have to admit that I would agree to the Chechen minister. It really looks as if Chechen law-enforcements agencies are enjoying some trust with their European colleagues. One of my friends on the Chechen diaspora abroad established the Internet forum to discuss Chechnya-related issues half a year ago. I remember his anxiety to make it a venue for discussions and exchange of information after a popular Chechen Internet Forum “At the fire-place” (“U Kamina”) was closed down. The decision was forced by continuous threats to the administrator of the Forum Albert Digaev. He was approached many times with proposals to sell the Forum. Its users were tracked down and harassed. www.adamalla.com was created as follow-up to Digaev’s Internet-forum. It was run by mostly the same people apart from Digaev who stepped down. www.adamalla.com had existed for just half a year when it came under hackers’ attack in spring 2010. Moreover, two of Forum moderators known under nicknames “Spilka” and “Stalker” started to receive threats on phone from people introducing themselves as Chechen law enforcement agents. It is known that “spilka” is a girl living in Moscow. She tells that she still receives phone calls to her home number. Her unidentified interlocutors demand to provide them with the contact details of the new Forum owner and remove all entries concerning Ramzan Kadyrov and chronicles of reprisals. The other targeted moderator is based outside of Moscow but in Russia. He has also received threats on phone. He was told by alleged Chechen force agents that they would kill him if he refused to collaborate with them. I personally know the owner of the adamalla.com Forum. I know from our communication that he has started to receive threats. The only hindrance for Kadyrov’s people to reach him is his location abroad. However, he feels that sooner or later Kadyrov will try to overcome this obstacle. Especially in the light of his “achievements” in the international area. www.chechnyaTODAY.com in one their article proudly announced, “fruitful cooperation was established between Chechen law-enforcement agencies and their colleagues in Austria, Germany, Poland, Norway, Belgium, France and some other states. Thanks to these contacts, there has been created full database on all those who disseminate information of terrorist and extremist character from abroad”. There was a question impossible to answer in the message from adamalla.com owner, “Is it really true that they have collected information on all of us? I understand why Saaev was transferred to satisfy Kadyrov’s whims… They are just accomplices with Moscow. But how is it possible that Europe has started to believe these butchers?” He also told about problems another user of the Forum living abroad is facing now. Cyber-specialists are really efficient when they follow Kadyrov’s orders. They dig deep trying to identify even users of such Internet resources. We don’t know how many of them have been threatened already. One of such let the editors of the adamalla.com know that he is being blackmailed now after his identity was established by Kadyrov’s specialists. He has received demand to return to Chechnya. If refused, they threaten that the situation of his brother serving sentence in one of Russian prisons would become desperate. The owner of the adamalla.com claims Kadyrov’s authorities have launched a big campaign against such Internet resources as his. Adamalla in Chechen means humanity which is a really broad concept implying justice, honesty, will and compassion in the Chechen mentality. The owner of the Forum states that one of his main purposes was to help young Chechen people to develop in the atmosphere of tolerance towards other peoples, mutual respect and friendship among peoples. At that, the editors and the owner of the Adamalla Forum declared impossible any links with the current authorities of Chechnya stating “that they don’t see any possibilities for the dialogue with the current Chechen regime as they established conditions under which all fundamental international norms regarding freedom of expression have been suppressed, all alternative sources of information have been declared “extremist”, breaches of law and reprisals against civil society have become a norm and non-governmental organizations lack possibilities for operating in a normal way”. At that, my contact expresses firm opinion that by equaling such Internet resources as adamalla and Kavkaz-Center – a mouthpiece of the extreme militant and Islamist resistance – the Chechen authorities pursue the aim to discredit them in the eyes of people, “Separating us with just a comma, they hope to find understanding with people as they don’t believe the propaganda the Kavkaz-Center disseminates. Besides, Kavkaz-Center no longer tries to establish consolidation of the Chechen people. Their only goal is to destroy one ethnic group by another”. He expressed hope that other media resources will raise Albert Saaev’s fate as he can’t do it himself. He states that it is necessary to regard threats by Kadyrov’s officials and journalists serving him as mortal. www.chechnyatoday.com , for instance, recently published an article by some G.Yusupov. According to the author, “Internet terrorists are enemies of the Chechen people. They should be fought with adequate measures. The Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov has given the order to establish such informational saboteurs wherever they are and punish them will all the might of the law”. The article states that “these saboteurs are even more harmful than open enemies. As Ramzan Kadyrov stated they are worse than criminals. They are going to be identified by whatever means available and punished. Be aware… and be afraid as we will soon be at your doors”. On April 19, 2010, I received a phone call from Shakhri Saaeva. She told that the lawyer hired in Chechnya to work on the case, Visirkhadji Ibragimov, was not allowed to see Albert Saaev. There has been no access to Albert Saaev since he was shown being taken off the board the plane from Moscow. He is told to get a special permit from the Chechen Minister of Interior. The lawyer has been neither allowed to acquaint with the case until the investigator in charge allows it. This weird investigation into the already investigated episode has been taken under personal control of Ramzan Kadyrov. Oksana Chelysheva
Chechenia: desinformación y propaganda
La guerra de Chechenia www.observatorioeurasia.org
Estonia Letonia Lituania Bielorusia Ucrania Moldavia Rusia Georgia Armenia Azerbaiyán Kazajstán Turkmenistán Uzbekistán Kirguizistán Tayikistán En 1991, se separan las 15 repúblicas federadas que componían la URSS
Cáucaso Norte : Adygeya, Chechenia, Daguestán, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachai-Cherkessia y Osetia del Norte (Alania), así como los territorios de Krasnodar y Stávropol.
Sevilla 14.042,3 1.871.399 Sevilla (provincia) Tsjinvali 3.900 49.200 Osetia del Sur Vladikavkaz 8.000 710,275 Osetia del Norte Cherkessk 14.100 431,488 Karachai-Cherkessia Elista 76.100 288,675 Kalmykia Nalchik 12.500 894,014 Kabardino-Balkaria Nazrán 486.970 Ingushetia Majachkalá 50.300 2,640,984 Daguestán Grozny 15.700 1,100,300 Chechenia Maykop 7.600 km2 442.735 Adygeya Región Capital Extensión Población
La guerra en los medios: desinformación y propaganda
La primera guerra (1994-1996) <ul><li>El sistema de medios postsoviético. </li></ul><ul><li>El papel de la NTV. </li></ul><ul><li>Las imágenes de la TV chechena se emiten por NTV. </li></ul><ul><li>Las acreditaciones (compañía militar para los corresponsales). </li></ul>
La primera guerra (1994-1996) <ul><li>Creación de un nuevo Estado. </li></ul><ul><li>Relectura de la Historia chechena. </li></ul><ul><li>Movladi Udúgov. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidencia las contradicciones de la propaganda rusa (inexperiencia de los soldados, atrocidades, resistencia…) </li></ul><ul><li>Libertad a los corresponsales extranjeros. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Restablecer el orden constitucional” </li></ul>
La segunda guerra (1999- …) <ul><li>Remodelación del sistema de medios. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Neoautoritarismo” mediático. </li></ul><ul><li>La guerra “quirúrgica”. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruedas de prensa diarias y prohibición de entrada a Chechenia. </li></ul><ul><li>“ O peración antiterrorista en contra del integrismo islámico” . </li></ul><ul><li>Visibilidad sólo del ala radical de la resistencia. </li></ul>
La segunda guerra (1999- …) <ul><li>Legislación </li></ul><ul><li>Ley sobre organizaciones de la sociedad civil (2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Restricciones de financiación (especialmente a las ONG extranjeras). </li></ul><ul><li>Ley contra el extremismo (2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Castiga “la financiación” y “organización” de actos “extremistas”, “incluidos los cometidos a través de textos impresos (...), relaciones telefónicas u otros medios de información”, y también el “apoyo público”, “la ayuda” o “el llamamiento” al “extremismo”. </li></ul>
1958-2006 <ul><li>Anna Politkovskaya </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2006: Novaya Gazeta . </li></ul><ul><li>Crónicas sobre el Cáucaso, la corrupción, el Ejército, DDHH, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediadora en la crisis de Dubrovka. </li></ul><ul><li>Asesinada en octubre de 2006. </li></ul>
Oksana Chelysheva y Stanislav Dmitrievski Sociedad para la Amistad Ruso- Chechena <ul><li>Nizhny-Nóvgorod (Rusia). </li></ul><ul><li>Agencia de Información Ruso-Chechena. </li></ul><ul><li>Fondo para el Fomento de la Tolerancia. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodismo y defensa de DDHH. </li></ul>
Ramzán Kadýrov (1976-…) <ul><li>Primer ministro desde 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidente desde 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Los “kadirovtsy”. </li></ul><ul><li>La “reconstrucción” de Chechenia. </li></ul>